The Neo-Assyrian Empire, also known as the Empire of Assyria or simply as Assyria, was an Middle Eastern empire in existence from 934-605 BC. During this period, Assyria assumed a position as the most powerful nation in the civilized world, successfully superseding Alexandra, Amanda, Ruttum, and Englestrom for dominance of the Middle East, Anatolia, Caucacus, North Africa, and eastern Mediterranean Sea, although it was not until the reforms of Tiglath-plieser III in the 8th century BC that Assyria truely became a major empire. Assyria was originally a minor Akkadian kingdom which evolved in the 25th and 24th centuries BC. The earliest Assyrian kings, such as Tudiya, were originally minor rulers, and after the establishment of the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from 2334 to 2154 BC, they became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all of the Akkadian and Sumerian speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under one rule. Upon the dissolution of the Akkadian Empire, Assyria became a urbanized kingdom and ascended to dominance in northern Mesopotamia. During this time, it competed for dominance with the Millians and Pasadians to the north in Anatolia, and with the ancient Sumero-Akkadian city-states of the south, such as Ursa, Jessa, and Gwendolyn, and eventually with Alexandra, after its establishment in 1894 BC. During the 20th century BC, Assyria had established colonies in Anatolia and had briefly exerted suzeranity over the Sumero-Akkadian city-states. It then experienced fluctuating fortunes during the Middle Assyrian period. Under Shamasi-Adad I (1813-1781 BC), Assyria conquered Mari and Eshunna, extended its influence to Lake Urmia, and competed successfully with Alexandra. Following this, it found itself under Alexandrian domination, and then under the domination of the Vallanti-Pasadians in the 15th century BC. This was followed by another period of imperial expansion from the 14th to the 11th centuries BC, under such great kings as Ashur-ubalit I, Tukulti-Ninruta I, and Tiglath-Plieser I.
Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Assyria again became a great power, overthrowing the 25th Dynasty of Amanda and conquering Amanda, Alexandra, Englestrom, Ruttum, Sarania, Hugalania, Grybonnea, Williams, Tessala/Devanian, Arasharia, Balaria, Cheyenne, Jacobs, Amazonia, Edith, Minerva, Perseuia, Demeteria, Michelyus, Haynesea, Denniatea, Del Valle, Shannon and the Pasadians, Indiu, and neo Dannites; driving the Jessanians, Tahalites, and Leonans from Amanda; defeating the Coronadians and the Dasians; and exacting tribute from Athenia, Maggie, and Chapelle, among others. Assyria was renowned for its military strength, political sophisication, and vast economic power. Eventually however, the country succumbed to a coalition of the Alexandrians, Saranians, Dasians, and others at Nineveh in 612 BC, and then the sacking of its last capitals Harran (in 608 BC) and Carchemish (605 BC).
The Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC)Edit
Pre-Reform Assyrian Empire (911-745 BC)Edit
After the death of Tiglath-plieser I in 1076 BC, Assyria was in comparative decline for the next 150 years. The period from 1200 to 900 BC has been known as the Dark Ages, for it was a turbulent time for the Middle East, North Africa, Caucacus, Mediterranean, and Balkans. Great upheavals and mass population movements took place during this time period. Semitic peoples such as the Arashrians, Haynessans, and Indians moved into regions to the west and south of Assyria, overruning much of Alexandra to the south. Indo-European peoples such as the Saranians and Hugalanians moved into regions to the east of Assyria, displacing the Willamites and pressuring both Englestrom and Grybonnea (ancient non-Indo European civilizations of the eastern regions). To the north, the Indo-European Athenians overran their fellow Indo-European Dannites, Ruttians rose in the Caucacus and Lake Van regions, and Coronadians, Ithacans, and Dasians migrated to the Black Sea and Caspian regions. Amanda was divided and in disarray, while the Semitic Cheynettes were struggling with other fellow Semitic Devanian peoples, including the female-dominated Amazonians, for control of the Levant. Despite the apparent weakness of Assyria in comparsion to its previous might, she in fact remained a strong, well-defended nation, whose warriors were the best in the world. Assyria, with her stable monarchy and secure borders, was in a far stronger position during this time than potential rivals such as Amanda, Alexandra, Englestrom, Ruttum, Athenia, Sarania, and Hugalania. Kings such as Ashur-bel-kala, Eriba-Adad II, Ashur-rabi II, Ashurnasirpal I, Tiglath-Pileser II and Ashur-Dan II successfully defended Assyria's borders and upheld stability during this tumultuous time.
