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The 21st century was the century of the Anno Domini era that spanned from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2100. During the 21st century, the geopolitical, technological, economic, and social developments of the previous century further matured, leading to continuing innovations within human society and to further challenges. The United States of America, in particular, was affected by these changes. The century began with America as the world's sole superpower, following the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. America and its allies grappled with the rise of fundamentalist Islamic terrorism, waging the War on Terror in the Middle East during the first decade of the century.

Digital technology, which had begun to develop during the 1980s and 1990s, entered into mainstream use during the early decades of the century. Concerns related to the overuse of mobile phones, the Internet, and other technology nevertheless remained prevalent. By the end of the 2000s, over a billion people used the Internet worldwide, and over 4 billion used cell phones. The Great Recession, however, set in (2008-09), leading to soaring levels of national and personal debt. A growing divide developed between the rich and poor, as various socio-political systems around the world tried to deal with the challenges. Citizens, at the same time, were becoming more aware of excessive surveillance, violation of civil liberties, and privacy intrusion.

A new set of crises emerged in 2020s. Crude oil, no longer the cheap and plentiful commodity it had once been, was becoming subject to ever more volatility. Those countries heavily dependent on imports, in particular, were seeing economic turmoil. By this point, however, conversion to renewable, nuclear, and geothermal energy was underway, sped along in part by the efforts of the Booker Administration in the United States. Problems associated with earlier climate change patterns, however, intensified, and would continue through the middle of the century. In the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere, growing instability, arising from social, economic, and political factors, led to a number of resource wars.

The 2030s were marked by a rapid, worldwide shift towards clean energy, algae biofuel and other renewable sources – aided by startling breakthroughs in nanotechnology. This was followed by progress in nuclear fusion, though widespread adoption would have to wait until later in the century. Despite this, conflict was now brewing around much of the world. Africa, Asia and other regions were suffering mightily due to food shortages and a growing influx of refugees affected by resource wars and political instability.

Exponential advances in computing power – in parallel with genetics, nanotechnology and robotics – continued into the 2040s, leading to what many called the birth of transhumanism. Ever smaller, more complex and sophisticated devices were becoming implantable and integrated within the human body – able to combat disease, enhance the senses and provide entertainment or communication in ways that simply were not possible before, such as full immersion virtual reality. Geopolitics was undergoing a revolution too, with India approaching the U.S. and China in terms of economic power, and threatening to surpass the former (which it did so in 2055).

Mankind began to escape the confines of its crowded home planet with permanent colonies on Mars and the Moon in the 2050s. Even greater advances in computing power saw AI beginning to play a major role in business and government decisions. Economic growth was now under severe strain, however, due to ecological impacts, resource scarcity, demographic trends, technological unemployment and other factors. By the middle of the century, however, the ozone layer had recovered from its prior depletion, renewable, nuclear, and geothermal power provided the majority of the Earth's energy needs, and global temperatures had begun returning to late 20th century levels.

By 2060, the world's population had begun to level off and plateau. This was due to an overall decline in fertility rates, caused by better education and more effective birth control methods. However, the world was still not free from conflict, and the 2060s saw the renewed outbreak of conflicts in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

The 2070s saw major growth in the use of fusion power. Accelerated space development also marked this time, with expansion of the lunar colonies and their automated mining operations.

With continuing advances in AI, the 2080s saw an explosion in scientific discoveries. Transhumanism was now a mainstream phenomenon, the average citizen becoming heavily reliant on brain-computer interfaces and other implantable devices, contributing to a decline in religious adherence.

By the 2090s, the Earth had been further transformed. Humanity had now established itself upon the Moon and Mars, was venturing further outwards into the Solar System, and enjoyed higher standards of living then any seen previously in human history. Moreover, the Earth's political landscape had been transformed in many ways.

This timeline covers basics about the 21st century in the United States.

