The 21st century was the century of the Anno Domini era that spanned from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2100. During the 21st century, the geopolitical, technological, economic, and social developments of the previous century further matured, leading to continuing innovations within human society and to further challenges. The United States of America, in particular, was affected by these changes. The century began with America as the world's sole superpower, following the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. America and its allies grappled with the rise of fundamentalist Islamic terrorism, waging the War on Terror in the Middle East during the first decade of the century.
Digital technology, which had begun to develop during the 1980s and 1990s, entered into mainstream use during the early decades of the century. Concerns related to the overuse of mobile phones, the Internet, and other technology nevertheless remained prevalent. By the end of the 2000s, over a billion people used the Internet worldwide, and over 4 billion used cell phones. The Great Recession, however, set in (2009-2011), leading to soaring levels of national and personal debt. A growing divide developed between the rich and poor, as various socio-political systems around the world tried to deal with the challenges. Citizens, at the same time, were becoming more aware of excessive surveillance, violation of civil liberties, and privacy intrusion.
A new set of crises emerged in 2020s. Crude oil, no longer the cheap and plentiful commodity it had once been, was becoming subject to ever more volatility. Those countries heavily dependent on imports, in particular, were seeing economic turmoil. By this point, however, conversion to renewable, nuclear, and geothermal energy was underway, sped along in part by the efforts of the Booker Administration in the United States. Problems associated with earlier climate change patterns, however, intensified, and would continue through the middle of the century. In the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere, growing instability, arising from social, economic, and political factors, led to a number of resource wars.
The 2030s were marked by a rapid, worldwide shift towards clean energy, algae biofuel and other renewable sources – aided by startling breakthroughs in nanotechnology. This was followed by progress in nuclear fusion, though widespread adoption would have to wait until later in the century. Despite this, conflict was now brewing around much of the world. Africa, Asia and other regions were suffering mightily due to food shortages and a growing influx of refugees affected by resource wars and political instability.
Exponential advances in computing power – in parallel with genetics, nanotechnology and robotics – continued into the 2040s, leading to what many called the birth of transhumanism. Ever smaller, more complex and sophisticated devices were becoming implantable and integrated within the human body – able to combat disease, enhance the senses and provide entertainment or communication in ways that simply were not possible before, such as full immersion virtual reality. Geopolitics was undergoing a revolution too, with India approaching the U.S. and China in terms of economic power, and threatening to surpass the former (which it did so in 2055).
Mankind began to escape the confines of its crowded home planet with permanent colonies on Mars and the Moon in the 2050s. Even greater advances in computing power saw AI beginning to play a major role in business and government decisions. Economic growth was now under severe strain, however, due to ecological impacts, resource scarcity, demographic trends, technological unemployment and other factors. By the middle of the century, however, the ozone layer had recovered from its prior depletion, renewable, nuclear, and geothermal power provided the majority of the Earth's energy needs, and global temperatures had begun returning to late 20th century levels.
By 2060, the world's population had begun to level off and plateau. This was due to an overall decline in fertility rates, caused by better education and more effective birth control methods. However, the world was still not free from conflict, and the 2060s saw the renewed outbreak of conflicts in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
The 2070s saw major growth in the use of fusion power. Accelerated space development also marked this time, with expansion of the lunar colonies and their automated mining operations.
With continuing advances in AI, the 2080s saw an explosion in scientific discoveries. Transhumanism was now a mainstream phenomenon, the average citizen becoming heavily reliant on brain-computer interfaces and other implantable devices, contributing to a decline in religious adherence.
By the 2090s, the Earth had been further transformed. Humanity had now established itself upon the Moon and Mars, was venturing further outwards into the Solar System, and enjoyed higher standards of living then any seen previously in human history. Moreover, the Earth's political landscape had been transformed in many ways.
This timeline covers basics about the 21st century in the United States.
The 21st CenturyEdit
Basic Political Outline of the 21st CenturyEdit
The political landscape of the United States altered considerably over the course of the twenty-first century. During the first two decades of the twenty-first century, the Republicans had the upper hand in both Houses of Congress. Republicans controlled the House from the time of the "Revolution" of 1994, engineered by Newt Gingrich and his followers, until the midterm elections of 2006. At that time, the Democratic Party gained control of Congress, riding off the unpopularity of then-President George W. Bush, the struggles of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the weakening of the U.S. economy (which led to the Great Recession of 2007-09). Nancy Pelosi of California was elected the first female Speaker of the House in January 2007. Democrats controlled the House from 2007-2011, into the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency. However, the passage of Obamacare, the struggling economic recovery, and the rise of the Tea Party led to them losing the chamber in 2010, in what was a historic year for Republicans. The Republicans held the House for the next seven years, and in 2014, as the rise of ISIS began in Iraq and Syria, and as President Obama's popularity stagnated even further, they gained control of the Senate. In November 2016, businessman Donald J. Trump was narrowly elected to the Presidency, winning the Electoral College 304-227 against Hillary Clinton. Clinton, however, won the popular vote, and Trump's election was greeted with much protest and controversy throughout the United States. During the course of the next two years, his presidency derailed.
From the beginning, Trump was very unpopular, his approval ratings never rising above 47%, and by October 2018, they had fallen to a low of 29%. His withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accords (June 2017) and from the Iran Nuclear Deal (July 2018), energized the progressive base and upset moderates; his responses to such incidents as the Charlottesville attacks (July 2017), as well as his administration's policies regarding LGBT rights, criminal justice, marijuana legislation, and immigration united racial and social minorities against him; and his failure to repeal Obamacare, as well as the passage of the Republican tax cuts (December 2017), and the failure of initiatives on gun regulation and infrastructure, served to further undermine his popularity. Moreover, the economy, which had been relatively strong at the close of Obama's presidency, began to weaken, eventually entering recession in August 2018. Each of these factors were further compounded by the investigation of Special Counsel Robert Mueller into Russian interference in the 2016 election, and the Trump campaign's ties to such interference. Democratic strength revived, and in the midterms of November 6, 2018, they regained control of the House, picking up 35 seats from the embattled Republican majority. In the Senate, Democrats held all of their vulnerable seats and gained those in Arizona and Nevada, thus achieving a 50-50 split. Republicans, however, retained control because of the tie-breaker, Vice President Mike Pence.
Nancy Pelosi became Speaker again in January 2019, and the Democratic House immediately found itself at loggerheads with the Trump Administration. By that point, the Russian investigation had intensified, as Trump's son-in-law, Jared Kushner, was indicted in November 2018; his son Donald Trump, Jr. in January 2019; and his other adult son, Eric Trump, in March of that year. Other Trump advisers such as Kellyanne Conway and Hope Hicks were also caught up in the web. Finally, the investigation reached Trump himself, and in July 2019, with the recession having intensified, negotiations with North Korea collapsing, and with Trump's approval ratings dipping below 20%, it became clear that, with evidence emerging of clear Trump ties to Russia, that impeachment was looming in the House. Trump, seeing the writing on the wall, resigned that month, and Pence took the oath of office. Although Trump himself ultimately escaped punishment, his inner circle did not, and the Trump Organization was effectively ruined. Trump would die in September 2033 in New York City, and would be remembered as one of the worst presidents in American history.
