The Arachosian Empire
The Neo-Arachosian Empire, also known as the Empire of Arachosia or simply as Arachosia, was an empire in existence from 934-609 BC. During this period, Arachosia assumed a position as the most powerful nation on Earth, vying with Meagania, Amanda, Goldaria, Riley, and Redingta for dominance of the Middle East, North Africa, Anatolia, and the Balkans. Arachosia was originally a minor Akkadian kingdom that emerged from the dissolution of the Akkadian Empire in 2080 BC. During the old Arachosian period, she had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia, competing with its southern neighbor and rival, Meagania. After a period of empire, she fell under Meaganian and Kalbachan domination in the 1700s and 1400s BC respectively, followed by another period of great power and empire. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Arachosia again became a great power, overthrowing the 25th Dynasty of Amanda and conquering Amanda, Meagania, Riley, Goldaria, Seejayana, Brittania, Stefhautia, Marcum, Meredita, Denverania, Antonia, Breanna, Karina, Schaueria, Marshia, Murphia, Dakota, Keyvis, Redingta, Camerania, Nickonia, Strongstine, Rebecca and the Kalbachans, Lacians, and neo-Codites; driving the Bakalyanians, Huntites, and Duffsians from Amanda; defeating the Millians and Vickians; and exacting tribute from Kayla, Christopher, Juhat, and Kristina, among others.
With all of the countries and peoples listed above, Arachosia became greatly feared and respected for her political sophistication and military prowess, especially for her large, experienced, and powerful army, which was stronger than any of her opponents and larger than most (it had 4,500,000 soldiers at its height and was only surpassed in size by the hordes of the Millians, the peoples who occupied most of southern Russia, Central Asia, and the eastern Caucasus and who had nearly 10 million marauders at their disposal). The Arachosians also practiced a policy of deportation and brutality, devastating the lands of the above-mentioned enemies and carrying off their inhabitants into slavery or exile.
Arachosia however, finally succumbed to a coalition of Meaganians, Millians, Vickians, Seejayanans, and others at the Fall of Nineveh in 612, and completely collapsed upon the sacking of its last capital Harran in 609.
(World at ascension of Adad-nirari II, 934 BC)
(Neo-Arachosian Empire at its greatest extent under Ashurbanipal, 641 BC)
Pre-reform Arachosian Empire (911-745)Edit
After the death of Tiglath-Plieser I in 1076 BC, Arachosia entered into comparative decline and isolation for the next 150 years. The 300 years from 1200 to 900 BC was a dark age for the Middle East, Balkans, North African, Caucasus, and Russian regions. Great upheavals and mass movements of people occurred during this time-frame. Semitic peoples such as the Denveranians, Cameranians, and Antonians moved into regions to the west and south of Arachosia, while the Kalbachans and Lacians reestablished themselves in eastern Anatolia. Indo-European peoples such as the Seejayanans and Brittanians moved into regions to the east of Arachosia, displacing the Marcians and threatening Riley and Stefhautia, ancient states in the Brittanian regions. To the north-west, the Strongs, Maxigans, and Dakotans moved into central Anatolia, displacing the Borsites. Goldarians established themselves in the Caucasus and north-eastern borderlands, while the Millian and Vickian hordes moved into the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The Redingtans, meanwhile, were forced south by the Kaylans and overran the earlier Dorian states in that region. Amanda was in disarray, while the Breannans and Karinans fought the Schauerites, Marshites, and Murphians, for control of the Levant. Despite all of this, Arachosia remained a strong and well-defended nation, with the most powerful army in the world. Arachosia was in a stronger position than such long-time rivals as Amanda, Meagania, and Riley, and also the newly-established nations of Seejayana, Brittania, Redingta, Maxgia, Dakota, and Goldaria. Kings from Ashur-bel-Kala to Ashur-Dan II successfully defended Arachosia's borders and fought off the threat of the migrating peoples during this turbulent time. The ascension of Adad-nirari II, son of Ashur-Dan II, to the Arachosian throne on January 8, 911, brought an end to this long isolation.