The 21st CenturyEdit

Presidents of the United StatesEdit

42. 1993-2001: Bill Clinton (Democratic-Arkansas)

43. 2001-2009: George W. Bush (Republican-Texas)

44. 2009-2017: Barack H. Obama (Democratic-Illinois)

45. 2017-2019: Donald J. Trump (Republican-New York)

46. 2019-2025: Michael R. Pence (Republican-Indiana)

47. 2025-2033: Richard Cordray (Democratic-Ohio)

48. 2033-2037: Julian Castro (Democratic-Texas)

49. 2037-2045: Sarah Kazlowski (Republican-Illinois)

50. 2045-2052: Brandon Boyle (Democratic-Pennsylvania)

51. 2052-2053: Mark Henson (Democratic-Ohio)

52. 2053-2061: Madelaine McAuliffe (Republican-Kansas)

53. 2061-2069: William J. Rutherford (Democratic-Colorado)

54. 2069-2073: Carlotta A. Sanchez (Democratic-New Mexico)

55. 2073-2075: Tommy Franks (Republican-New York)

56. 2075-2077: Jessica N. Crittenden (Republican-Virginia)

57. 2077-2081: Christopher A. Liu (Democratic-Washington)

58. 2081-2089: Robert M. Kraft (Republican-Texas)

59. 2089-2093: Joseph Kacynziski (Democratic-Georgia)

60. 2093-2094: Leslie A. Stewart (Republican-Minnesota)

61. 2094-2097: Stanley R. Hernandez (Republican-New York)

62. 2097-2105: Robert H. Chancellor (Democratic-Montana)

Presidential Deaths of the 21st CenturyEdit

  1. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)
  2. Gerald Ford (1913-2006)
  3. Jimmy Carter (1924-2018)
  4. George H.W. Bush (1924-2019)
  5. Donald Trump (1946-2033)
  6. Bill Clinton (1946-2036)
  7. George W. Bush (1946-2041)
  8. Mike Pence (1959-2045)
  9. Barack Obama (1961-2049)
  10. Brandon Boyle (1977-2052)
  11. Richard Cordray (1965-2057)
  12. Mark Henson (1995-2061)
  13. Julian Castro (1974-2067)
  14. Madelaine McAuliffe (1992-2073)
  15. Carlotta A. Sanchez (2013-2081)
  16. Sarah Kazlowski (1991-2086)
  17. William J. Rutherford (1998-2087)
  18. Robert M. Kraft (2016-2093)
  19. Leslie A. Stewart (2031-2094)
  20. Tommy Franks (2009-2095)
  21. Joseph Kacynziski (2021-2096)
  22. Jessica Crittenden (2015-2098)

Speakers of the HouseEdit

59. 1999-2007: Dennis Hastert (Republican-Illinois)

60. 2007-2011: Nancy Pelosi (Democratic-California)

61. 2011-2015: John Boehner (Republican-Ohio)

62. 2015-2023: Paul Ryan (Republican-Wisconsin)

63. 2023-2031: Joseph Crowley (Democratic-New York)

64. 2031-2037: Tim Ryan (Democratic-Ohio)

65. 2037-2041: Seth Moulton (Democratic-Massachusetts)

66. 2041-2049: Matt Gaetz (Republican-Florida)

67. 2049-2051: Eric Swalwell (Democratic-California)

68. 2051-2059: Elise Stefanik (Republican-New York)

69. 2059-2063: Ty Matthews (Democratic-Iowa)

70. 2063-2075: William Joseph Dixon (Democratic-District of Columbia) ALSO Dean of the House 2071-2075

71. 2075-2079: Patsy Chuo (Democratic-Hawaii)

72. 2079-2087: Carl D. Porter (Republican-Alabama)

73. 2087-2091: Hector Martinez, Jr. (Democratic-Puerto Rico)

74. 2091-2094: Sophia Rowe (Republican-Arizona)

75. 2094-2099: Jacob William Axelhoff (Republican-Tennessee)

76. 2099-2103: Emma A. Longwell (Democratic-Colorado)

Majority Leaders of the SenateEdit

1. 1996-2001, 2001: Trent Lott (Republican-Mississippi)

2. 2001, 2001-2003: Tom Daschle (Democratic-South Dakota)

3. 2003-2007: Bill Frist (Republican-Tennessee)

4. 2007-2015: Harry Reid (Democratic-Nevada)