Pence, adopting a tone completely different from that of the Trump Administration, restored confidence in the government, compromised with the Democrats in the House, and chose former UN Ambassador Nikki Haley as his Vice President. This was most notably seen in the passage of the Health Care Tax Credits and Stabilization Act (October 2019), which preserved much of Obamacare while implementing minor reforms to the healthcare exchanges, individual mandate, and tax credit programs, in the negotiation of a bill to address the heroin epidemic (March 2020), and in the passage of the Manchin-Toomey Gun Reform Act (July 2020), which strengthened federal backgrounds checks, bolstered programs for school security, and provided additional funding to mental health agencies. The economy began to recover, and by March 2020, the Recession of 2018-20 was over. Pence's approval ratings reached 55% by June 2020, when he was nominated by the RNC for a full term. He faced Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown that November; Brown, who had been decisively reelected in 2018, won the Democratic nomination after a fierce battle with such rivals as Cory Booker, Kristen Gilibrand, and Elizabeth Warren. But Brown's progressive views proved to be out of step with the nation at that time, and Pence was reelected by a narrow margin, winning a bare plurality in the popular vote and carrying all of Trump's states from 2016, in addition to New Hampshire. Republicans maintained their majority in the Senate, and narrowed the Democratic margin in the House. Senate Majority Leader McConnell retired that year; he was succeeded in his position by Senator John Thune of South Dakota.
The years 2021-2023, however, proved disastrous for the Republicans. The renewal of tensions on the Korean Peninsula, the outbreak of the Secular Revolution in Iran, the accelerating collapse of the European Union, the fiscal crisis in China, and the assassination of Russian President Vladimir Putin combined with an escalating debt crisis at home, as the state governments of Illinois, California, and Maryland proved unable to meet their obligations, and as disputes over the budget triggered a prolonged government shutdown (November 2021-January 2022). Increasing turbulence around the world, both economic and global, finally culminated in the Second Great Recession, which formally got underway in December 2021. Pence's approval ratings collapsed, reaching a low of 24% by September 2022. That November, Democrats made major gains, in state legislatures, with governorships, and in Congress. They finally gained control of the Senate, winning a majority of 56 seats; Kristen Gilibrand now became Majority Leader. In the House, Democrats picked up 40 seats, obtaining a 268-167 majority. Nancy Pelosi retired from the House, and was succeeded as Speaker by Rep. Tim Ryan of Ohio. The 118th Congress opened on January 3, 2023, with Congress under full Democratic control for the first time in 12 years.
Despite initial pledges by Pence to work with Congress, things quickly went awry, and though Pence signed a bailout deal for state governments, packages for student loan relief and for modifications to healthcare failed. The economy recovered somewhat, though unemployment and inflation remained high, and Pence's approval ratings hovered around 30%. Nevertheless, he announced his decision to run for reelection, but was challenged in the primaries by Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas, who had sought the Republican nomination in 2016, and had narrowly won reelection in 2018. Pence ultimately prevailed (June 2024), but was wounded for the general election campaign. On the Democratic side, Governor Richard Cordray of Ohio won the nomination, and selected former HUD Secretary Julian Castro as his running mate. They conducted a strong campaign during the general election, and on November 4, 2024, won a landslide victory. Pence lost by 16%, with Cordray making significant inroads with rural and working-class whites. He also won handily in the Electoral College, becoming the first candidate from either party since George H.W. Bush in 1988 to break 400 electoral votes.
The ensuing Cordray Administration (2025-2033), marked a dramatic transition for the United States, as the President embarked on a decidedly liberal agenda. His presidency saw the enactment of such landmark pieces of legislation as the Universal Healthcare Reform and Expansion Act (2026), which saw the promulgation of Medicare for All (universal healthcare); of the Immigration Reforms and Controls Act (2027), which overhauled the nation's visa and permits system, provided permanent legal status for DACA recipients, and reformed border security; the Student Loans Stabilization and Recoveries Act (2027), which abolished tuition at community colleges and began the process of transition to universal college education; and of the Infrastructure Construction Act (2030), sponsoring a massive revitalization of the nation's infrastructure system. Other measures, aimed at surveillance, social security, climate change, education, energy, the minimum wage, drug reform, trade reform, and criminal justice reform, followed between 2026 and 2033. Moreover, this period saw the extension of full congressional representation to the District of Columbia (2028). This agenda, which became known as the New Hope, was the most ambitious domestic program enacted within the United States since the time of Lyndon B. Johnson. The Democratic Party made further gains in the congressional elections of 2026 and 2028, obtaining supermajorities in both Houses of Congress; at the opening of the 121st Congress (January 3, 2029), they held majorities of 314-122 in the House and 68-33 in the Senate. Cordray himself steered the country out of recession, conducted a successful response to the Iranian and Chinese crises, and began the process of reconciliation on the Korean Peninsula, following Kim-jong-Un's death in 2027. In 2028, he was reelected in a landslide, defeating his Republican opponent, Senator Ben Sasse of Nebraska, in a 64-36% romp, and winning every state except for Wyoming.
Cordray's popularity, however, stagnated beginning in September 2029, as the economy experienced some economic difficulties, and as foreign troubles intensified. The United Kingdom's breakup in 2019-2024, with the independence of Scotland, the fall of Angela Merkel from power in Germany in 2021, the assassination of Putin the following year, and the outbreak of xenophobic movements throughout much of Europe had greatly destabilized the situation, and the European Union was on the verge of collapse by 2027. Difficulties in that theater intensified; moreover, the rise of the New Jihad organization in Yemen and Oman, the emergence of the Zimbabwe Crisis, and the outbreak of the Indian-Pakistani War in January 2030 all taxed the President's energies. Eco-terrorism also became a serious issue from 2028 onwards, as concerns over climate change accelerated (in spite of the Sydney Treaty of 2026, which incorporated much tougher restrictions on carbon emissions and more thorough provisions for the expansion of renewable energy and of environmental safeguards than the Paris Agreement of a decade earlier). In the midterms of November 5, 2030, Republicans, led by Senate Minority Leader Thune and House Minority Leader Justin Amash of Michigan, gained ten seats in the Senate and 33 seats in the House. The Democrats, however, retained wide majorities. At the opening of the new Congress (January 3, 2031), the leadership gavels changed hands, as both Gillibrand and Ryan retired: they were succeeded as Majority Leader and Speaker respectively by Sen. Chris Van Hollen of Maryland and Rep. Seth Moulton of Massachusetts.
