This Story on Eurasia is, incoporating a map, and starting in 1200, about the events and situations occuring in most of Eurasia. These include parts of Europe, almost all of Asia, and parts of Eastern Africa. Please read along.
Timeline, part 1Edit
- In the Byzantine Empire, David I comes to power as Emperor. David will eventually be known as David the Great, since he will expand the Empire considerably and revive it, beginning a new Byzantine Golden Age. He will reign for the next forty years. David I reorganizes the empire into provinci, each administered by a military governor appointed by him.
- Temujin becomes the ruler of all Mongol tribes. Chief of chiefs, he adopts the title of Khan, and the name of Genghis. He will become a great conqueror, expanding the Mongol Khanate considerably, reigning for the next sixteen years, and he will earn a place in history as Genghis the Great.
- The Song and Han Dynasties go to war. However, neither side makes gains, and they eventually settle into a peace again before the year is out.
- David I of Byzantine instigates many major reforms. The Emperor reorganizes the central government. He establishes a Byzantine Privy Council, who will run the government day-to-day, advise the Emperor, and issue proclamations in his name. The Council will also administer the Byzantine justice system. David I then reorganizes the Byzantine judicial code, and instigates a new local court structure. Finally, David I reformed the military. He improved the efficiency and skill of the cavalry, introduced a new army code, implemented new Byzantine naval tactics, and reorganized the Byzantine infantry forces.
- Through a series of bribes, military manuevers, and family political marriages or civil unions, Genghis Khan, becomes Tribal Chieftain of the Jalayr and Tachiud tribes, as well King of the Ongirrad and Kereit Tribes. Genghis unites the tribes with the Mongol state, and proclaims the existence of the Khanate of Mongolia, with himself as Khagan (emperor). Genghis I issues the Mongol Khanate Laws, which provide a basic outline of the government structure of the new Khanate.
- In the principality of Kiev, a new ruler comes to power: Ivan I. Ivan I will unite all the principalities of Rus', and become known as Ivan the Great, expanding the territory of the Russian state to the north and to the south. He will rule for the next forty years.
- In Europe, David I flexes his muscles, testing his newly reformed forces. The Emperor declared war against Bulgaria, and the professional Byzantine army quickly overrun the dis-organized Bulgarian forces. By the end of the year, most of Bulgaria has capitulated to the Byzantines.
- The Byzantine victories in Bulgaria alarm the Rum Seljuk, who launch massive raids into the remaining Byzantine territory in western Turkey. David I, with a army of only 6,000, delivers a crushing blow to the Seljuk invasion force of 20,000 at the Battle of Ankara, and drives them out of Byzantine territory. From then on, the Rum Seljuk will be more cautious when dealing with the Byzantines.
- In Russia, Ivan I of Kiev marries the beautiful and intelligent daughter of the Prince of Vladmir Sudzal, thus instigating a personal union with that state. Ivan I also begins some reforms in his state. He encourages further trade with the West and implements one of Russia's first recorded land codes.
- In Asia, Genghis I of Mongolia reorganizes his armed forces. He divides his military forces into three groups: archers, horsemen, and foot soldiers. The khan also implements Mongolia's first army code, and he brings in military experts from the Han Dynasty of southern China. Genghis I then begins preparations for an invasion of the Tatars and Merkits tribes.
- In Asia, Genghis I of Mongolia invaded and quickly conquered the Mekrit and Tatar tribes. The khan dispatched Mongol nomads and farmers to these newly conquered territories, installed Mongol government officials in their villages, and extracted tribute from their peoples. However, all across the khanate, he issued the Religious Laws, which granted religious freedom to all his subjects. Genghis I also guaranteed the property rights of women, legalized an early form of divorce, and provided generous support to numerous Mongol villages. The khan then began planning his invasion of the Kirghiz, Tuvan, and Naiman tribes.
- In India, the states of Sindh and Malwa signed a informal treaty, forming a political and military union. Thus the Sindh Empire came into existence. This Empire would eventually come to control all of India, and in time, would become a major power in Asia.
- In Europe, David I of Byzantine completed his conquest of Bulgaria. He immediately began a series of religious reforms. The Emperor granted religious freedom to his subjects, established a civil service for the Byzantine Orthodox Church, and placed the patriarch of Constantinople under his direct supervision. David I also began construction on a series of defense forts in eastern Byzantine.
- In Russia, Ivan I of Kiev signed the Treaty of Kiev with the sovereigns and rulers of the other Russian principalities. This Treaty established Kievan control over all the principalities of Rus', and insured the Kievan prince's control of judicial, military, and foreign affairs. By this treaty, the other princes became vassals of Ivan I, and the Kingdom of Russia was established, with Ivan I as king. Shortly after, the state of Volga Bulgaria was incorporated into the new Russia as a autonomous province.
- In Asia, Genghis I of Mongolia invaded and quickly annexed the Kirghiz, Tuvans, and Naiman tribes. His troops destroyed any villages which resisted his rule, plundered the farms, and installed Mongol garrisons in the capitals of the defeated tribes. Not wanting to suffer the other tribes fate, the Tangut and Uyghurs tribes surrendered peacefully to Mongolia. The khan incorporated them as autonomous provinces into his kingdom. (Side note: if a tribe or country's name remains but their territory is the color as the country described as having incorporated them, that means they are self-governing provinces of that country)
- In Europe, David I of Byzantine signed a military and financial treaty with King Ivan I of Russia. The two countries (the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Russia) formed a formal military alliance, and Byzantine also promised to provide financial assistance to Russia. The two nations, working together, then planned invasions of the Cuman Khanates. Ivan I also began planning a invasion of Novograd.