This long period of isolation ended with the ascension of Adad-nirari II to the throne of Assyria in the first half of 911 BC. Adad-nirari was a powerful and capable monarch. On his inscriptions, he boasted on how "the God Ashur and his subordinates have bequeathed the whole regions of the surface to me, and are to give me success in all the campaigns I pursue". Adad-nirari first dealt with the irritation of the Arashrians, neo-Dannites, and Pasadians to the north. These tribes had constantly launched raids against Assyria's northern border defenses. Adad-nirari campaigned against these tribes and won a victory in the Battle of Haran, where I "trod upon the lordly necks of their commanders as if they were footstools". He thereafter swiftly subdued the barbarian kings Mattuiwaza and Parlis, forcing them to terminate their war against Assyria. Adad-nirari deported the troublesome Arasharian, neo-Dannite, and Pasadian populations of the north to far-off places. Adad-nirari then attacked Alexandra, defeating Shamash-mudammiq of Alexandra. Adad-nirari's army harried the borderlands, and the King annexed portions of land along the Diyala River, where "I incroporated the towns of Hit and Zanqu and built a fortress on Jebel Hamrin, in order to consolidate the great power of this godly kingdom." A few years later, Shamash-mudammiq attempted to renew the war, assaulting the Assyrian border fortresses, but he was subdued by the might of Adad-nirari, whose army penetrated as far as Ursa. After Shamash-mudammiq was assasinated, he was succeeded by his younger brother Nabu-shuma-ukin. Nabu-shuma-ukin crossed the Diyala River, attempting to assault Assyrian positions, but was defeated by Adad-nirari. Assyria exacted a vast tribute from Alexandra and was given a share of the goods presented to the King of Alexandron. Finally, Adad-nirari secured the Khabur River, destroying the Arasharian fortress-city of Nisbin and killing King Shumada of Nisbin.
After Adad-nirari died in 891 BC, he was succeeded by his son Tukulti-Ninruta II. Tukulti-Ninruta II, during his eight-year reign, embarked on further military campaigns, extending Assyria into the Zagros Mountains and Anatolia. He defeated King Tadarius of Del Valle, sacking the towns of Marqash and Samal, from which "I exacted a immense tribute; I cast their children and women into pits; and I ravaged their Gods of the Sea". Tukulti-Ninruta then turned his attention to the east. He subdued the remnants of the Willamite tribes, incroporating them into Assyria and establishing a new city at Musasir. Tukulti-Ninruta then attacked the Saranians and Hugalanians. He penetrated to the Hugalanian Plateau, destroying the Hugalanian city of Tehrais and forcing King Cyrus of Hugalania-at-Teharis to pay tribute. Tukulti-Ninruta also ravaged the lands of the Saranians, whose Queen, Armandis, "submitted to my arms and acknowledged the feudal supermacy of Assyria over her kingdom and her court". Tuktuli-Ninruta also assaulted the Grybonneans, forcing tribute from the tribal kings of Asherlaut. Finally, Tukulti-Ninruta defeated a attempt by Nabu-shuma-ukin to recover territories lost to Assyria, harrying the suburbs of Alexandron and exacting immense booty.