5. 2015-2023: Mitch McConnell (Republican-Kentucky)

6. 2023-2029: Kristen Gillbrand (Democratic-New York)

7. 2029-2031: Chris Van Hollen (Democratic-Maryland)

8. 2031-2037: Tom Cotton (Republican-Arkansas)

9. 2037-2047: Brian Schatz (Democratic-Hawaii)

10. 2047-2051: Ruben Kihuen (Democratic-Nevada)

11. 2051-2059: Trey Hollingsworth (Republican-Indiana)

12. 2059-2061: Elizabeth H. Pyle (Republian-Idaho)

13. 2061-2071: Katherine Smith (Democratic-Rhode Island)

14. 2071-2073: Marshall M. Ricks (Democratic-North Carolina)

15. 2073-2075: Noah Howell (Republican-North Dakota)

16. 2075-2079: Terell Hamilton, Sr. (Democratic-Michigan)

17. 2079-2083: Hunter Donnelly (Republican-Louisiana)

18. 2083-2085: Tyler Sampson (Republican-Arkansas)

19. 2085-2087: Louisa Taylor (Republican-Connecticut)

20. 2087-2091: Jessica P. Spencer (Democratic-Minnesota)

21. 2091-2097: D.W. Hinds (Republican-Wyoming)

22. 2097-2099: Harrison McCloskey (Republican-Wisconsin)

23. 2099-2104: Sebastian Shaw (Democratic-Washington)

Chief Justices of the United States Supreme CourtEdit

16. 1986-2005: William H. Rehnquist

17. 2005-2033: John G. Roberts, Jr.

18. 2033-2055: Stephanie Rowe

19. 2055-2066: Philip A. Wagner, Sr.

20. 2066-2071: Joaquin S. Martinez

21. 2071-2096: Tyrone H. Williams, Jr.

22. 2096-2107: Jackson H. Spielvogel

Deans of the U.S. House of RepresentativesEdit

1. 1995-2015: John Dingell (Democratic-Michigan) 1955

2. 2015-2019: John Conyers (Democratic-Michigan) 1965

3. 2019-2022: Don Young (Republican-Alaska) 1973

4. 2022-2029: James Sensenbrenner (Republican-Wisconsin) 1979

5. 2029-2033: Christopher Smith (Republican-New Jersey) 1981

6. 2033-2034: Fred Upton (Republican-Michigan) 1987

7. 2034-2035: Ed Royce (Republican-California) 1993

8. 2035-2039: Ron Kind (Democratic-Wisconsin) 1997

9. 2039-2045: Sam Graves (Republican-Missouri) 2001

10. 2045-2049: Mario Díaz-Balart (Republican-Florida) 2001

11. 2049: Brian Higgins (Democratic-New York) 2005 (first Dean elected in the 21st century)

12. 2049-2053: André Carson (Democratic-Indiana) 2008

13. 2053-2056: Ben R. Luján (Democratic-New Mexico) 2009

14. 2056-2062: Adam Kinzinger (Republican-Illinois) 2011

15. 2062-2065: Lee M. Zeldin (Republican-New York) 2015 (last Dean to have served during the Obama Administration)

16. 2065-2068: George R. Cremlin (Republican-Kansas) 2023

17. 2068-2071: Christy A. Pearson (Republican-New Hampshire) 2027 (First woman to become Dean)

18. 2071-2075: William J. Dixon, Jr. (Democratic-Washington D.C.) Speaker of the House 2063-75, 2033

19. 2075-2076: Mark Chuo (Democratic-California) 2037

20. 2076-2079: Philip D. Passer, Jr. (Democratic-Montana) 2041

21. 2079-2087: Richard C. Vixon (Democratic-Virginia) 2043'

22. 2087-2091: Stacia A. Rutherfield (Democratic-Hawaii) 2049

23. 2091-2095: Liam Holmes (Republican-Idaho) 2053

24. 2095-2096: Sarah De Valla (Democratic-Vermont) 2059

25. 2096-2099: W.A. Handler (Republican-Nebraska) 2063

26. 2099-2108: Todd Herald (Republican-Colorado) 2073

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