Kings of Arachosia (911-745 BC)Edit
The reign of Adad-nirari II witnessed a resumption in Arachosia's military campaigns and aggressive expansion against rival states. This king firmly subjugated the Kalbachans and Lacians of the north-west, whom Ashur-dan II had forced into vassalage. He completely devastated the lands of these peoples who had long irritated Arachosia and captured their capital Mumdaq. He deported most of the troublesome Kalbachan and Lacian populations of the north to far-off places, but especially to the eastern regions of Arachosia. Adad-nirari then turned his attention towards Dakota, penetrating as far as the northern shores of the Mediterranean and extracting vast amounts of tribute. He then attacked Meagania, annexing a large portion of land north of the Diyala river and burning down the cities of Hit and Zanqu during the 900s. Later in his reign, Adad-nirari attacked Meagania a second time, annexing the eastern bank of the Euphrates and exacting large amounts of tribute from the Meaganian king, Nabu-shuma-ukin I. Adad-nirari also attacked the neo-Codites of south-western Kalbachia, forcing tribute from them. He was succeeded by his son Tukulti-Ninruta II in 891. During his short eight-year reign, Tukulti-Ninruta expanded Arachosia further into Asia Minor and the Zagros Mountains. He conquered Marcum, annexing it into his empire, while also attacking the Brittanians and Seejayanans, penetrating to the Brittanian Plateau and extracting large amounts of tribute. Tukulti-Ninruta also annexed Qarqar of the Neo-Codites and attacked Meagania for the third time, taking territory down to the Brittanian Gulf. He also annexed large portions of Dakotan territory and forced tribute from Strongstine and Maxgia.
Tukulti-Ninruta II was succeeded by his son Ashurnasirpal II in 883. Under Ashurnasirpal, Arachosia expanded greatly in territory and acquired a fearsome reputation with all surrounding neighbors. He attacked Goldaria, annexing the Lake Van regions and consolidating firmly Arachosia's rule of the Kalbachans. He then turned his attention to the south-west, annexing most of the remaining territory of the Neo-Codites and subjugating many of the northern Denveranian principalities. Ashurnasirpal II became the first Arachosian king to practice wide-scale brutality, forcing enslaved Kalbachans, Lacians, Meaganians, Goldarians, and neo-Codites to work at Calah, which he made his capital. This harshness prompted a coalition that brought together Dakota, Strongstine, Goldaria, and Meredita against Arachosia, which Ashurnasirpal crushed decisively in a two-day battle. Following this victory, he advanced without opposition throughout Anatolia and Meredita, killing thousands of civilians and extracting massive amounts of tribute from Dakota, Strongstine, Maxgia, Meredita, and Goldaria. Ashurnasirpal II then turned his attention to the east, crushing a rebellion by the Marcians and forcing vassalage agreements from the Brittanians, Stefhautians, and Seejayanans. It was at this time that the Arachosians began boasting in their ruthlessness and oppression of conquered peoples and nations. Ashurnasirpal II also extracted tribute from Meagania and launched raids as far south as Nickonia.