- In India, the Sindh Empire flexed it's muscles by invading and annexing the coastal Indian kingdoms of Kamataka and Kerala. The newly-crowned Sindh Emperor, Akbar I (who will become known as Akbar the Great), then expanded his military and planned a invasion of the Chola Empire and Sri Lanka.
- Genghis I of Mongolia instigated the Five Year's War (1208-1213) against the Jin Dynasty of Northern China. This war will cost much in the lives of Mongol soldiers, and will finally slow down the Mongol expansion, although the Mongols will capture Northern China. The khan suffered his first defeat in the Battle of the Manchurian Plains, but counter-attacked and prevented Jin forces from entering Mongolia. By the end of the year, the khan had only captured small amounts of Jin border lands.
- In Europe, Russia and Byzantine launched a joint invasion of the Cuman Khanates, thus instigating the Cuman Wars (1208-1211). The Khanates, although their combined armies outnumbered the Russians and Byzantines, were weak and dis-organized. They still relied on primitive methods from the Ancient Tribal Times. By the end of the year, Byzantine and Russian forces had made major gains, with David I of Byzantine and Ivan I of Russia personally leading their forces.
- In India, the Sindh Empire invaded and conquered, with great difficulty, the kingdom of Sri Lanka and the Empire of Chola. Akbar I of Sindh reorganized his military forces and consolidated his newly conquered territories.
- The Song Dynasty of Southern China fully incorporated the Chinese protectorate of Dai Viet. The Han Chinese promptly consolidated their rule there, arresting any dissidents to Chinese rule and extracting monetary tribute. The Chinese also expanded their military, in case of Mongol aggression pointing southwards.
- Meanwhile, the Jin Dynasty retook some of the Mongol gains in the war, although losing 30,000 soldiers. Genghis I of Mongolia reorganized his forces and launched a massive counter-attack. He regained the lost lands and also made some gains to the southwest.
- In Europe, more gains were made by the Russians and Byzantines against the Cumans. Russian forces annexed the Crimea, thus gaining access to the Black Sea, while Byzantine forces annexed Cuman Beershabia and Romania. The Allied forces consolidated their gains and prepared for a final assault against more territory of the weakening Cuman Khanates.
- Farther southwards, David I of Byzantine began the process of the reconquest of main Anatolia. His forces slowly pushed eastwards, using superior tactics and organization. By the end of the year, the Emperor had conquered some of the Seljuk lands.
- The Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Russia concluded a mutual pact, in which all the territory east of the newly annexed Russian Crimea would become Russian territory. The reason David I of Byzantine concluded this agreement was because he was more concerned about expanding his empire into Serbia, the rest of Turkey, and the Crusader States. In the wake of this agreement, Ivan I captured another large amount of Cuman territory. He also incorporated the Bashkirs kingdom as a autonomous province.
- Genghis I of Mongolia launched another massive assault against the Jin Dynasty. The assault cost the lives of 40,000 Mongol forces, but in the end, it succeeded. Mongolia conquered much of the northern territory of the Jin. The Jin, however, refused to surrender.
- The war with the Cuman Khanates (or the Cuman War) was finally brought to an end with the Treaty of Kiev. In the treaty, the Cuman Khanate recognized the gains of the Kingdom of Russia and the Byzantine Empire. The Khanate also became a protectorate of Russia, obliged to pay monetary tribute and formal loyalty to the Russian king. The Khanate also promised not to conduct any raids into Russian territory. Ivan I of Russia had gained a great victory.
- In Asia, Genghis I of Mongolia conquered the Jin territories near Korea. The khan committed harsh actions against the Chinese population, destroying their villages, plundering their farms, and butchering their women and children. This was committed due to how long the war had dragged out. Genghis I then reorganized his forces again, and prepared for the final attacks against the Jin.
- In India, the Sindh Empire launched a long-awaited invasion of the Hindu States. These States were not united and consisted of diverse principalities and kingdoms. The Sindh were able to conquer most of them by the end of the year. Akbar I then consolidated his territorial gains, extracted tribute from his newly conquered cities, and reorganized his army.
- In the Middle East, David I of Byzantine launched another invasion of the Rum Seljuk lands. The Sultan of the Seljuks was unprepared, and his forces were disorganized and scattered. David conquered most of the remaining Rum Seljuk lands, thus effectively regaining the bulk of Anatolia. David I then issued a proclamation, restricting religious freedom to only Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christians. Muslim mosques were trashed, Muslim communities slaughtered, and Muslim priests imprisoned.
- Genghis I of Mongolia finally conquered the last territories of the Jin Dynasty, thus bringing the Five Years' War to an end. This battle had cost the lives of 150,000 Mongol soldiers, and 100,000 Chinese soldiers. From now on, until the end of his reign, Genghis I was a much more peaceful ruler. He turned his attention to domestic affairs. Genghis I consolidated his new gains, implemented Mongolia's first written law code, and fostered domestic trade. The khan encouraged the development of villages, established a clarified taxation system, constructed a series of military fortifications on the borders, and ordered the compilation of all the khanate's laws and legal codes. Genghis I also signed a non-aggression treaty with the Song Dynasty of Southern China.
- David I of Byzantine began construction on his new Imperial Palace in Constantinople. The Emperor spent thousands of Roman denarius on the construction of this Palace, which became the most magnificent in Asia and Eastern Europe. The Palace consisted of 300 rooms, and was built with gold and sliver. The Emperor commissioned the best bricklayers and architects around at the time.
- Ivan I of Russia launched an invasion of the Republic of Novograd. His forces were bogged down quickly, facing extremely professional Novograd armies. The Novogradian-Russian War would last for the next ten years. Ivan I, in the meantime, would focus on domestic affairs.