During the course of 2031 and 2032, the international situation stabilized somewhat, as the Zimbabwe Crisis ended with the establishment of parliamentary democracy in that country (March 2031); with the initiation of the Madrid Conferences (August 2031), which ultimately culminated in the reorganization of the European Union into the European Federation (April 2035); and, following the exposure of the Hogg Conspiracy (September 2032), with the decline of the eco-terrorism movement. The economy also experienced another uptick, and in January 2032, President Cordray signed the Ossoff-Heinrich Act into law, constituting the most extensive reform of the Federal Reserve and of the federal banking system in decades. That year, Vice-President Castro ran to succeed him, and selected Sen. Jason Kander of Missouri as his running mate. In November 2032, he defeated the Republican nominee, former Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida, by a comfortable margin, and was sworn in on January 20, 2033, to succeed Cordray. Democrats made slight gains in both Houses of Congress. Castro managed to achieve passage of the Rural Investment and Recovery Act (2034), which sought to target funds towards the expansion of social, healthcare, and other services in rural areas, and of the Education Opportunities Act (2034), which completed the transition to universal college tuition, provided funding for the strengthening of school security, of testing standards, and of teacher training, and reformed athletics programs. His administration also achieved a major success in September 2033, when the implementation of the NASA Revitalization and Reorganization Act, signed by President Cordray in November 2031, reached its culmination with the American return to the Moon. Between 2031 and 2045, there would be five additional missions there, along with the establishment of a real-time instantaneous satellite communications system, the construction of the New Columbia Space Station (dedicated in August 2038), and with the dispatch of probes and exploratory missions to the Asteroid Belt, the Outer Planets, and Mars.
But during the course of 2033 and 2034, Castro's popularity steadily declined, as voter wariness with the Democrats, the renewal of New Jihad activities in the Middle East, and the rise to power of Alexei Petrov to the Presidency of Russia (January 2034), following more than a decade of latent political and economic instability in that country, all presented new challenges to the Administration. The outbreak of drug wars in the Dominican Republic, Columbia, and Guatemala (August 2034), which were to continue for the next four years, the democratic transition process in Cuba and Venezuela, and the renewal of tensions between India and Pakistan compounded matters for Castro. Republicans, who had by this point moderated considerably on social issues and had accepted many of the elements of the New Hope Agenda, found their strength reorienting itself towards the Northeast and West. This had already been seen in 2030, when they had made marked gains in New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire, Washington, Oregon, Illinois, and Delaware, and had won the governorship of California in 2032. In the midterms of November 7, 2034, the Republicans made major gains, gaining control of the Senate and gained 32 seats in the House, reducing the Democratic majority down to 240 seats (from its previous number of 272). Senator Thune became Majority Leader. In the House, the sudden death of Speaker Moulton in August 2034 left the gavel in the hands of Rep. Richard Ojeda of West Virginia.
The 124th Congress, when it convened on January 3, 2035, found itself at conflict with the Castro Administration from the beginning, and also divided by the partisan split in the Houses. The tax increases of the last decade, particularly those from the Tax Reconciliation and Extension Act of 2029, proved especially contentious. Castro also clashed with the Republicans over the space program, American interventions in the Latin American Drug Wars, and in January 2036, over net neutrality, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the extension of minimum wage requirements. By March 2036, with his approval ratings sinking to 41%, President Castro found himself lagging. A recession began in June 2036, exacerbated by instability in the stock markets of Great Britain, Japan, and China, and by fears, in September 2036, of civil war in Turkey, which had become a repressive regime during the last two decades. Moreover, by 2036, the Israeli-Palestinian disputes, which had continued unabated for ninety years by this point, and had seen failed peace conferences in 2023, 2027, and 2029, along with the outbreak of the Hamas Insurgency of 2031 and the New Jihad Attacks of 2033-34, were once again at center stage. Castro nevertheless was renominated by the Democratic Party, though these issues and voter weariness of the Democrats after 12 years in power took their toll. The Republicans, on their part, nominated Governor Sarah Kazlowski of Illinois, who had been among the Republican victors of 2034, and had established a reputation for herself as a social progressive, fiscal conservative, and internationalist. Kazlowski's running mate was Congresswoman Elise Stefanik of New York; for the first time in history, the major-party ticket was comprised entirely of women. Kazlowski campaigned vigorously, united all elements of the Republican coalition, and outfoxed Castro in the debates, as well as in fundraising and grass-roots organization. By October 2036, she had a strong lead in the polls.
In the election, held on November 4, 2036, Kazlowski won in a landslide, beating Castro 55-45% and carrying 36 of the 50 states. The Republicans expanded their majority in the Senate to a more comfortable level, and denied the Democrats an absolute majority in the House. Speaker Ojeda had died suddenly in June 2036; his successor, Rep. Pramila Jayapal of Washington, the House's first Indian-American Speaker, successfully forged a coalition with four Independents from Alaska, Vermont, Montana, and Kansas, maintaining Democratic control of the chamber. Nevertheless, when Kazlowski took office on January 20, 2037, it was clear that there had been a change. Kazlowski proved to be an adept negotiator, a skill which she had shown previously during her time as Speaker of the Illinois State House and then as Governor of the state. As noted above, she accepted most of Cordray's New Hope agenda, but took a technocratic approach, seeking to moderate many of the programs, to revive the economy, and to introduce new fiscal and technological policies. Kazlowski oversaw the passage of the Automated Tax Correction and Collector Relief Acts (2037), ushering in a major simplification and streamlining of America's tax code. She pursued a agenda of deregulation, focusing on the pharmaceutical, biotech, and information technology sectors. And she also oversaw the expansion of civil rights, building upon the Restorative Justice Reform Act and the Drug Recodification Act which had been passed under President Cordray. The Human Genome Freedom Act (2038) reformed the standards relating to genetic engineering and liberalized stem-cell research, while the Diverse Leaders Act (2039) and the Equal Admittance Act (2040), sought to further reduce barriers to minority and female advancement in education and in business.
Kazlowski also proved adept at foreign policy, as she negotiated the Austin Accords with China (2039), which was now under the control of Xie Guang, who had assumed the Presidency in 2037, and began a program of economic, social, and political reform. The Accords addressed such matters as tariffs, patents, and space exploration. She also, with the assistance of Guang and of Japanese Prime Minister Hiorochi Fududa, brought North Korea, now under the rule of the moderate Kim-jung-so, and South Korea together to begin reunification talks (March 2040). The Israeli-Palestinian crisis also began to move to a final resolution with the convening of the Cape Town Conference in July 2038, instigating a negotiation process which was to last for the next fifteen years. By August 2040, when she was renominated for reelection by the Republican National Convention, Kazlowski enjoyed high approval ratings. In the election of November 6, 2040, she won reelection in a landslide, winning every state except for West Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Vermont, and D.C, and defeating her Democratic opponent, Senator Erica Thomas of Georgia, by a margin of 60-38%. Moreover, Republicans expanded their majority in the Senate and finally gained control of the House, for the first time in 22 years, with Rep. Patrick McHenry of North Carolina becoming Speaker on January 3, 2041. He found himself at the head of a 253-seat majority in the chamber.
