Peruvian Revolution PrologueEdit
In 1532, the Incan tribe occupying Peru, t6euiioperoiufell to the Spanish, after the execution of their ruler. Starting in around the 17th century, Peru began experiencing difficulties, leading to years of subservience under Spanish rule. Throughout these years there was an increasing contraband trade with non-Spanish merchants, pirate related attacks, and the growth of venality among government officials which all reflected Spain's inability to keep in control of their power. One of the more important factors in the decline was Peru's mass production of precious metals. Precious metals were a major source of income for Spain. For this reason, Peru was the most valuable of all the colonies and unfortunately for the Spaniards, the most difficult to govern. Around 1781, Spanish colonies all over the Americas began to rebel against the Spanish rule. These revolutions are what eventually inspired Peruvians to revolutionary action. Although communication was made difficult between Spain and Peru due to Peru's challenging terrain, Spanish agents were appointed to protect the interests of both crown and Indian in the Indian communities. However, in fear that Tupac Amaru and the few other remaining free Native leaders in Cuzco might prove dangerous to Spanish authority, Toledo ordered Spanish troops to invade the area and capture Tupac Amaru. This led to Amaru's beheading in Cuzco in 1572, Amaru had beforehand lead a massive resistance against Spain. This proved to be significant to the ultimate freedom of natives; however, it was unsuccessful. Although in a small scale, Amaru's movements may seem insignificant, it sparks revolts not only in and around Peru, but all over South America as well. After hearing about other countries rebelling against the Spanish Simon Bolivar came in to help the people and gain Peru the independence it deserved. The Spanish based government was increasing taxes on the Peruvian people, reorganizing government positions, and the taking the Creoles, Spanish born people of European descent, out of high positions. As a result, people were not treated as fairly as they should have been. Therefore this injustice lead the people into a rebellion. With the help from José de San Martin and Simon Bolivar, the people of Peru were able to take what they had discovered from previous revolutions and use it to gain their own independence. With freedom from in mind, Independence for Peru was declared by San Martin on the 28th of July, 1821.
Anatomy of a Revolution in Comparison (Crane Brinton) Edit
Conditions Which Seem to Be Present as Causes of Major Revolutions
- People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government.
- The Peruvian people were discontent because Creoles were being kicked out of the high government positions, making it hard for them to get what they wanted rather than what the Spanish wanted.
The Course of the Revolution
- Impossible demands are made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.
- San Martin tried to bargian with Spanish in order to set up a Constitutional Monarchy, but was refused because the Spaniards decided that this would be giving to much independence to Peru. Therefore, upon winning independence, San Martin discarded the original governement and molded Peru into a republic with a congress.
1780- Tupac Amaru II lead a rebellion was against the Spanish but it failed
1817- General San Martin began developing Chilean navy in order to help Peru claim independence.
1819 -Peru's movement toward independence was launched by an uprising of Spanish-American landowners and their forces, which was led by José de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela
1821- Independence was proclaimed July 28 when General San Martin took control of Lima.
1824- Peru completely defeats Spain and becomes the last country to gain independence.
1836-1839- Peru and Bolivia join together into a short lived confederation.
1845-1851, 1855-1862- Ramón Castilla, of Bolívar's marshals, led the nation to stability during his two terms of office.
1860-During Castilla's administrations, slavery was abolished, a new liberal constitution was adopted and construction of railroads began.
1866-One year after Castilla's second term ended, Peru became engaged in a naval battle with Spain after the European power seized the guano-rich Chincha Islands. With the help of Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile, Peru defeated Spain and forced the Spanish to acknowledge its independence
1872-Peru's first civilian president, Manuel Pardo, came to power.
1879- After Lima signed a secret defense alliance with Bolivia, it became involved in a war between Chile and Bolivia.
1879- The country became involved in a war between Bolivia and Chile after Lima signed a secret defense alliance with Bolivia.
1894- José Nicolás de Piérola overthrew the increasingly dictator Cáceres. Who had gained the presidency after having placed Colonel Remigio Morales Bermúdez in power in 1890.
1895-The Aristocratic Republic began with the popular "Revolution of 1895," led by the charismatic and irrepressible José Nicolás de Piérola
Key Battles and EventsEdit
The wars of the Peruvian independence started in 1808 with the Battle of Baylen. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula and lead his army into victory. On February 3, 1813, the Mounted Grenadiers fought and were won the first battle against the Spanish. In the gully of San Lorenzo also they arrived by sailing on ships from the port of Montevideo. San Martin then gained control over the North Army in January of 1814. San Martin wanted to cross the Andes to get into Chile. However, the government of Buenos Aires needed to approve first.They eventually did in January of 1817 when the crossing of the army began. There were around 4,000 men and enough cavalry, artillery, and provisions for a month. In 1818 they were still walking, they were getting closer to the capital of Chile, and on March 19th they attacked in the middle of the night and lost. Due to the severe loss in troops, San Martin rounded up a new Chilean army to go fight. After sailing to Peru, the Chilean army declared freedom in 1821 upon the capture of Lima on July 28th. However, the Peruvian's were not truely free until the 9th of December 1824, at the Battle of Ayacucho. This took place in Pampa de la Quinta near Ayacucho Peru. The battle was between the Royalists and the Independents (Peru). The independents were lead by Antonio Jose de Sucre. Although many were wounded, this was the end of the fighting and marked their well earned independence.
After the war for independence was over, not everything went according to plan. The Peruvian rebels thought that after independence was won things would get better. However, this assumption was not completely correct. Mainly, there was a lot of battling for political power as the new system of government was processing. While under the dictatorship of Bolivar, government did remain somewhat stable during the massive transition of powers. However, they were still on the decline economically as powers shifted. Peru was no longer the main economic interest of Spain therefore, unpaid labor was abolished. All major figures agreed that a strong hand should take charge, but there was no clear-cut decision as to who was best fit for the task of reforming the government and economy for the benefit of all people, native and Spanish. As the economic and political aspects of Peru were changing, the native population increased. Unfortunately, the revolution was unable to stop the rebellions in the country side. After the revolution was over, the Spanish were not done with Peru. In 1826 they came back into Peru and tried to fight against the new form of government, a republic. Although the Peruvian revolution was not always the greatest success it did allow Peru freedom from Spain’s rule, and the ability to make their own form of government.