- Genghis I of Mongolia instigated his last reforms and state actions. The khan issued a official proclamation, in which Mongolia would pass on to his son, Odgei, after his death. Genghis I also decreed the Protection of Women, in which they had official rights of marriage, property, and education. The khan also began construction on a formal capital city, Samrai, that would be completed by his successor.
- In India, Akbar I of Sindh incorporated the rest of the Hindu States into his Empire. As a result, most of southern and central India was now under Sindh control. Akbar I again reorganized his forces, laying out plans for an invasion of Benghal, one of the last remaining independent states. Benghal was also extremely prosperous. He also planned on invading and annexing large parts of the Ghurid Sultanate.
- In Europe, the Kingdom of Sweden began strengthening in power. The Kingdom built up an highly-professional army of 12,000 archers, 15,000 infantry, and 15,000 horsemen. Stockholm, Sweden's main port and capital, began trading with the ports of Western Europe and the Holy Roman Empire. Stockholm became immensely wealthy as a result. The king of Sweden also established the University of Stockholm, established a Advisory Council, and encouraged further regional development. Sweden began plans for invading the dis-organized Sami and Finnish tribes.
- In the Novogradian-Russian War, a stalemate ensued along the border. Russian and Novogradian forces clashed in minor border skirmishes, and worked feverishly to prevent the other side from entering it's territory. This stalemate would last until 1219.
- Farther south, David I of Byzantine invaded the Kingdom of Serbia. Serbia was allied to Hungary, which itself had an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. Thus the Balkans War (1215-1230), would begin, with great losses for both sides. David I was unable to make any gains in the first year. In the meantime, the Emperor annexed the remainder of the Rum Seljuk shadom, which by then had become a Byzantine protectorate. The Emperor also incorporated the kingdom of Turkish Armenia. Thus all of Anatolia was again under Byzantine control.
- Genghis I of Mongolia catches a illness, which is unknown at the time. The khan dies on 16 August 1216, in the Mongolian camps near the construction site of Samrai. He was hailed as Genghis the Great for unifying Mongolia and expanding her territory. The khan was buried with great pomp near the Mongol Cemeteries. He was succeeded by his son, Prince Odgei, who became the new Supreme Khan.
- Akbar I of Sindh launched an invasion of Benghal, using 50,000 troops and 50 elephants. The Bengali, with only 30,000 troops and 5 elephants, were extremely outnumbered. The Emperor incorporated their territory into his Empire by the end of the year. Akbar I then assembled a force of 300,000 infantry, 15,000 horsemen, and 150 elephants for an invasion of the Ghurid Sultanate.
- David I of Byzantine suffered the greatest defeat in his entire reign at the Battle of Belegrade. The Emperor's forces were temporarily thrown out of Serbian territory. David I reassembled his troops and revitalized his strategy. Minor skrmishes and border actions occurred between some of both sides' army groups.
- King Carl I of Sweden launched a invasion of the Sami and Finnish tribes. The professional Swedish forces surged ahead, overrunning the disorganized tribal nomads. By the end of the year, the chieftains of the Sami and Finnish had become vassals of Carl I, and their tribes were incorporated into Sweden as autonomous grand duchies.
- Akbar I of Sindh finally launched a invasion of the Ghurid Sultanate. Despite his previous enemies, however, the Ghurid were a much more formidable opponent than the other Indian kingdoms. The Ghurid-Sindh Wars would last until 1230. In the meantime, the Emperor encouraged Sindh trade with the nations of the Middle East and Eastern Europe.
- The Crusades in the Middle East gained full-force once more. France, England, and the Holy Roman Empire wanted to expand their holdings, in order to eventually counter and halt the increasing Byzantine expansion. Much land was captured by the Crusaders, lead by Philip the Magnificent, a noble from France. Even the Holy City fell into their hands. The Kingdom of Judea was established to comprise all these territories, and Philip the Magnificent became Philip I of Judea. Shortly after, Judea gained full independence and made peace with the Ayyubid Sultanate.
- Ivan I of Russia launched a major offensive into the Republic of Novograd. Due to years of organization and preparation, the Russian forces advanced considerably, taking land up to the Artic coast. Russia thus gained access to the Artic Ocean.
- Sweden invaded western Novograd, seizing Ingria, the lands on the Neva, and Novogradian Karkelia. The Swedes then signed the Treaty of Stockholm, forcing the Novogradians to recognize their gains. Ivan I of Russia is angered, meaning he can no longer gain access to the Baltic without risking war with Sweden, a state more powerful then Russia. So the king recognized the treaty, and launched a final offensive into the remaining Novograd.
- David I of Byzantine began construction on a series of forts along the border with Serbia, in order to deter any enemy raids. The Emperor would be more careful in his next invasion of Serbia, and just wanted to make sure his own country was safe from attack.
- Odgei I of Mongolia reorganized the Khanate of Mongolia into the Empire of Mongolia, with himself as absolute Emperor for life. The khan committed this action because he believed Mongolia could be considered an empire. Odgei's imperial title is recognized by the Song Dynasty of Southern China, the Khans of Kara Khitai, and the High King of the Tibetian States.
- The Novogradian-Russian War finally came to an end, when Ivan I of Russia captured the remaining territory of Novograd. He released his rage onto the Novogradian population. Novogradian towns and villages were burned, farms ransacked, and the civilian population slaughtered or imprisoned. Ivan I also executed all the leaders of the Novogradian government, after their surrender. He became known as Ivan the Terrible to the people of Novograd, but was hailed as Ivan the Great by the rest of Russia.
- The kings of Denmark and Norway die, and King Carl I of Sweden, related directly to the dead Danish and Norwegian monarchs, becomes King of Denmark and Norway. Nationalism amongst the Nordic peoples is high, and Norway, Denmark, and Sweden combine to form the Kingdom of Great Nordia. This kingdom will eventually become a great rival of Russia.