Kazlowski's second term saw some further successes. In April 2041, she signed the bill which admitted Puerto Rico into the Union as the 51st State, and also signed the Moon Colonization Act, which laid out plans for the establishment of America's first permanent moon base. In 2042, Kazlowski brought the United States into the Geneva Compact, a comprehensive agreement addressing climate change migration and calling for the abandonment of fossil fuels by all first-world nations within the next thirty years. In that year's midterm elections, Republicans retained control of both Houses. But in 2043, the outbreak of full-scale civil war in Turkey, followed by the rise of the New Communist movement within Russia, and the outbreak of climate-change fueled conflicts in the Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Mozambique, tested presidential energies. Moreover, the renewal of the Latin American Drug Wars, which had experienced an interlude since 2038, brought new difficulties for American forces abroad and for enforcement agencies at home. Brazil in particular, seemed headed to economic collapse and civil war by January 2044. Kazlowski's popularity began to decline, and in April 2044, the Stock Market experienced a significant downturn. The increasing mechanization of American industry, moreover, had led to the loss of more blue-collar jobs, and paved the way to the "Bring Our Security Back" protest movement, which would reach its culmination between 2044 and 2051.
In June 2044, Vice-President Stefanik was nominated by the RNC; she selected Energy Secretary Joshua Thomas of Connecticut as her running mate. Stefanik was opposed in the general election by Democratic Governor Brandon Boyle of Pennsylvania and his running mate, South Carolina Attorney General Mark Henson. By September 2044, with the recession deepening, the "Security" movement intensifying, and with setbacks being encountered with the space program, Korean reunification talks, and the Cape Town Conference, Kazlowski's approval ratings had dropped to 44%. In the general election (November 8, 2044), Stefanik lost by a narrow margin (51-49%) to Boyle, with her defeats in the critical states of California, Illinois, and Florida costing her the election. Democrats also regained control of both Houses of Congress; Sen. Brian Schatz of Hawaii became Majority Leader, and Rep. Eric Swalwell of California took the gavel from Speaker McHenry. Kazlowski left office in January 2045 with approval ratings of 52%; the announcement of a breakthrough in the Korean talks, in December 2044, and the beginning of economic recovery, lifted her numbers back up.
President Boyle's first two years in office were fraught with much difficulty, for the Korean talks became stalemated in February 2045, when the sudden death of Kim-jung-so brought his fanatical nephew Kim-jung-nam to power. Kim-jung-nam withdrew from the Conference, rearmed his military forces, and in September of that year, even threatened to resume with nuclear testing, a process which had been in abeyance since Kim-jung-so's accession to power in 2031. Moreover, the Turkish Civil War worsened, and in 2046, the New Jihad organization, which had relocated its headquarters to Afghanistan, launched a series of attacks in Europe and in the United States, utilizing vehicles, knives, and firearms. This spate of activity prompted Boyle and Congress to pass the Revised PATRIOT Act in September 2046, and for Boyle to authorize the implementation of memorandums on national security, which had been prepared under Presidents Castro and Kazlowski, concerning the security of the space program, of US military forces overseas, and of the nuclear arsenal. Economic recovery, at first, proved sluggish, and in spite of President Boyle's efforts to encourage investment and job growth through the passage of extensive infrastructure, maritime, and technology stimulus packages, as well as continuing with Kazlowski's drive to promote scientific research, nothing improved. In November 2046, Democrats lost control of both Houses of Congress, just two years after they had regained them. Rep. Elizabeth Schroeder of New York became Speaker of the House; Sen. Robert Harrison of New Hampshire assumed the post of Majority Leader. Renewed partisan clashes, between Boyle on the one hand and the Republicans on the other, over the budget and foreign policy, led by March 2047 to fears of a government shutdown, something which had not occurred since the infamous incident of 2021-2022 under the Pence Administration.
But Boyle's fortunes enjoyed an upturn in August 2047, as the Korean Reunification talks regained steam with the overthrow of Kim-jung-nam by his generals, who, being of the same mindset as Kim-jung-so, genuinely desired peace with the West and with South Korea. By October, following the implementation of the Tax Reconciliation Act, which sought to streamline the federal tax code, and of the Economic Stabilization Act, which provided for the injection of additional funds into American industry, agriculture, and services, economic recovery began in earnest. Things improved further for Boyle when, in February 2048, it was announced that the Palestinian State had finally agreed to recognize Israel's right to exist, and that Israel in turn, had agreed to share Jerusalem with the Palestinians as a national capital. Moreover, in April 2048, Boyle authorized the use of American missiles and Marines to suppress Turkish rebel movements at Ankara and on Cyprus, contributing to the long-term resolution of the Turkish Civil War. His approval ratings resurged, reaching 56% by August 2048, when he was renominated by the Democratic Party for a second term. That November, Boyle won a sound reelection victory over his Republican opponent, Senator Sarah Santorum of Pennsylvania, beating her 54-42%. His victory carried coattails; Democrats recaptured control of both Houses of Congress. Schroeder returned the Speaker's gavel to Rep. Swalwell, while Sen. Jon Ossoff of Georgia became Senate Majority Leader at the opening of the 129th Congress (January 3, 2049).
President Boyle, who had experienced a considerable surge from the difficulties of his first two years in office, kept up the momentum throughout his second term. With his party once again in control of Congress, Boyle was able to pursue a series of more vigorous initiatives, which he viewed as a continuation of Cordray's New Hope agenda. He now engineered the passage of the Second Moon Colonization Act (June 2049), which set an ambitious timetable for the establishment of full-fledged American colonies on the Moon by the end of the century. He also pushed through the National Labor Standards Reform Act (August 2049), which constituted the most extensive reform of employee-employer relations, of working standards, and of union regulations in decades. Boyle also began to take steps towards the promulgation of a Universal Basic Income (UBI), responding to the mechanization of American industry which, by the middle of the century, had led to the virtual disappearance of most blue-collar jobs. He also pushed through the Fair Pay for Fair Work Act (2050) and the Family & Medical Leave Act (2051), the former of which provided for additional steps for the elimination of the gender pay gap, and the latter of which gave guaranteed leave benefits to all U.S. employees. The Boyle Administration also pushed through the Gender Equality in Employment Act (2051), which was to constitute the most widespread extension of federal laws on gender and sexual discrimination in decades.
In November 2051, the death of Russian President Alexei Petrov, who had, like Vladimir Putin before him, kept a firm grip on affairs within that country, ushered in a relaxation of tensions with the West. Petrov had negotiated the union of Belarus with the Russian Federation (2041), had brought Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan into the Eurasian Economic Union (2044), and had embarked on a vigorous armaments program, sparking additional sanctions from Western powers. His successor, Dmitry Porheshenko, proved far more willing to cooperate with the West, realizing the strains which decades of hostility and competition had taken upon Russia's economy and its population. President Boyle indicated his willingness to meet with his Russian counterpart to settle the matter of Crimea, which had now been outstanding for nearly four decades. But on February 5, 2052, before he was scheduled to meet with Porheshenko in Rio de Janiero, President Boyle died of a sudden heart attack. He became the first American president in nearly ninety years, since John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, to die in office. Vice-President Henson now acceded to the Presidency; Henson became the nation's second African-American President in its history, following Barack Obama.
