Most of the residents of Observer Base are like Gohrlay, but there are a few Neanderthals who have not been genetically engineered in the way that most residents of the Moon have been. The "Rules of Observation" specify that only those Observers who are genetically indistinguishable from Earth's native humans can serve the Observer corps as on-Earth Observers. There is a small but growing population of modern humans at Observer Base. As soon as the Neanderthals do finally go extinct, the modern humans will dominate the Observer corps, but during Gohrlay's time, Anagro is struggling to keep the modern human population on the Moon from exploding and replacing the Neanderthals.
Anagro has been struggling with the puzzle of why the Neanderthals have such a limited genetic predisposition towards developing new tools and cultural artifacts and spreading around the world. The main reason is that the Neanderthal brain allows for a rudimentary kind of telepathic communication. The slightly altered modern human brain lost that rudimentary telepathic ability. While selecting for species that are similar to the Huaoshy, the Huaoshy agents like Anagro consistently select against telepathic ability and the Huaoshy have never realized that telepathic communication is possible. Anagro and his fellow robotic agents are linked by means of a sedronic communications system that is similar to having radio transmitters and receivers implanted in their robotic brains, but the Huaoshy have never explored the idea of a biological brain that could use sedronic communications. The Neanderthal sedronic signals are low power and mostly on a different "band" than that used by the Orbho.
Gohrlay's friend Cliph is a "modern human", not a Neanderthal. Most of the on-Earth Observers are, like Cliph, modern humans. In Gohrlay's time, a large fraction of the relatively small modern human population of Observer Base participates in the Observer corps. Thus, while most residents of the Moon are Neanderthals, most Observers are "modern humans". In the past, modern humans at Observer Base began a scientific research program and pushed their positronic robot project nearly to completion. Rather alarmed by the modern human propensity for scientific research, Anagro decided (several hundred years before Gohrlay's birth) to clamp down on the participation of modern humans in research. In Gohrlay's time, only Neanderthals remain in the positronics research project on the Moon. Anagro has designed and selected Gohrlay to play an important role in the positronic brain research project. Gohrlay is maneuvered by Anagro into volunteering to have her brain destructively scanned in an attempt to create a positronic robot with a human-like mind. Anagro is curious to see if the humans can actually create a positronic robot with sophisticated behavior, but it has proven impossible to get a human volunteer for the critical experiments.
So, in essence, Gohrlay is positioned by Anagro so that she will be captured by Doltun and punished for having violated the Rules of Observation. By going to Earth and trying to help the primitive humans, Gohrlay has violated the rule that genetically modified humans cannot go to Earth. Worse, from Doltun's perspective, Gohrlay has been "let in" on a secret: the Overseers help Anagro make genetic alterations to humans on Earth in order to introduce desirable gene combinations that Anagro has developed and tested on the Moon. This knowledge drives Gohrlay to try to understand just how new gene combinations are reaching Earth in violation of the Rules of Observation. Doltun finally has to perform drastic memory suppression on Gohrlay in order to put an end to her meddling in Overseer business. Gohrlay's "crimes" are thus two fold, and they were specifically planned and encouraged by Anagro so that Gohrlay could be maneuvered into volunteering as a test subject in the positronic brain research project.
When Gohrlay discovers the miserable conditions of primitive humans on Earth she is surprised that other on-Earth observers are so callous and uncaring, satisfied to observe the plight of primitive humans without even contemplating the possibility of stepping in to help them. However, Anagro is usually careful to not let anyone with Gohrlay's high level of empathy become an on-Earth Observer. In Gohrlay's case, she was specifically designed to be highly empathic and Anagro maneuvers her into becoming an Observer...all with the hope that she would violate the Rules of Observation.