- David I of Byzantine modifies his invasion plans to include Hungary. David I pledges that his Empire will reach borders with that of the Holy Roman Empire, which the Byzantines thought didn't deserve it's title. David I's decision will have a major impact on the Balkans region, and on Southern Europe.
- David I of Byzantine launched a second invasion of Serbia. This time, his forces were much more prepared and cautious. They made sure to use the best tactics possible. Through swift manuevers and powerful ramming actions, Belegrade was captured by the Byzantine forces. They were checked, however, at the border of Serbia with Hungary by a combined Hungarian-Holy Roman force. A stalemate ensued again that would last until 1227, but Serbia was still in Byzantine hands.
- Akbar I of Sindh finally made major gains in the territory of the Ghurid Sultanate, splitting their empire in half. The Sultan of the Ghurids refused to surrender, however. He reassembled his forces and unsuccessfully attempted to lure the Sindhs into a trap.
- Odgei I of Mongolia invaded and quickly annexed the kingdom of Koryo (Korea), thus continuing Genghis Khan's tradition of invading and annexing neighboring states without reason. Southern China, having it's own ambitions in Korea, was angered, but did not risk war. Odgei I also sent settlers to the island of Sakhalin, effectively annexing it.
- Grand Nordia, wanting to exert more influence, incorporated the territories of the Estonians and Latvians as semi-autonomous provinces. Poland and Lithuania, alarmed by the Nordian actions, sign a political and military union, becoming the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth soon incorporated Prussia as a internal grand duchy.
- David I of Byzantium invaded Hungary. He made some gains in the borderlands, but his forces then lulled and settled down, fortifying and reorganizing. Holy Roman and Hungarian forces did not react, due to ongoing political disputes within the Holy Roman Empire.
- Akbar I of Sindh captured the remaining western territories of the Ghurid Sultanate. Unlike other monarchs, such as Ivan I of Russia, Emperor Ackbar is relatively benevolent and fair to the conquered civilian population. He prohibits looting, ransacking, or criminal activities by his forces, distributes food to the starving civilians, and limits tribute on the leaders of the conquered towns.
- Odgei I of Mongolia orders the construction of a naval fleet, in order for the Mongols to invade Japan. Odgei makes sure to hire Chinese military experts in order to aid in the construction of his warships. The Mongolian Emperor is determined to expand his powerful empire even further.
- Byzantine forces finally reached Budapest, the capital of Hungary, and captured it, although sustaining 21,000 casualties. David I then signed the Treaty of Hamburg with the Holy Roman Empire, thus ending the war. The Treaty officially recognized Byzantine control of Hungary and Serbia. The Holy Roman Empire was also required to pay monetary tribute to the Byzantine Empire. David I had gained a major victory. Shortly after, he incorporated Venice into his Empire. David I then would set his sights on regaining Byzantine lands in the Middle East.
- Akbar I of Sindh finally conquered the remainder of the Ghurid Sultanate. The Ghurid Sultan himself tried to escape dressed as a woman, but was captured by some loyal Sindh forces. In the wake of this conquest, all of India was now under Akbar's control. The Sindh Empire was reorganized into the Indian Empire, with Ackbar himself assuming the title and position of Emperor of India.
- Ivan the Great of Russia implemented the Russian Law Code. This Code clarified the absolute powers of the King, or tsar as he began being called, outlined the judicial structure of the Kingdom of Russia, and compiled all the judges' rulings and local laws. It was far-reaching, and would remain in effect in Russia for some time.
- David I of Byzantine incorporated Diyakrbikir into his Empire, and also became the formal military protector of the Zangids state, which encompassed Baghdad. These actions were undertaken, for the Byzantine Empire to eventually subsume Mesopotamia. (Note: the lines through the Zangids state, plus the same color as the Byzantines, indicates it is a non-incoporated protectorate)
- Akbar I of India implemented the Official Law Code of the Indian Empire. The Code divided the Indian population into three classes: the nobles, the merchants, and the poor. It also compiled all of the local codes of the states of the Empire and guidelined the basic frame of both the government and the judicial structure. A Imperial Privy Council was established to advise the Emperor and issue legislative orders. It was composed of military, foreign affairs, finance, justice, agriculture, and commerce ministries.
- The Mongolian Empire finally invaded the Empire of Japan. The Mongolian naval fleet encountered little to no resistance and landed a 50,000 invasion force near the site of modern Tokyo. At first, the Mongols made some gains, but the Japanese samari then held them back, and a stalemate ensued.
- David I fully incorporated the Zanghid's state into the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor then invaded, and, with some effort, quickly annexed the Abbasid Sultanate. The Emperor then launched a Holy War against the Ayabbid Sultanate, that would last until 1236. Meanwhile, the Imperial Palace was finally completed, and David I moved in. The Byzantine court was the most luxurious in Europe, with rich palaces and castles. David I usually lavished gold, silver, and other rare products on the members of his court. Silk, tea, and porcelain were all imported from China, and readily available in the Court.
- Akbar I of India incorporated the kingdom of Nepal into the Indian Empire. The Emperor of India immediately constructed a series of mountain passes and roads throughout the Himalayas, meant to decrease isolation in the region, increase trade with China, and provide easier access to the Mountains. His Road System was extremely successful.
- Mongol forces in Japan were finally driven out by Japanese warriors. This was the first unsuccessful invasion committed by the Empire of Mongolia. Odgei I became discouraged, and the Mongolian Empire would soon begin a decline and eventually, collapse.