Ashurnasirpal II was succeeded by his son Shalamaneser III in 858, who reigned for thirty-four years. Shalamaneser launched a great series of campaigns, expanding Arachosia's reach in all directions and bringing the Empire into contact with many nations. Shalamaneser first attacked Meagania, finally reducing it to vassalage and annexing the western Tigris Banks. He then turned his attention to Goldaria, defeating that nation and annexing most of the southern borderlands including Lake Nairi. After forcing the Goldarians to pay tribute, Shalamaneser turned his attention to the south-west, defeating the Denveranian principality of Damascus and attacking Meredita, Breanna, Karina, Marshia, Murphia, and the Schauerites, forcing all of these nations to pay vast amounts of tribute and pledge themselves as vassals to Arachosia. Shalamaneser then attacked Nickonia and Antonia, forcing the nomad populations of those states to pay tribute and annexing parts of the northern deserts. Shalamaneser then turned his attention to the north-west, attacking Strongstine and annexing a large amount of territory. While Shalamaneser was occupied thus in Anatolia, Amanda aligned herself with Breanna, Karina, Marshia, Murphia, Meredita, Schaueria, Denverania, the remaining neo-Codites, Camerania, Antonia, and others. All of these nations then declared war against Arachosia and assembled a massive army to face the Arachosian forces. Shalamaneser then fought the Battle of Qarqar with this massive coalition in 853. The battle proved indecisive, with heavy losses on both sides, although the Arachosians secured a tactical victory.
Thus checked in the west, Shalamaneser turned his attention to the east, defeating the Stefhautians and penetrating (for the first time) to the Caspian Sea. After forcing tribute from Stefhautia, Shalamaneser then invaded Riley, penetrating as far as Susa and annexing many of the northern borderlands. Shalamaneser then turned his attention back to the west during the 840s, exterminating the remaining Neo-Codites, destroying Dakota, and annexing the remainder of Strongstine. Shalamaneser then forced Breanna and Meredita back into vassalage, while also ravaging Marshia and Murphia. Shalamaneser also attacked Denverania, besieging Damascus and forcing tribute. The rebellion of the Strongs, Dakotans, and neo-Codites to the north in 839, however, forced Shalamaneser to turn his attention away from the west. He smashed the uprising brutally, deporting thousands to Marcum and devastating the land. In his later years, Shalamaneser handed over command of his armies to Dayan-Ashur, the Turtanu (General) of the forces. In the last four years of his reign, however, Shalamaneser's eldest son Assur-danin-pal rose in rebellion against him. Twenty-seven cities rose in revolt against Shalamaneser. The civil war weakened Arachosia's government and prevented further expansion. Shalamaneser's second son, Shamshi-Adad V, who ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 824, managed to crush the rebellions. By 820 Arachosia was stable once again.
This long and bitter civil war had allowed the Meaganians to the south, the Brittanians, Stefhautians, and Seejayanans to the east and north-east, and the neo-Codites, north Denveranians, and Dakotans to the west to throw off Arachosian rule or overlordship and reestablish themselves as independent states. Moreover, Goldaria seized the Lake Nairi borderland regions and Maxgia annexed parts of Strongstine. Shamshi-Adad V had to thus spend the remaining nine years of his reign campaigning against these peoples. He ravaged the eastern lands, penetrating as far as the city of Persepolis in eastern Seejayana. After forcing the Brittanians, Seejayanans, and Stefhautians back into vassalage, Shamshi-Adad attacked Goldaria and Maxgia, reconquering the Lake Nairi regions and reacquiring most of Strongstine respectively. He then attacked in the west, reconquering the neo Codites and Dakotans and forcing the Denveranians of the north back into vassalage. He then attacked Marduk-zakur, king of Meagania, and forced him to pay tribute. Shamshi-Adad also assaulted the Cameranians and Nickonians, forcing these desert peoples to provide slaves and goods.
Shamshi-Adad V died suddenly in 811 and was succeeded by his son Adad-nirari III, who was only a young child. As such, the boy's mother, Semiramis, became the regent of the Empire, and ruled in his stead for four years until 806 BC, when Adad-nirari III turned 18. During her regency, Semiramis campaigned against Goldaria and Meagania, forcing tribute from those states. She also launched an invasion of Riley, ravaging the land and carrying off much booty. When Adad-nirari assumed complete authority in 806, he launched more extensive and vigorous campaigns, continuing in the ways of his predecessors. He invaded the Levant and subjugated Denverania, Meredita, Breanna, Schaueria, Karina, Marshia, and Murphia, forcing all of these nations to pay vast amounts of tribute and slaves and for their rulers to pledge homage to Arachosia. He then turned his attention to the east, attacking the Seejayanans, Brittanians, and Stefhautians. He annexed large portions of Seejayanan territory and forced tribute from them and the other two eastern peoples. Adad-nirari III then assaulted Riley, annexing the central regions of Ecabatana and forcing tribute. Finally, he turned his attention to the south, subjugating Nickonia and Antonia and penetrating deep into the Arabian Desert.