President Henson, who took the helm of office in an election year, had nevertheless tired of Washington, and had already announced in September 2051 that he had no intention of running for election to the Presidency in his own right. Despite this, he proved to be a competent leader during his brief term. In August 2052, the long-awaited meeting with President Porheshenko was held, and Henson began the process which would lead to the signing of the Rio de Janeiro Accords (September 2053), concluded after he left office. The Accords would confer formal Western recognition upon the Russian annexation of the Crimea, instigate a program of major nuclear demobilization on the part of both sides, and provide Russian guarantees to respect the independence of the Baltic Countries, Finland, and Ukraine. In October 2052, Henson announced that the first manned mission to Mars would take place by the following year, and persuaded Congress to allocate additional funds for the development of the American bases on the Moon. The economy remained stable throughout the year. In June 2052, the DNC nominated Nebraska Governor David Horowitz for the nomination. Horowitz selected former Defense Secretary Marina Medina as his running mate. He was opposed in the general election by former Secretary of State Zachary Wilden, whose running mate was Governor Crystal Sun of California.
Benefiting from the good economy, from the "sympathy vote" generated by President Boyle's death, and from President Henson's solid approval ratings, Horowitz won the election of November 5, 2052 in a landslide, winning by a margin of 58-40%, and carrying forty-four of the fifty-one states (+ D.C.). The Democrats also made further gains in both Houses of Congress. Horowitz was sworn into office on January 3, 2053, as the first president to be born in the 21st century (2001); Vice-President Medina became the nation's second Hispanic Vice-President, and its first Hispanic female Vice-President. Horowitz, whose passionate rhetoric during the campaign and calls for the implementation of additional environmental and labor reforms had brought him much support from the electorate, got off to a good start. In March 2053, the Treaty of Amman finally brought the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to an end, after more than a century of hostilities, with the establishment of a two-state system in the Holy Land. Horowitz also oversaw the negotiation of the Rio de Janeiro Accords. Moreover, in July 2053, the first manned mission to Mars was conducted, with astronaut Robert K. Gallagher becoming the first Human to step foot on the Red Planet. President Horowitz congratulated the astronauts, and it seemed as if the future was bright for the country.
But by September 2053, with the economy once again slowing down, difficulties came anew for the President. The death of Xie Guang in China, without having named a designated successor, threw that country into turmoil, and provoked, by January 2054, the outbreak of the War of the White Flower, as democratic and revolutionary groups coalesced against the Communist regime. Matters were compounded by the overthrow of President Hassan al-Rouhani of Iraq (November 2053), and the rise to power of the Islamic Brotherhood, which threatened Western interests not only in Iraq but also in Kuwait and Syria (where the Assad regime had finally been deposed from power in 2046). President Horowitz ordered for the deployment of resources to the Middle East to meet this challenge, a move which reminded many of the Iraq War from five decades earlier. Finally, in March 2054, the revelation of the Space X Contracts Scandal, which involved the Secretaries of Defense, Commerce, Transportation, State, and Energy, and extended ultimately through the President's inner circle, caused a severe drop in the President's approval ratings. The Administration now found itself plagued by accusations of corruption, of bribery, and of graft, and Horowitz, who was viewed as not having kept a firm watch over his subordinates, proved incapable of meeting the situation. His troubles were compounded when a mild recession began in August 2054, leading to spikes in unemployment which had not been seen in at least six years.
The Administration's legal, economic, and foreign troubles found their culmination in the midterms of November 3, 2054, when Republican House Minority Leader Alexander Ferguson (who had assumed his post August 18, 2051 following Schroeder's resignation) and Senate Minority Leader Harrison led their party to victory, regaining control of both Houses of Congress. As the 132nd Congress convened (January 3, 2055), Republicans held a 259-177 majority in the House and a 53-49 majority in the Senate. President Horowitz now found himself at odds with the Republican-controlled Congress, which sought for the implementation of austerity measures, tax cuts, and cuts to social spending to stimulate economic activity and end the recession. This struggle ultimately culminated in the government shutdown of June 2055, and in a crisis over the national debt ceiling which was only narrowly averted in November of that year. During the course of 2055, moreover, the War of the White Flower and the Islamic Brotherhood Insurgency both intensified, leading to the eventual deployment, in January 2056, of American naval forces to the South China Sea, as well as fears of possible Russian intervention in Manchuria. Through the middle of 2056, several of President Horowitz's former advisers and cabinet officials were forced to resign or were indicted due to their role in the Space X Scandal; his approval ratings sunk to a miserly 32%. Horowitz, seeing the writing on the wall, announced his decision not to run for reelection in October 2055.
The Democratic nomination, after a fierce and contentious struggle, was eventually won by former Secretary of the Treasury Bob Wu, the first Asian-American to be nominated for the Presidency by a major party. Wu defeated Vice-President Medina and six other contenders for the nomination. He selected former CIA Director Kayleigh Peters as his running mate. They were opposed in the general election by the Republican nominees, former Governor of Kansas, Madelaine McAuliffe, and her running mate, retired Lieutenant Col. and Congressman Stanley Hernandez of New Mexico. McAuliffe, who campaigned on a platform of austerity and of a more vigorous response to the various foreign policy crises, proved to be a better candidate than Wu. She won the election of November 7, 2056, handily, with 57% of the popular vote and 40 of the 51 states. Republicans expanded their majorities in Congress at the same time. After entering office in January 2057, McAuliffe set to work immediately on her priorities. She pushed the Austerity Controls Act of 2057 through Congress, calling for major cuts in the federal budget, the overhaul of federal debt obligations, tax simplification, and for reforms to federal bonds, as well as the Treasury Department. She organized a coalition, in March 2057, which included Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey (which had emerged out of its Civil War in 2053), to meet the challenge of the Islamic Brotherhood. And she provided support to the Democratic Republican faction in China, who ultimately succeeded in taking control of Beijing in August 2058, marking China's formal transition to parliamentary democracy. McAuliffe reined in on spending for the space program, and slowed the transition to UBI, calling for more prudence in federal planning and resourcing for social programs.