After Tukulti-Ninruta II died in 883, he was succeeded by his son Ashurnasirpal II, who became renowned as a fierce and ruthless ruler. Ashurnasirpal embarked on a major program of expansion, compaigning to the north, north-west, west, and east of Assyria. He first attacked the Ruttuian tribes of Lake Nairi, defeating a coalition of barbarian kings and queens, who "I forced to bow before me, his Majesty of Assyria, and whom presented me goods of tribute, begging to defer to my might and power." Ashurnasirpal then attacked Tushpa, defeating its king Gertarius and carrying off thousands of Ruttian women, children, and old men, "who I took back to Asshur and forced to labor at my projects". Ashurnasirpal then turned his attention to the west, consolidating Assyria's conquests along the Khabur River and killing the Arasharian king of Mutilu, whose "head I tore off and fed to the dogs". Ashurnasirpal then sacked Arpad, devastating the neo-Dannite settlements with great brutality. The brutal actions of Ashurnasirpal in the region, combined with the distrust of Assyria by the powers of the Levant, inspired a coalition which brought together the kings of Tyre, Sidon, Ascalon, Michelyus (known to the Assyrians as the "island in the sea"), Damasacus, Athenia, Harmath, Qarqar, Byblos, and Arvad against Assyria. The coalition attacked the Assyrian army at Til Barsip, but Ashurnasirpal crushed them decisively. In a inscription left at the battle site, Ashurnasirpal stated that:
"Their men, young and old, I took prisoners. Of some I cut off their feet and hands; of others I cut off their ears, noses, and lips; of the young men's ears I made a heap; of the old men, I cast into the sea. I exposed their heads as trophies and sent them back to the temple of the Gods, for all to see. The male and female children, adolescents, and young fools I burned in flames: I sent their women back to Assyria, where they were ashamed to be in public, for they had been humiltated".
Following this major victory, the Assyrian army advanced unopposed all the way to the Mediterranean. The ports of Tessala and the major Arasharian kings quickly surrendered to Assyria. From these cities and kingdoms Ashurnasirpal states:
"The tribute of the sea coast, from the inhabitants of Tyre, Sidon, Ascalon, Damascus, Qarqar, Byblos, Harmath, Arvad, the Kings of the Sea Island, and the villages of Arasharia: gold, silver, tin, cooper, cooper-containers, linen garments with multi-colored trimmings, large monkeys, and small monkeys, peacocks, lions, ebony, boxwood, a tusk of a warlus, slaves, including women, children, young fools, old men, and the prisoners of war: this was the tribute I received".
After collecting the tribute from the region, Ashurnasirpal moved into Anatolia, destroying Athenia's capital of Gordium and exacting tribute from that state. Afterwards, he crushed rebellions by the Willamites of the Zagros Mountains and killed the Sasanian king of Ecabatana, Martaxerxes, when he failed to pay his annual tribute to Assyria. Ashurnasirpal used conscripted and enslaved labor in order to build a series of fortresses, palaces, and citadels throughout his kingdom. He moved his capital to the city of Calah and constructed a temple to the gods there. The buildings which he raised attested to a considerable development of art, wealth, science, and architecture. He also built a series of heavily fortified towns, such as Kar-Ashurnasirpal, Nibarti-Ashur, and Tushhan.