- David I of Byzantine personally won the decisive Battles of Medina and Mecca, despite hard Muslim effort. The Muslims even attempted suicide, and in the end 40,000 Byzantine forces died in both battles. To insult and embarrass the "infidel" religion, and to express his power, David I ordered the sacking and burning of both Medina and Mecca. This occurred, and both Holy Cities of Islam were destroyed. Muslim civilians were arrested and imprisoned. David I then set up military fortresses on their sites. By now, much of the territory of the Sultanate had been captured.
- Odgei I of Mongolia was assassinated by a political rival, after nineteen years on the throne. A civil war almost threatened to break out in Mongolia, but Batu Khan became the new Emperor. Batu I presided over Odgei's burial and finally completed the construction of Samrai. The new city was 20 square miles large, and had elaborately designed streets, city squares, and public buildings.
- Akbar I of India implemented a new taxation system, based on the worth of property of citizens of the Empire. Poor and unemployed people were exempted from paying most of the taxes. The system was extremely efficient and tripled state revenue.
- David I of Byzantine conquered the remainder of the Ayyubid Sultanate, gaining decisive victories in the Battles of Alexandria and Memphis. Shortly after, he began a persecution of his newly conquered Muslim population. Muslim mosques and worship centers were trashed or seized by the government, Muslim priests were imprisoned and executed, and the Muslim religion was officially banned. The practice of Muslim worship and the convening of Muslim assemblies was heavily restricted.
- Ivan I of Russia visited the Crimea and the Northern Caucasus. He visited all the farms and witnessed the people working. Ivan I also realised they lived in shameful conditions. He issued a decree providing some financial assistance to many of the farmers.
- Akbar I of India began construction on a new capital city, one more glorious then any other ever built in India before. It was to be called Calcutta. The Indian Emperor commissioned the best Indian and Chinese architects, bricklayers, and city planners around. He himself helped draw up the city plans. Construction began promptly.
- The Song Dynasty of Southern China annexed the Tibetan Kingdoms and Tribes, intent on expanding their power and territory. The Chinese destroyed Tibetan villages, killed the Dalai Lama, and sent in Chinese farmers and settlers. The Chinese also began conducting trade with the Indians by means of the Himalayas.
- After a long and event-filled reign of 40 years, David I, Emperor of Byzantine dies in his sleep. He was 60 years old. The Emperor had a peaceful end, and had done much for the Byzantine Empire. He had restored Byzantine power and prestige, expanded her territory, and revitalized the government and economy. David I had defeated the Rum Seljuks, the Ayyabid Sultanate, the Cuman Khanates, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, and Serbia. He had annexed Mesopotamia, the Balkans, the rest of Turkey, Beershabia and eastern Romania, and Egypt. For these actions, he became known as David the Great. David I the Great was succeeded by his son Justinanian III.
- Akbar I of India went on a tour all around the Indian Empire. The Emperor visited the courts of the nobles of Bengal, Gupta, and numerous other states. The Emperor also visited and spoke with farmers, merchants, and minor noblemen. Akbar I also held a public rally in Sri Lanka.
- After a reign of thirty-five years, Akbar I of India caught a illness and died at the age of 56. He achieved the honorary title Akbar the Great. The reason: during his reign Emperor Akbar had transformed Sindh from a minor state into a massive empire consisting of all of India. Akbar had unified the Indian states and strengthened the Indian military beyond knowing. He had also conquered Sri Lanka and Nepal. Akbar I the Great was succeeded by his son Manjur I.
- After a reign of forty years, Ivan I of Russia died from a terminal disease at the age of 70. He achieved the honorary title of Ivan the Great, alongside David the Great and Akbar the Great, two other rulers who had reigned in the same period as him. Ivan had unified the principalities of Rus' into one Russian kingdom, successfully waged war against the Cuman Khanates, and conquered most of Novograd. Ivan I the Great was succeeded by his young 20-year old grandson Alexis I. Under Alexis, massive expansion for Russia would soon occur.
- Justinanian III of Byzantium launched a massive invasion of the Arabian Tribes south of the Empire. His forces, well-equipped with fighting in desert terrain, made some major gains into tribal territory, but a stalemate ensued by the end of the year.
- A new Emperor was crowned by the Pope in the Holy Roman Empire: Ferdinand I. This new Emperor was determined to increase centralization in the Holy Roman Empire and to strengthen her military. However, he would bring disaster and would lead to a unsuccessful war with Great Nordia.
- Emperor Ferdinand I was able to convince the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire to grant him extended powers: the Emperor was granted the power to issue, modify, or repeal decrees concerning military affairs and foreign affairs; he was also granted power to collect taxes and to officially supervise the princes of the states of the Empire regarding their internal affairs. These extended powers allowed the Emperor to begin formally controlling foreign policy.
- The conquest of Arabia finally steamed ahead and the Byzantine Empire eliminated the last remaining Arabian Tribes, although with great effort. Justinian III himself visited the troops and also stopped by the military fortresses on the sites of the former cities of Mecca and Medina.
- Alexis I of Russia directly funded a series of expeditions into "the lands bordering the Baskhir and Volgian Bulgarian provinces". These expeditions reached as far the Samyodeic Tribes, and Russia incorporated the territory between the expedition's farthest reach and it's farthest border. It thus gained a border with the Siberian Samyodeics. Russia also settled the Artic island of Nova Zemlya. Shortly after, Alexis I stripped the Baskhirs and Volga Bulgarians of their autonomy.
- The Khmer Empire officially became a protectorate of the Song Dynasty of Southern China, which soon renamed itself to the Song Empire. The Song also annexed Champa. These actions alarmed the Indian Empire, and they reorganized their military forces, but did nothing else.