In January 2058, however, Russian President Porheshenko was assassinated, and the distinctly anti-Western general Nikolai Valentinov won the special election to succeed him. Valentinov balked on adhering to the provisions of the Rio de Janeiro Accords, and indicated his support for Kyrgyzstan and Tajikstan in their hostilities with Pakistan (the Khyber Pass War of 2058-59). Two months later, the worst housing crisis in the United States since the Great Recession ensued, and McAuliffe, contrary to her earlier agenda, was forced to pledge her support for the passage of a bailout to mortgage companies and banks (July 2058). Her popularity declined, as the economy again entered recession and as the conflict with the Islamic Brotherhood dragged on without resolution. The Democrats re-surged and in the midterms of November 5, 2058, they regained control of the House. They also achieved a 51-51 split in the Senate, with Republicans retaining control because of Vice President Hernandez's tie-breaker. Rep. Ty Matthews of Iowa became Speaker of the House on January 3, 2059; he was the first openly gay individual to serve in the position.
Although the economy finally began to recover in September 2059, and considerable progress was made against the Islamic Brotherhood, President McAuliffe's popularity did not, hovering at around 46% by January 2060. She clashed with Speaker Matthews over social spending, and was unable to get a second austerity bill through Congress. McAuliffe, nevertheless, decided to run for reelection. In the Republican primaries, however, she was challenged by former U.S. Ambassador to India Patricia Hewes, who was considered a rising star within the Party. Hewes won nearly half of the primaries and caucuses during that primary season, and by the time the RNC convened in July 2060, neither candidate had obtained a majority of the delegates. At the Convention, McAuliffe was able to negotiate a series of compromises with RNC officials, and she ultimately won renomination on the third ballot. She made a series of concessions to Hewes in the party platform, seeking to gain her support. Hewes, however, refused to endorse McAuliffe, and the President's approval ratings remained mediocre. On the other side, the Democrats nominated former Senator and Governor William Rutherford of Colorado. Rutherford selected New Mexico Secretary of State and former Congresswoman Carlotta A. Sanchez as his running mate.
Rutherford, who made pledges to push for a new and ambitious domestic agenda, and who criticized McAuliffe's efforts to harm what he considered the "livelihood of working Americans", seized a comfortable lead in the polls. He campaigned vigorously and capitalized on advantages in fundraising and in party organization. Moreover, in the three presidential debates, Rutherford outran McAuliffe, seeming to voters to be more informed on all of the relevant policy issues. In the election (November 2, 2060), Rutherford won in a landslide, obtaining 55% of the popular vote and carrying thirty-nine of the fifty-one states. Democrats also regained control of the Senate, with Sen. Katherine Smith of Vermont becoming Majority Leader. By the time of Rutherford's inauguration (January 20, 2061), Democrats held 276 seats in the House and 57 seats in the Senate.
Upon entering office, President Rutherford embarked upon an ambitious policy agenda, which would become known as the New Frontier. It addressed a variety of topics, including infrastructure, healthcare, education, the space program, civil liberties, and scientific development, among other fields. The President pushed the Infrastructure Modernization Act and the Telecommunications Reform Act through Congress; both of these measures passed in 2062. The Infrastructure Modernization Act authorized for the diversion of trillions of U.S. dollars, during the next ten years, to expand the nation's high-speed rail system; to improve access to public transportation services; and to sponsor the development of a reliable means of space-to-surface transportation, as well as Earth-Moon and Earth-Mars transport. The Telecommunications Reform Act brought about an extensive overhaul in U.S. regulation and oversight of the communications industry, including regulations on the newer forms such as instantaneous streaming and holographic transmission. The U.S. Space Authority Act (2063), provided for the establishment of the United States Department of Celestial Affairs, which now subsumed NASA and assumed responsibility for all U.S. missions, stations, and efforts in outer space, including those on the Moon. Rutherford, moreover, was to announce plans in 2064 for the establishment of a permanent base on Mars; this followed that of the Neil Armstrong Base on the Moon, which had finally opened in August 2060.
The Universal Healthcare Provision and Security Act (2063), provided for a systematic reorganization of the Department of Health and Human Services, completed the transition from profit-based to single-payer healthcare, and strengthened federal oversight over the pharmaceutical industry. The University and Collegiate Education Act (2066), completed the transition to universal college education throughout the country. Rutherford also pushed through the Scientific Research and Investment Act (2064), the Public Copyright Act (2066), and the Space Exploration Act (2068), all of which greatly extended and promoted U.S. scientific development. Rutherford also pushed through the Mortgage Regulation and Stability Act (2062), taking into account the lessons learned from the housing and inflation crises of the preceding two decades. Rutherford also pushed through the Universal Basic Income Act (2064) and the Citizens' Bill of Rights (2067). The former provided for the final establishment of a baseline UBI for all American citizens; the latter included federal guarantees of universal healthcare, education, welfare, and employment to all, incorporating those found in the UN Charter of Human Rights.
But the most significant domestic policy measure of the Rutherford Administration was the passage of the Comprehensive U.S. Anti-Discrimination and Civil Liberties Act, enacted August 15, 2065. The Act was the most extensive civil rights act passed within the United States since the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act of the 1960s. It included a comprehensive set of prohibitions relating to discrimination based on the grounds of "race, ethnicity, color, creed/religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, sexual identity, moral beliefs, economic standing, military service, political beliefs, appearance, or disability", greatly expanded the authority of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and provided extensive mechanisms for the enforcement of its provisions. In passing this and other measures, Rutherford worked closely with Speaker Matthews and Majority Leader Smith, and, after Matthews' retirement in 2063, with his successor as Speaker, Rep. W.J. Dixon, Jr. of Washington D.C. Dixon was the first African-American Speaker of the House in American history, and considered the passage of the Anti-Discrimination Act to be a landmark achievement.
Rutherford also achieved considerable success in foreign policy. In November 2061, Russian President Valentinov, who had displayed considerable animus towards the West, died, and was succeeded as President by former President Porheshenko's nephew, Vasily Porheshenko. He resumed with his father's policy of negotiation and moderation towards the West, and helped negotiate the Treaty of Taskhent in August 2062, between Pakistan and the Central Asian republics. Porheshenko also met with President Rutherford in Toronto in February 2063, and the two leaders agreed to the signing of the SALT V treaty, providing for the further limitation of nuclear weapons development and for the decommissioning of most classes of battlefield and short-range nuclear missiles. Rutherford also achieved a major breakthrough on the Korean Peninsula, with reunification talks finally culminating in the Tokyo Accords of August 5, 2064, which provided for the gradual reunification of the two Koreas, to be accomplished in stages by 2076. Moreover, the President renegotiated NAFTA with Canada and Mexico (September 2063), conducted a series of interventions in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua to assist the governments of those countries, and in November 2064, settled all remaining outstanding disputes with Iran in the Treaty of Cairo.
As a result of Rutherford's foreign and domestic policy successes, he enjoyed high approval ratings by early 2064, and was renominated in August of that year by acclamation. The Republicans, knowing that Rutherford was virtually guaranteed to win reelection, nominated North Dakota Senator Thomas Leach as a sacrificial lamb. Leach ran with New Hampshire Congressman John Dickenson. As expected, Leach could not keep up with the President, losing soundly to him in the debates and lagging in the polls throughout the campaign. On Election Day (November 4, 2064), Rutherford won in a landslide, carrying 51 of the 52 states (+ D.C.), losing only Leach's home state of North Dakota, and obtaining 66% of the popular vote. Democrats also gained supermajorities in both Houses of Congress, holding 319 seats in the House and 69 seats in the Senate. Rutherford was sworn in to his second term on January 20, 2065.