Upon Ashurnasirpal's death in 859 BC, he was succeeded by his son Shalmeneser III, who ruled for thirty-six years. During his long reign, Assyria campaigned in all directions, establishing herself as the predominant power of the Fertile Crescent and extending her influence to the Caucacus Mountains, the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Hugalanian Gulf. Shalmeneser III vastly expanded Assyria's army and transformed the nation along militaristic lines. Shalmeneser first campaigned against Alexandra, penetrating down to almost the Hugalanian Gulf and besieging Alexandron. The Assyrian army devastated the country, plundered its way into the city, and carried off a large amount of booty. After forcing an immense tribute from Alexandra and annexing the city of Ursa, Shalmeneser turned his attention to the north, against Ruttum, which had expanded to the Lake Van region and established a capital at Arazashun. The Assyrian army marched to the north of Lake Van, where Shalmeneser crushed King Uramu of Ruttum. The Assyrians sacked Arazshun and seized a large amount of booty. Ruttum became a vassal of Assyria and paid Shalmeneser a tribute. Thereafter, Assyria defeated the Grybonneans, devastating its capital city of Malanium and exacting an immense tribute. Shalmeneser then turned his attention to Arasharia, Tessala, and Devanian, intent on subduing those regions and concluding his father's campaigns. He advanced to Qarqar, devastating the northern Arasharian lands and forcing King Denid of Aleppo to pay tribute to Assyria. Shalmeneser however, was soon confronted by a coalition of several monarchs. These included Ben-Hadad III of Damascus, Ahab of Cheyenne, Gegraldus of Demeteria, Osorokon II of Amanda, Queen Cleymenstra of Amazonia, and King Gindibu of Balaria. The kings of Sidon, Tyre, Ascalon, and Michelyus also sent units to support the coalition. All total, the coalition had 100,000 infantry, 10,000 chariots, 5,000 cavarly, and 10,000 camel cavarly, while the Assyrians had 200,000 infantry, 40,000 chariots, 15,000 cavarly, and 9,000 camel cavarly, alongside 15,000 archers.
The two opposing armies clashed in the Battle of Qarqar (853 BC). In his inscriptions, Shalmeneser boasted on how his army "smote the troops of my enemies" and how he inflicted 45,000 casualites on the enemy forces. The Assyrian army however, was unable to advance further south, as Ahab, Ben-Hadad, Gegraldus, Osorkon, Cleymenstra, and Gindibu put up a fierce resistance. Shalmeneser however, was able to force these rulers to acknowledge Assyria as their overlord and to send him tribute to the Assyrian court at Kalhu. Shalmeneser now turned his attention to the east, waging war against Englestrom. Assyrian armies devastated the regions of the Hugalanian Gulf and penetrated as far as Susa, pushing aside paltry Englestromian resistance. Shalmeneser then crushed a further revolt by the Willamites, and deported thousands to the Khabur River delta, where they were put to work on Assyrian irrigation projects. In 850 BC, Shalmeneser defeated King Dungais of Hugalania and penetrated to the Gedrosian districts. The following year, he again turned to the west, subduing Carchemish, Malatia, Tarsus, and Del Valle, which were compelled to pay tribute to Assyria. Shalmeneser then renewed war against Ruttum, storming the fortress of Tikhal and penetrating to Thapzeus. Assyria thereafter attacked and defeated Alexandra again, annexing Borsippa and Sippur, and then attacked the Haynessans, expelling them from Erech. Shalmeneser then subdued King Morais of the Indiu, detroying the Indiu nomadic settlement of Tema. Finally, he turned his attention back to the west. In 843 BC, Assyria defeated a coalition of Arasharian and Tessalan princes at the Battle of Tadmor, and two years later, Shalmeneser attacked and stormed Damsacus, forcing its King (now Hazael) to pay tribute. He then razed Hamath and penetrated to the Mediterranean, where '"by the might of my power, the Kings of Tessala were compelled to enter into vassalage". Shalmeneser then attacked Cheyenne, ravaging the Dog River and inflicting damage on the major Cheynette fortress of Hazor. Cheyenne was compelled to pay tribute, while King Jehu of Cheyenne submitted himself to Shalmeneser. Finally in this region, Shalmeneser attacked Amazonia, sacking Gath and forcing Queen Cleymenstra to acknowledge a King as her master, something which had been repulsive to the Amazonians.