- The Song Empire formally incorporated the Khmer Empire, after the Zalyoung Emperor claimed that the Khmers planned to betray the "alliance" between the two empires and would try to kill him. The Indian Empire responded by annexing the kingdom of Assam. Nan Chao also became a formal protectorate of the Indian Empire. The Song were angered at these actions.
- Alexis I of Russia sent 15,000 troops and 3,000 horsemen to invade and formally subjugate the Samoyenic Tribes, after they committed border raids and numerous slavery campaigns. The Russian forces destroyed the tribal villages and forced the surrender of the Samoynenic chieftains. The Samoyenic tribal lands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Russia. Alexis I then began planning for military expeditions against the Yakut and Turkic tribes.
- Ferdinand I of the Holy Roman Empire began building up his own personal military. The Emperor used the powers granted to him by the Imperial Legislature to issue a decree, conscripting 76,000 horsemen and 104,000 infantry from the states of the Empire. The Imperial princes did not fully support the Legislature's action, believing it to be restricting their rights, and refused to hand over the forces the Emperor conscripted. The Emperor convened another session of the Legislature, who confirmed his actions and ordered the princes to obey. The princes finally did and allowed the conscripted forces to become the Emperor's personal military. This action would lead to civil war within the Holy Roman Empire in the future.
- Great Nordia invaded the Holy Roman Empire, thus instigating the Three Years' War (1246-1249). This war would eventually result in major gains for Nordia within northern Germany, and would trigger a civil war between Ferdinand I's personal military and the militaries of the princes of the Empire. In the first stage of the war, the Hanseatic States were successfully blockaded by the Nordian Navy. Ferdinand I rallied his forces to face the Nordians.
- Poland instigated the First Polish-Russian War (1246-1249), against the Kingdom of Russia. The Poles were intent on making gains in the regions of Belarus and Ukraine. They would succeed. Poland's forces did not advance in the first year, allowing the Russians to assemble a defense force at Minsk. In the meantime, Alexis I sent more settlers to Russian Siberia.
- The Song Empire invaded the Indian protectorate of Nan Chao, thus instigating the Indian-Song War (1246-1249), which would eventually result in major Indian gains. The Song captured the protectorate by the end of the year. By then, India had assembled it's forces, and was poised to retake Song Nan Chao.
- The Nordians enjoyed undisputed success against the Holy Roman Empire: they destroyed the Holy Roman ports, captured numerous territories in northern Germany, including the Hasenatic States and parts of Pomerania, and began to incite civil unrest in the rest of the Holy Roman state. Ferdinand I's popularity had declined, and the nobles were beginning to openly oppose him.
- The Poles made some major gains this year: brilliant Polish forces captured Minsk and Smolensk and some of their surrounding territories. They also captured Lviv and reached as far as Western Ukraine. The Russian forces were forced to retreat, and assembled in groups to protect Kiev and the Crimea. Alexis I of Russia rallied his forces and went to Kiev, intent on halting the Polish offensive.
- A Indian force of 20,000 troops, 2,000 horsemen, and 20 elephants invaded the Chinese territories in Nan Chao. The Song did not use elephants as part of their military, and were quickly defeated, due to shock and the overwhelming power of the elephants.
- Civil war finally broke out in the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand I had to divert half of his personal military fighting the Nordians to engage the nobles. The nobles, however, outnumbered him, and the Emperor was declared officially deposed. The nobles elected Albert of Bavaria the new Emperor. Ferdinand I, who still controlled the Rhine and much of central Germany, and had his military, refused to recognize the noble's decision, and as a result fought against them. Grand Nordia took advantage of the civil war and seized more large territories in the north.
- The Byzantine Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth both took advantage of the civil war and Nordian-Holy Roman War occuring within the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. They invaded and seized parts of the territory. Ferdinand I recognized their gains, since he was to weak to stop them.
- In the East, Poland launched a massive offensive onto Kiev. Alexis I of Russia lead his forces into battle, holding the Poles off for a couple of hours and even forcing some of their regiments to surrender. However, the Polish force of 50,000 was reinforced with 30,000 more troops, outnumbering the Russian defense force of 60,000 soldiers. The tide quickly turned, especially because the Poles exploited numerous Russian weaknesses. They captured Kiev and the Crimea on 15 June 1248, turfing the Russians out of most of the rest of Ukraine.
- The Indian Empire launched a massive offensive into the Tibetan provinces of the Song Empire. The Song had a force of nearly 100,000 there, while the Indians attacked with 90,000 soldiers, plus 100 elephants. Despite the slight Song numerical advantage, the presence of elephants in the Indian forces effectively gave a victory to India. The Song suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Lhasa, and were forced to retreat from Tibet. The war was quickly becoming unpopular with the Song population, and the Emperor of the Song asked for a armistice. Indian Emperor Maghaid I accepted, and a temporary armistice was declared, while treaty negotiations in the Song village of Yemjin occurred.
- Ferdinand I was finally captured and executed by the nobles in January 1249. The nobility then combined their militaries and tried to continue the war against Nordia. However, their defeat at the Battle of Munster and the loss of much of Silesia to the Nordians was the final blow. Albert, the elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and chief leader of the Nobles, concluded the Treaty of Augsburg with the Nordian King, Carl II. This Treaty surrendered Holy Roman control of Silesia, the Hasenatic States, German Pomerania, and the northern German principalities to Grand Nordia. The Holy Roman Empire also was required to send 1,000 army hostages to the Nordian King and to pay $150,000 in gold tribute. In exchange, Nordia released all prisoners of war. With peace established, Albert could now turn to domestic affairs.