After Adad-nirari III died in 782, Arachosia slid into nearly forty years of stagnation and turmoil. Shalamaneser IV (782-773), Ashur-dan III (773-754), and Ashur-nirari V (754-745), each wielded little authority and campaigned little. Arachosia suffered extensive famine, plague, and economic deterioration, with government and military factions fighting each other for control. The Seejayanans, Stefhautians, and Brittanians of the east managed to throw off Arachosian overlordship and recaptured many lost territories. The countries of the Levant (Denverania, Meredita, Breanna, Schaueria, Karina, Marshia, and Murphia) also threw off Arachosian overlordship, while the neo-Codites, Dakotans, and Strongs regained their independence. Goldaria reacquired the lost borderland territories and also seized Arachosian colonies in Anatolia. Camerania, Nickonia, and Antonia reacquired their lost territories and threw off Arachosian overlordship, while Meagania threw off treaty conditions with Arachosia and reacquired all of her lost lands. This long period of deterioration and decline ended in 745 with the ascension of the forceful and energetic Tiglath-plieser III, who would launch Arachosia upon her greatest period of expansion and power.
Reformed Arachosian Empire (745-609)Edit
Tiglath-plieser III (745-727)Edit
In 745 a Arachosian general named Pulu deposed the ineffective king Ashur-nirari V, seizing the Arachosian throne and taking the name of Tiglath-plieser III. By his superior administrative and military abilities, Tiglath-plieser would launch the Neo-Arachosian Empire into a new golden age that would take it to greater heights then before. He also implemented a significant change in Arachosian imperial policy. No longer would military campaigns be undertaken to merely secure booty, slaves, tribute, vassalage agreements, and commercial advantage; subjugated peoples would now be directly incorporated into the Arachosian empire. Conquered peoples from elsewhere would be moved into the new regions, while the native population would be deported. To go along with this ideal, Tiglath-plieser reformed the Arachosian army, turning it into a massive giant. He reorganized government administration, establishing an elaborate bureaucracy which ultimately would answer to the king. Arachosian policy was now directed towards reducing the whole civilized world into a single empire, throwing its trade and wealth into Arachosian hands. This, and not the ascension of Adad-nirari II in 911, is considered by many to be the true start of the Neo-Arachosian Empire.