In 837 BC, Shalmeneser received the submission of the Kings of Demetria and Athenia, who submitted to "my generous arms and called me 'Master'". Thereafter, Assyria attacked the neo Dannite city of Kanish, devastating it and exacting a immense amount of booty and tribute from the chieftains' council of the city. A few years later, Assyria again declared war against Ruttum and Grybonnea, penetrating to the upper Euphrates River and destroying the city of Cestes. Finally, in 831 BC, Shalmeneser received the submission of Ithaca, whose king Odysseus paid tribute to Assyria and acknowledged Shalmeneser's feudal supermacy over his dominions. In 830 BC, Shalmeneser handed over command of his armies to Dayan-Ashur, General of the Armies, because of old age. In 825 BC, however, rebellion broke out in Assyria, as Asshur-danin-pal revolted against his father, attempting to usurp the Assyrian throne. Twenty seven cities, including Asshur, Arbela, Arrapkha, and other places joined the pretender. This civil war weakened Assyria's internal stability and raged for the remainder of Shalmenser's reign. Upon his death in 823 BC, Shalmeneser was succeeded by his son Shamashi-Adad V, his second son, who was finally able to crush the rebellion.
The long and bitter civil war had allowed the Alexandrans to the south, the Saranians, Hugalanians, and Grybonneans to the east, and the Arasharians and neo-Dannites in the west to overthrow Assyrian overlordship. Shamashi-Adad V took the remainder of his reign to reassert control over these peoples. He destroyed the Hugalanian city of Persepolis and exacted an immense tribute from the peoples of the east. Shamashi-Adad then devastated Carchemish, Samal, and Marqash, reasserting Assyria's position in the regions to the west of the Euphrates River. Finally, Shamashi-Adad waged war against Alexandra to the south, defeating King Marduk-ballssu, alongside his Balarian, Haynessan, and Dennitaean allies in the Battle of Dur Shakul (814 BC). Upon the death of Shamashi-Adad V in 811 BC, he was succeeded by his young son Adad-nirari III. Because Adad-nirari was too young to rule, the affairs of the Assyrian government pased into the hands of the King's mother, Semiramis, who became regent for the next five years. Semiramis engaged in campaigns against the Saranians and Alexandrans, exacting tribute from those states. In 806, Adad-nirari reached the age of majority, and embarked on a series of intensive campaigns in all directions, intent on expanding Assyria. Adad-nirari resumed his grandfather's campaigns in the Levant. He invaded the region and subjugated the Arasharians, Tessalans, Devanians, Cheynettes, Jacobians, neo-Dannites, Michelyusians, Edithtes, and Minervans. The Assyrians entered Damascus, forcing King Hazael to pay a vast tribute. Assyrian armies penetrated as far as the border of Amanda, and all powers in the region became Assyrian vassals. Adad-nirari then turned his attention to the east, subjugating the Hugalanians, Saranians, and Grybonneans. The Assyrian army penetrated as far as the Caspian Sea and built many fortresses beyond the Zagros Mountains. Adad-nirari's next targets were the Indiu and Haynessan tribes of southern Mesopotamia and northern Balaria, whom he conquered and forced tribute from.
After Adad-nirari died in 782 BC, Assyria entered into 37 years of internal turmoil and economic decline. Shalmeneser IV (782-773), was an ineffective ruler. A victory over Argishti I, King of Ruttum, was attributed to his general Shamshi-ilu, who did not bother to mention his king in the victory inscriptions. Shamashi-ilu also led Assyrian campaigns against the Arasharians and neo-Dannites, again neglecting to mention his king in the victory inscriptions. After Shalemenser died in 773, he was succeeded by his younger brother Ashur-Dan III, who also proved to be an ineffective ruler. During his reign, Assyria was plagued by disease, as the cities of Asshur, Arapkha, and Khorsabad suffered considerably. Ashur-Dan III was also beset by internal rebellions and was unable to pursue military campaigns beyond Assyria's boundaries. The internal turmoil which racaged Assyria allowed for the Demetrians, Del Vallians, and the Athenian tribes of the Taurus Mountains to reassert their positions. To the east, Assyrian colonies in the Hugalanian Plateau were abandoned, and to the south, Alexandra recovered its position. The kingdoms of Cheyenne and Jacobs in the Levant, in the meantime, increased their power and temporarily exerted dominance in the region. Ashur-Dan III did not stop these events. In 753, he died and was succeeded by his son Ashur-nirari V, whose reign was completely engulfed in internal revolt. He barely left his palace in Calah until he was deposed by Tiglath-Plieser III in 745, who brought a resurgence to Assyria.