During his second term, Rutherford began to encounter more difficulty overseas, as well as domestically. There were still a number of successes. In 2065 and 2066, Guam & Wake Island and the Northern Mariana Islands were admitted as the 53rd and 54th states, joining the Virgin Islands, which had been admitted in October 2063. And as mentioned above, the Comprehensive Anti-Discrimination Act was signed into law in August 2065. But in January 2066, China, which despite its transition to democracy continued to remain inherently unstable, entered a new phase of violence following the explosion of the Jintao Nuclear Power Plant. This explosion was followed, in short order, by the outbreak of a revolutionary insurgency in Manchuria and in August 2066, by declarations of independence, issued by nationalists in Tibet and Xinjiang. China once again found itself torn apart by conflict: the Second Chinese Civil War, which was to last until 2070. In Africa, in the meanwhile, the rise to power of Issac Mbungu in Congo-Kinshassa in 2061, was soon followed by the instigation of resource wars between that country and its neighbors, such as Zambia, Malawi, Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. And in 2066-67, the situations in Afghanistan and Iran deteriorated once more, with the rise of new Islamic fundamentalist movements. Each of these challenges, but particularly the outbreak of the Second Civil War in China, caused a global economic downturn, sparking the Recession of 2066-67.
President Rutherford responded vigorously to these challenges, dispatching U.S. naval and marine forces to the South China Sea in January 2067, providing support for the democratic governments in Iran and Afghanistan, and pushing through U.N. resolutions condemning the actions of the Mbungu regime. But his approval ratings eroded, though the economic fallout from the Chinese crisis was mitigated by the expanded welfare state. In the midterms of November 4, 2066, the Republicans gained 48 seats in the House and 12 seats in the Senate, though they failed to take the majority in either chamber. By November 2067, matters in Africa began to stabilize, with the death of Mbungu paving the way for the commencement of negotiations, and in January 2068, President Rutherford was able to announce the end of the New Fundamentalist Rebellions. His approvals, which had dropped as low as 42% (July 2067), recovered, stabilizing at around 60% by the middle of 2068. In July 2068, Vice-President Sanchez won the Democratic nomination. Sanchez chose Louisiana Senator Jessica Crittenden as her running mate. She was opposed in the general election by former RNC Chairwoman and Texas Governor Angela Cartwright, and her running mate, former Energy Secretary Carl Peters. Sanchez, who conducted a more efficient campaign and was able to capitalize on missteps by the Cartwright campaign, ultimately won a narrow victory in November 2068. Democrats also recovered some of their losses in Congress.
But soon after taking the oath of office (January 20, 2069), succeeding Rutherford (who was the last president born in the 20th century), Sanchez found herself confronted with new and worrying crises.
Presidents of the United StatesEdit
42. 1993-2001: Bill Clinton (Democratic-Arkansas)
43. 2001-2009: George W. Bush (Republican-Texas)
44. 2009-2017: Barack Obama (Democratic-Illinois)
45. 2017-2019: Donald J. Trump (Republican-New York)
46. 2019-2025: Mike Pence (Republican-Indiana)
47. 2025-2033: Richard Cordray (Democratic-Ohio)
48. 2033-2037: Julian Castro (Democratic-Texas)
49. 2037-2045: Sarah Kazlowski (Republican-Illinois)
50. 2045-2052: Brandon Boyle (Democratic-Pennsylvania)
51. 2052-2053: Mark Henson (Democratic-Ohio)
52. 2053-2061: Madelaine McAuliffe (Republican-Kansas)
53. 2061-2069: William Rutherford (Democratic-Colorado)
54. 2069-2073: Carlotta Sanchez (Democratic-New Mexico)
55. 2073-2081: Eliza Castle (R-New York)
56. 2081-2085: Christopher Liu (Democratic-Washington)
57. 2085-2093: Robert Kraft (Republican-Texas)
58. 2093-2094: Leslie Stewart (Republican-Minnesota)
59. 2094-2097: Stanley Hernandez (Republican-New Mexico)
60. 2097-2105: David Chancellor (Democratic-Georgia)
Presidential Deaths of the 21st CenturyEdit
- Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)
- Gerald Ford (1913-2006)
- Jimmy Carter (1924-2019)
- George H.W. Bush (1924-2022)
- Donald Trump (1948-2033)
- Bill Clinton (1946-2036)
- Mike Pence (1958-2043)
- Barack Obama (1961-2049)
- Brandon Boyle (1977-2052)
- Richard Cordray (1959-2057)
- Mark Henson (1995-2061)
- Julian Castro (1974-2067)
- Madelaine McAuliffe (1992-2073)
- Carlotta A. Sanchez (2013-2081)
- Sarah Kazlowski (1991-2086)
- William Rutherford (1998-2087)
- Robert M. Kraft (2016-2093)
- Leslie A. Stewart (2031-2094)
- Eliza Castle (2009-2096)
- Christopher Liu (2021-2098)
Speakers of the HouseEdit
59. 1999-2007: Dennis Hastert (Republican-Illinois)
60. 2007-2011: Nancy Pelosi (Democratic-California)
61. 2011-2015: John Boehner (Republican-Ohio)
62. 2015-2019: Paul Ryan (Republican-Wisconsin)
63. 2019-2023: Nancy Pelosi (Democratic-California)
64. 2023-2031: Tim Ryan (Democratic-Ohio)
65. 2031-2033: Seth Moulton (Democratic-Massachusetts)
66. 2033-2034: David Cicilline (Democratic-Rhode Island)
67. 2034-2036: Ben Luján (Democratic-New Mexico)
68. 2036-2041: Pramila Jayapal (Democratic-Washington)
69. 2041-2045: Patrick McHenry (Republican-North Carolina)
70. 2045-2047: Eric Swalwell (Democratic-California)
71. 2047-2049: Elizabeth Schroeder (Republican-New York)
72. 2049-2055: Eric Swalwell (Democratic-California)
73. 2055-2059: Alexander Ferguson (Republican-Maine)
74. 2059-2063: Ty Matthews (Democratic-Iowa)
75. 2063-2075: William Dixon (Democratic-District of Columbia)
76. 2075-2079: Patsy Chuo (Democratic-Hawaii)
77. 2079-2087: Carl Porter (Republican-Alabama)
78. 2087-2091: Joaquin Martinez (Democratic-Puerto Rico)
79. 2091-2095: Michael Sun (Democratic-Oregon)
80. 2095-2097: J. William Axelhoff (Republican-Tennessee)
81. 2097-2103: Emma A. Longwell (Democratic-Colorado)
Majority Leaders of the SenateEdit
1. 1996-2001, 2001: Trent Lott (Republican-Mississippi)
2. 2001, 2001-2003: Tom Daschle (Democratic-South Dakota)
3. 2003-2007: Bill Frist (Republican-Tennessee)
4. 2007-2015: Harry Reid (Democratic-Nevada)
5. 2015-2021: Mitch McConnell (Republican-Kentucky)
6. 2021-2023: John Thune (Republican-South Dakota)
7. 2023-2031: Kristen Gillibrand (Democratic-New York)
8. 2031-2037: Chris Van Hollen (Democratic-Maryland)
9. 2037-2045: Thomas Kean, Jr. (Republican-New Jersey)
10. 2045-2047: Brian Schatz (Democratic-Hawaii)
11. 2047-2049: Robert Harrison (Republican-New Hampshire)
12. 2049-2055: Jon Ossoff (Democratic-Georgia)
13. 2055-2061: Robert Harrison (Republican-New Hampshire)
14. 2061-2071: Katherine Smith (Democratic-Vermont)
15. 2071-2073: Marshall Ricks (Democratic-Georgia)
16. 2073-2075: Noah Howell (Republican-North Dakota)
17. 2075-2079: Terell Hamilton (Democratic-Michigan)
18. 2079-2083: Hunter Donnelly (Republican-Colorado)
19. 2083-2085: Tyler Sampson (Republican-Oregon)
20. 2085-2087: Louisa Taylor (Republican-Connecticut)
21. 2087-2089: Jessica P. Spencer (Democratic-Arizona)
22. 2089-2095: D.W. Hinds (Republican-Nebraska)
23. 2095-2097: Harrison McCloskey (Republican-Wisconsin)
24. 2097-2104: Sebastian Shaw (Democratic-West Virginia)
Chief Justices of the United States Supreme CourtEdit
16. 1986-2005: William H. Rehnquist
17. 2005-2033: John G. Roberts, Jr.