- Tsar Alexis I of Russia concluded the Treaty of Moscow with the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, John Vasa I. This Treaty was a humilating loss for Russia. In the Treaty, Russia recognized the Polish gains in Crimea, Ukraine, Belarus, and the Smolensk territories. Russia also surrendered the Azov areas and western Caucacus coast to Poland. Thus Russia lost access to the Black and Azov Seas. The tsar was required to pay fealty to the Polish king and to send $45,000 in tribute annually to the Polish court in Warsaw.
- The Indian Empire concluded the Treaty of Yemjin with the Song Empire. It was also a humilating loss for the Song Empire. In this treaty, the Song Emperor recognized the Indian gains in Nan Chao and the Tibetan provinces. The Song also granted the Indian Empire immense merchant rights in the former Khmer Empire. The Song Emperor also was required to pay feudal loyalty to the Emperor of India, as well send $300,000 in gold to the Indian Empire as tribute.
- The Alans began a series of raids and skrmishes in the Russian borderlands with the Alan state. This would last for the next several years. Alexis I of Russia was forced to divert 6,000 troops in order to protect the southern Russian border.
- In the farther East, the tsar provided even more support to numerous more military and exploratory expeditions. These expeditions effectively conquered or subjated the Yankut and Turkic tribes extending the Russian border to the Khahass tribe.
- The Byzantine Empire invaded and annexed the kingdom of Judea, thus completing their conquests in that region of the Middle East. The Byzantines opressed the Jewish religion, trashing any Jewish synagoues, arresting and executing Jewish rabbi, and driving Jewish communities into exile.
- The borders of the Kingdom of Russia expanded even further eastwards, reaching the outskirts of the Mongolian Empire. Russian settlers and soldiers subujated the Khahass tribe and established a series of towns, including Novobrisk and Oska. The tsar soon established diplomatic contact with the Mongolian court, and the first Russian ambassdor arrived in Samrai.
- The Indian Empire incoporated Kashmir as a autonomous province. The new Emperor, Sokl I, simply wanted to consolidate Indian control of the northern regions. The Emperor granted the Tibetans a limited local government, although not full autonomy.
- In Africa, the Byzantines instigated a war with the Alhomads (the North African Conflict 1252-1256). The war will bring an end to Byzantine expansion, and will, eventually, lead to it's downfall.
- Most of the population in Russia opposed the Treaty of Moscow with Poland from the beginning. The loss of territory, the requirement of forced tribute, and the requirement of their tsar to pay tribute to a mere king was insulting to their honor. Alexis I himself believed the treaty was unfair. He wanted to re-gain some of the lands lost to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. John Vasa I, his formiable opponent during the War, had been replaced by the much younger and more feeble John Vasa II. So the Russian tsar began rebuilding his military, implementing a series of reforms. Russian access to the Black Sea was blocked by Polish territory, and the Artic Ocean was freezed, so a navy could not actually be built. Other reforms could be instigated. The Russian infantry was divided into five legions of 20,000 soldiers each, as well 100 regiments. The more efficent Polish tactics and military equipment, with minor polishes and modifications, was adopted for the Russian military. The training of horsemen and the up-keep of horses was extremely emphazied. Russia also began providing secret support to a minor uprising in Polish Ukraine.
- The Almohads invaded and conquered much of Byzantine Egypt, inflicting severe losses on the defense force there at the Battle of Alexandrina. However, Justinanian III lead a force of 20,000 into Egypt, defeating the Muslims at the Battle of Cairo, although with severe losses for both sides. He thus threw them out of most of Egypt. The Byzantine forces then replenished their food and water supplies, planned a new strategy, and rested. The Almohads regrouped and prepared for another attack.
- Surrounded by the Indian and Song Empires on all sides, the kingdoms of Pagan, Arakan, and Pegu signed a political, territorial, and military union, thus forming one new nation: the Kingdom of Pagan-Araka. This Kingdom would become powerful force in it's own right, and would sucessfully resist conquest by it's neighbors. The new King, Thumud I, began building up his military, using Chinese and Mongolian military experts. He built a force of 30,000 infantry, 20 elephants, and 4,000 horsemen.
- A Byzantine doctor, by the name of Jachul Horisni, made two major discoveries: he discovered that blood flows through the body, and also discovered that germs were responsible for spreading sicknesses and diseases. Horisni adviced that everyone cover their mouths when coughing, wash their hands before and after eating, and to sneeze properly. His ideas were adopted and Horsini became a honored doctor at the Byzantine Medical Academy.
- The Mongolian Empire annexed the unoccupied land between Russia, the Empire itself, Kara Khitai, and the Cuman Khanates. This was committed in order to gain a longer trading frontier with Russia. It was also meant as a base of operations for the Mongolian military. The Russians accepted this annextation, for now.
- The Byzantine and Alhomad forces clashed at the Battle of El Alamein, in the far western region of Egypt. The Byzantines were personally lead by Justinian III, while Sultan Mumud I lead the Alhomad forces. Both forces clashed into each-other, using every tactic at their disposal. Eventually, the Byzantines achieved a victory, but at a cost. More then 20,000 lay dead on both sides of the battle. But the Alhomads were forced to exit their part of Egypt.
- The minor uprising in Polish Ukraine by now had grown into a full-scale rebellion. The Kingdom of Russia signed the Treaty of Kymelnystky with the Ukranian Rebellion, pledging finanical, military, and diplomatic support. Russia then stopped sending the annual tribute to Poland. Angered, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth declared war against Russia on 18 August and laid siege to Tver. However, the Russian defense force held out and defeated the Polish invasion force, turfing them back into Ukraine. Alexis I of Russia then moblizied his forces and sent them to the border, granting Prince Vasily Sheremetev formal command of the forces.