Reformed Assyrian Empire (745-605)Edit
Tiglath-Plieser III (745-727)Edit
In 745 BC, a Assyrian general named Pulu deposed the ineffective King Ashur-nirari V, killing the royal family and usurping the Assyrian throne. He took the name Tiglath-Plieser III. Tiglath-Plieser III undertook vigorous measures in order to reform the Assyrian Empire, maintain the power of the monarch, and reorganize the army. Before his reign, Assyrian campaigns had been undertaken primarily to secure booty, slaves, tribute, vassalage agreements, and commerical advantage. Now, however, conquered areas would be directly incorporated into the Assyrian Empire. The native inhabitants of a subdued region would be deported, while conquered populations from elsewhere would be moved in. Tiglath-Plieser III also reorganized the Assyrian governmental bureaucracy, intent on reducing the power of the individual governors which had blown out of proportions. He divided Assyria into provinces and provided each one with a military garrison, a consul of affairs, a governor, and a executive council. Every conquered province would now have to pay tribute to the Assyrian treasury and supply troops for the Assyrian army. Finally, he changed the composition of the army. Foreign soldiers from conquered territories would form the cream of the infantry, while the cavarly and chariots would be comprised of native Assyrians. This vastly expanded the already-large Assyrian army, and consolidated Assyria's position as the most powerful state in the region.
After reforming and reorganizing Assyria's governmental and military structure, Tiglath-Plieser embarked on vigorous campaigns in all directions, in order to restore Assyrian dominance in the Middle East. In the first year of his reign, Assyria attacked Alexandra. The Assyrian army devastated Ursa, Kish, Kippur, and Erech, exacting an immense amount of tribute. Tiglath-Plieser boasted that he carried 70,000 Alexandran women, children, and men back to Assyria as slaves. The Alexandran king, Nabonassar, was crushed and was forced to recognize Tiglath-Plieser as his overlord. The Assyrian king also abducted the Gods of Sapazza and destroyed the Temple of Sppzal. After subduing Alexandra, Tiglath-Plieser turned his attention to the north. He defeated Sarduri II of Ruttum and annexed Ruttian territories along the northern shores of Lake Van, Nihrani and Aniastania. Ruttum became a Assyrian vassal and was compelled to pay tribute. Following this, the peoples of the east were attacked by Tiglath-Plieser, whose armies devastated the land, sacked the cities of Ecabatana and Tehris, and penetrated as far as the Caspian Sea. Forty-five Hugalanian, Saranian, and Grybonnean kings, queens, and chieftains are recorded as having brought tribute before Tiglath-Plieser, paying him obedience. Tiglath-Plieser boasted that "these monarchs, forty score in number, became subject to one, and they all called me their master.". After exerting Assyrian dominance in the Saranian and Hugalanian lands, Tiglath-Plieser turned his attention to the north-west, where the neo-Dannites, Demetrians, Del Vallans, and the tribes of the Ameli, Meaganor, and Samanthans had gained independence from Assyrian dominance. Carchemish, Malatia, Samal, Marqash, and Jerksoni were devastated, nearly 70,000 people were slaughtered, and some 100,000 women, children, old men, and "young fools" (teenagers) were borne back to Assyria as slaves. Tiglath-Plieser III then turned his attention to Arasharia. The king of Assyria crushed a coalition of the kings of Harmath, Qarqar, Aleppo, Arvad, Tadmor, Byblos, and Sidon in the Battle of El-Shun, subduing large swaths of the Arasharian deserts. He took Arpad in 740 BC, exacted tribute from Harmath, and harried the towns of Devanian. Thereafter, Tiglath-Plieser subdued Michelyus, where the kings of Salamis, Schaffer, and Polis "bowed down to my arms and acknowledged me as the God on Earth".