18. 2033-2055: Stephanie Rowe
19. 2055-2066: Philip A. Wagner, Sr.
20. 2066-2071: Joaquin S. Martinez
21. 2071-2096: Tyrone H. Williams, Jr.
22. 2096-2107: Jackson H. Spielvogel
Deans of the U.S. House of RepresentativesEdit
1. 1995-2015: John Dingell (Democratic-Michigan) 1955
2. 2015-2017: John Conyers (Democratic-Michigan) 1965
3. 2017-2022: Don Young (Republican-Alaska) 1973
4. 2022-2025: James Sensenbrenner (Republican-Wisconsin) 1979
5. 2025-2031: Christopher Smith (Republican-New Jersey) 1981
6. 2031-2034: Fred Upton (Republican-Michigan) 1987
7. 2034-2035: Ken Calvert (Republican-California) 1993
8. 2035-2039: Ron Kind (Democratic-Wisconsin) 1997
9. 2039-2045: Sam Graves (Republican-Missouri) 2001
10. 2045-2049: Brian Higgins (Democratic-New York) 2005 (first Dean elected in the 21st century)
11. 2049-2055: Adam Kinzinger (Republican-Illinois) 2011
12. 2055-2062: Joseph P. Kennedy III (Democratic-Massachusetts) 2013
13. 2062-2065: Lee M. Zeldin (Republican-New York) 2015 (last Dean to have served during the Obama Administration)
14. 2065-2068: George R. Cremlin (Republican-Kansas) 2021
15. 2068-2071: Christy A. Pearson (Republican-New Hampshire) 2027 (First woman to become Dean)
16. 2071-2075: William J. Dixon, Jr. (Democratic-Washington D.C.) Speaker of the House 2063-75, 2033
17. 2075-2076: Mark Chuo (Democratic-California) 2035
18. 2076-2079: Philip D. Passer, Jr. (Democratic-Montana) 2039
19. 2079-2087: Richard C. Vixon (Democratic-Virginia) 2041
20. 2087-2095: Charles A. Nicholson (Democratic-Texas) 2045
21. 2095-2096: Liam Holmes (Republican-Idaho) 2053
22. 2096-2099: Sarah De Valle (Republican-Nebraska) 2057
23. 2099-2108: Todd Herald (Republican-Colorado) 2061
42. 1993-2001: Hillary Clinton +
43. 2001-2009: Laura Bush
44. 2009-2017: Michelle Obama ++
45. 2017-2019: Melania Trump +++
46. 2019-2025: Karen Pence
47. 2025-2033: Peggy Cordray
48. 2033-2037: Erica Castro ++++
49. 2037-2045: George Kazlowski +++++
50. 2045-2052: Jennifer Boyle
51. 2052-2053: Samantha Henson
52. 2053-2061: Douglas McAuliffe
53. 2061-2069: Julianne Rutherford
54. 2069-2073: Edward Sanchez
55. 2073-2081: Sebastian Castle
56. 2081-2085: Cassandra Liu +++++++
57. 2085-2093: Olivia Kraft +++++++
58. 2093-2094: Grayson Stewart
59. 2094-2097: Emily Hernandez
60. 2097-2105: Nikki Chancellor
+-First presidential spouse to hold an elected office in the United States in her own right (U.S. Senator from New York, 2001-09) and first to become a member of the Cabinet of the United States (Secretary of State 2009-13).
++-First African-American First Lady.
+++-First foreign-born First Lady since Louisa Adams.
++++-First Hispanic First Lady.
+++++-George Kazlowski was the first "First Gentleman" of the United States.
++++++-First Asian First Lady.
+++++++-Robert M. Kraft was the first widower in office since Woodrow Wilson. His wife, Annaliese Kraft, whom he married in 2043, died in a plane accident in 2081, three years prior to his election to the Presidency. Kraft never remarried after her death. His niece, Olivia Kraft, fulfilled the duties of White House hostess during his administration.
Deaths of Presidential SpousesEdit
36. Lady Bird Johnson (1912-2007)
38. Betty Ford (1918-2011)
40. Nancy Reagan (1921-2016)
39. Rosalynn Carter (1927-2021)
41. Barbara Bush (1925-2021)
42. Hillary Clinton (1947-2022)
43. Laura Bush (1946-2037)
46. Karen Pence (1957-2045)
45. Melania Trump (1970-2051)
44. Michelle Obama (1964-2055)
50. Jennifer Boyle (1979-2059)
47. Peggy Cordray (1961-2062)
48. Erica Castro (1973-2064)
52. Douglas McAuliffe (1983-2067)
51. Samantha Henson (1991-2076)
49. George Kazlowski (1987-2081)
54. Edward Sanchez (2003-2086)
53. Julianne Rutherford (1999-2088)
55. Sebastian Castle (2000-2091)
56. Cassandra Liu (2018-2097)
Alive at the end of the century: Olivia Kraft (2047-2149), Grayson Stewart (2028-2109), Emily Hernandez (2055-2148), and Nikki Chancellor (2049-2141).