- A Russian force of 5,000 laid siege to Smolensk on 3 January, held by a Polish garrison of only 2,000. The Russians cut off Polish access to the roads leading into Belarus, and bombarded the external ramparts of the fortress. Russian horsemen ran along and shot primtive guns at Polish defenders, killing some. Finally, after months of bombardment and siege, Smolensk fell on 5 March. Russian forces entered trimpuhantly. The Smolensk territories were in Russian hands.
- A Byzantine force of 56,000 invaded the eastern flank of the Almohad Sultanate. The Almohads, however, were fantaical defenders, and inflicted crippling losses on the Byzantine invasion force. They threw them out of Almohad territory and then fortified their border.
- A rebellion breaks out in the Cuman Khanates, a formal protectorate of the Kingdom of Russia. The Russians take advantage of the dissent and incoporate the Cuman territories at the mouth of the Volga and around Astrakhan. The rest of the Khanate splits into two states: the Cuman Sultanate and the Cuman Mongols.
- The Byzantines launched a second unsuccessful invasion of the Almohads, suffering severe losses. The war was increasingly unpopular amongst the population and the military refused to engage in any further campaigns. Justinian III was forced to conclude the Treaty of El Alamein with the Almohads. The Treaty restored the status quo ante bellum, formally returning any conquered territories to their previous owners. Byzantine paid the Almohads $50,000 in reperations. Shortly after peace was established, Justinian III was overthrown and replaced by his young 1-year old son David II. Military generals took control of the government, using the young David II as a puppet. The decline of the Byzantine Empire had begun.
- Tutmose I came to power in both the Kingdom of Makura and the Kingdom of Axum, within Eastern Africa. Tutmose unified the kingdoms into one state: the Kingdom of Axuma. Tutmose I will become one of the most well-known rulers in Africa, and will achieve the title Tutmose the Great. Tutmose I was crowned in Sokal, the capital of Axuma.
- A series of offensives and skirmishes occured in the Second Polish-Russian War this year. Prince Sheremetev defeated a Polish army at the Battle of Arkhmatov, while Polish forces succesfully ransacked Russian positions outside of Smolensk. Another force, lead by Prince Vsocku Kalisky captured Minsk from the Lithuanians on 8 July, and routed a nearby Lithuanian army on 14 July. Sheremetev then lead a offensive force which sailed down the Dnieper and laid siege to Kiev in early August.
- Sherementev's forces finally captured the city of Kiev on 24 January. They were welcomed as liberators by much of the Kievan population. Sherementev then launched a unsucessful campaign into Right-Bank Ukraine, being driven out with heavy losses. He reorganized his forces and fortified his position in Kiev and the Left Bank Ukraine. He dispatched a force under the command of Prince Vako Siski to capture the Polish Azov territories and secure Russian access to the sea of the same name. Siski was defeated in the Battle of Azov, but was able to capture some Polish territories on the southern Azov coast. Russia thus regained limited access to the Black Sea.
- Tutmose I began a series of military reforms. The Axuman military was relatively primitive and backwards. Spears and hunting tools were still widely used. Military organization was extremely primitive. There was no modern equipment whatsoever. Tutmose used the profits gained from the export of gold, silver, and copper to modernize his military. A new military command structure was implemented. European tactics and technology was introduced into the forces. A clarified training code was also implemented.
- The Kharzemian Empire began a series of raids and skrmishes against the Byzantine provinces in the Mestophamia (Iraq) region. Byzantine military forces unsucessfully attempted to quell these raids. The Muslims took thousands of Byzantine women and children as sex slaves.
- The tide of the war changed into Poland's favor. A Polish-Lithuanian army led by Hetman John Radvoi besieged and recaptured Minsk from the Russians on 5 January. Polish forces then crushed Sheremetev's army at the Battle of the Right Dnieper on 19 February and captured Sheremetev himself, who unsucessfully tried to escape dressed as a woman. The Poles then laid siege to Kiev itself, but their siege was broken when a Russian reinforcement group arrived on 8 March. In the South, Siski's army was defeated at the Battle of the Don on 1 April, and Siski himself was captured. Poland then captured lands farther north on the Don. People in Russia believed that a repeat of the First Polish-Russian War was occuring. That was not true, however.
- Tutmose I of Axuma sent in military expeditions to pacify or subjuate the southern Ethopian and Somali Tribes. The expeditions succeeded, pushing Axuma's border farther south. Tutmose I then imprisioned many of the tribal leaders, sent in Axuman farmers to the newly conquered southern regions, and began construction on a series of roads to the South.
- The Cuman Mongols became a formal military protectorate of the Mongolian Empire. Thousands of Cuman citizens were opposed to this, but the Cuman government, with the "assistance" of the Mongolian military, arrested and imprisioned any and all dissenters.
- Although angered at the recent losses, Tsar Alexis I was pleased that Russia had gained territory in Eastern Ukraine, Smolensk, and the Northern Caucacus coast. Thus, the Tsar opened negotiations with Poland, and a armistice for all forces was declared on 19 March. Eventually, the Treaty of Delino was signed on 18 August. Poland recognized Russia's gains in the Smolensk territories, Left-Bank Ukraine, and the southern Azov coast. Poland returned the northern Don territories to Russia, in return for $560,000 in gold tribute. All prisioners of war were exchanged and diplomatic peace established. Under the terms of the Treaty, Sheremetev and Siski were released, but were not welcomed home as heroes. Under orders of the Tsar, they were arrested and banished to Western Siberia.
- The Mongolian Empire fully incoporated the Cuman Mongols as a directly-governed province. Mongol soldiers raided and plundered villages, destroyed farms, and enslaved tens of thousands of women, children, and innocent men. Many Cuman Mongols escaped to Russia, the northern neighbor of Mongolia. They brought their agriculture and survival skills with them.
to see more, visit The Story on Eurasia, Part 2