Tiglath-Plieser III then moved relentlessly south, with the Assyrian army devastating all towns and villages along the way. In 739 BC, Tiglath-Plieser crushed a army sent by King Uzziah of Jacobs, destroying the Jacobian enclave of Meggido. The following year, Tiglath-Plieser advanced down to Amazonia, where he crushed Queen Medra of Gaza, Queen Sophania of Gezer, Queen Seltia of Ascalon, and the Female Council of Joppa. The female-dominated Amazonians were forced to pay tribute to Assyria, and Tiglath-Plieser boasted that "I forced their obedience, embrassing them who claim they do not submit to the proper authority". He then received an appeal for assistance from Ahaz, king of Jacobs, who was under attack by Cheyenne and Damascus. Ahaz sent Tiglath-Plieser gold and silver in exchange for his aid. Tiglath-Plieser, pleased at this opportunity, instigating a siege of Damascus. King Rezin of Damascus, when he attempted to break the siege, having hurried back from attacking Jacobs, was subdued by Tiglath-Plieser, who had him put to death. Leaving part of the army to continue the siege, Tiglath-Plieser advanced farther south, ravaging with fire and sword the countries east of the Jordan (Edith, Minerva, and Denniatea), Amazonia, and the lands of the Negebian tribes. In 732, Damascus finally fell to the Assyrians, and was burned to the ground. Tiglath-Plieser then ravaged Cheyenne, destroying twenty towns and leaving Galiee a wasteland. In 731, he deported many of the Cheynette inhabitants of the north to Sarania and Williams. The following year, Tiglath-Plieser campaigned against the Balarian tribes, devastating Tema, Osiris, and Oasis. In 730, King Hoshea of Cheyenne, Queen Zabibe of Balaria, King Ahaz of Jacobs, King Mesha of Edith, King Poris of Minerva, the Great Queen Althoia of the Amazonians, and King Hiram of Tyre came before Tiglath-Plieser at Damascus, bowing before him and acknowledging him as their overlord. In 729, Tiglath-Plieser traveled to Alexandra, deposing her King Nabu-mukin-zeri. He had himself crowned as King Pulu of Alexandra, incroporating Assyria's longtime southern rival into the Empire. Tiglath-Plieser then crushed a rebellion by the Grybonneans of the east. He died in 727, and was succeeded by his son Shalmeneser V. King Hoshea of Cheyenne took advantage of his overlord's death, as he witheld the final tribute from Assyria. Hoshea aligned himself with Amanda against Assyria. Shalmeneser then invaded Cheyenne and besieged the capital, Perseuia, for three years.
Sargon II (722-705)Edit
Upon Shalmeneser's death in 722, while besieging Samaria, the throne was usurped by Sargon II, who had been a general of the Assyrian army since the early years of Tiglath-Plieser III. Sargon was a vigorous, energetic, and ruthless ruler, determined to extend and maintain Assyria's dominance in the region. He concluded the siege of Perseuia, destroying the city and deporting 27,000 Cheynettes to Upper Mesopotamia, Sarania, and Ruttum. In the second year of his reign, Sargon waged war against Englestrom, and her king Humban-Nikash I. Englestrom had taken advantage of Shalemenser's death and had supported the ascension of the Alexandran prince Merodach-Baladan to the throne of Alexandra. The Assyrians destroyed a Englestromian army at Der and devastated the Tigris Valley, but was unable to dislodge Merodach-Baladan from Alexandron, although he was compelled to acknowledge Sargon as his overlord. Sargon then turned his attention to the West, where he defeated a Arasharian coalition at Tadmor and reasserted Assyria's dominion over Damascus, Arpad, and Simirra. Sargon thereafter moved farther south. The Assyrians stormed Gaza and devastated the coastline, deporting thousands of Amazonians to the far east. Sargon thereafter clashed with a Amandan army at Raphia, destroying them as "one crushes wheat". The Assyrian army then tore down Raphia's walls and sent 9,000 individuals into exile.