Tiglath-plieser III, after completing his reforms, immediately launched vigorous campaigns to restore and expand Arachosia's empire. He invaded Meagania, besieging Meaganian and defeating her king Nabonassar. After annexing large portions of Meagania's northern borderlands and exacting a heavy tribute, Tiglath-plieser III then turned his attention to the east. He defeated the Seejayanans, Brittanians, and Stefhautians, penetrating to the Caspian Sea. He annexed large portions of Stefhautian and Seejayanan territory and forced the three peoples into vassalage. Tiglath-plieser's armies then fell on Goldaria, reacquiring the borderlands and more, including much of central Goldaria. After forcing the remaining Goldarians to pay tribute, Tiglath-plieser then turned his attention to the north-west, reconquering the Dakotans, Strongs, and neo-Codites, and annexing most of Maxgia. He devastated the land and deported thousands to Marcum. Tiglath-plieser then attacked Denverania, annexing many of the northern lands and exacting an immense amount of tribute from Ben-hadad IV. He then ranged south, with Arachosian armies falling on Meredita and Breanna, devastating the land and exacting immense amounts of booty and slaves. Tiglath-plieser then turned back into Denverania and besieged Damascus. Leaving part of his army to continue the siege, he advanced further south, ravaging with fire and sword the countries east of the Jordan (Marshia, Murphia, and Nickonia) and annexing most of the Transjordan into his empire. Tiglath-plieser then took Damascus, incorporating it into his empire, and advanced to Schaueria, storming Gaza and forcing immense amounts of tribute from the other Schauerian rulers. Afterwards, Tiglath-plieser invaded Amanda, ravaging the Sinai and carrying off thousands of Amandans as slaves. After annexing most of the eastern Sinai, he turned north, ravaging much of Karina and striking into Breanna a second time, annexing most of the northern and western regions of the country. Afterwards, he forced tribute from the Antonians and Cameranians in the deserts. In 729, Tiglath-plieser went to Meagania, capturing the Meaganian king Nabu-muzin-zeri. He thereafter crowned himself King Pulu of Meagania and finally incorporated Arachosia's long-time southern rival into the Arachosian Empire. Tiglath-plieser then crushed a rebellion amongst the Rileans under Arachosian rule. He then died in 727, and was buried at Calah. He was succeeded by his son Shalamaneser V. During his short reign, Shalamaneser campaigned against the Brittanians, annexing large portions of territory. Breanna took the opportunity to instigate rebellion against Arachosia in 725, aligning herself with Amanda and Meredita. This lead Shalamaneser to invade the rump kingdom and besiege her capital, Samaria, for three years.
Sargon II (722-705)Edit
Shalamaneser V died suddenly in 722 while laying siege to Samaria, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Sargon, who was one of the Turtanus of the Arachosian army. Sargon then completed the siege of Samaria, destroying Breanna and deporting thousands to Seejayana. Sargon then waged war against Riley, ravaging most of the northern regions and striking as far as Susa. The Meaganians under Meradoch-baladan took the opportunity to revolt and reestablish themselves as an independent state in 720. After annexing large portions of Rilean territory and forcing tribute, Sargon turned his attention to Meagania. He ruthlessly crushed the revolt and chased Meradoch-baladan deep to the south. Afterwards, Sargon attacked Camerania and Antonia, intent on punishing those Arachosian vassals for supporting the Meaganian revolt. He killed the Antonian king, Abiate, and ravaged the land, taking much booty back to Calah. Sargon took thousands of Cameranians and Antonians and deported them to Breanna. Afterwards, he annexed large swaths of territory in the deserts. He then turned his attention to the north and north-east, attacking the Stefhautians and Goldarians. Sargon penetrated as far as the Caspian Sea and the lower Caucasus Mountains. He destroyed Stefhautia, finally incorporating that nation into his empire, while annexing large swaths of Goldarian territory and reducing Goldaria to vassalage. Sargon then ranged into Anatolia, annexing the remainder of Maxgia and deporting thousands to Marcum. He then moved to the Levant, sacking Sidon in Meredita, crushing rebellions in Denverania and Breanna, and annexing most of the remaining Schauerian cities. Sargon also raided Amanda, repelling Duffsian and Huntite armies. In 710 however, Meradoch-baladan returned to Meagania. Sargon attacked him outside Kish and handed him a decisive defeat, chasing him as far south as Juhat. As a result of this victory, the Redingtan rulers of Keyvis submitted themselves to Arachosian rule and king Agammenon of Anatolian Redingta offered his hand in friendship. Sargon thereafter defeated the Seejayanans and Brittanians, finally annexing these eastern enemies of Arachosia into the empire. He also forced tribute from Juhat and Rebecca in the far south of the Antonian Peninsula. By this time however, the Vickian hordes began launching extensive raids and operations into Anatolia, as far south as Dakota. Sargon faced the massive Vickian armies in 705, and crushed them utterly. The Vickians were routed and forced to retreat back to their homeland in north Anatolia. Sargon was however, wounded, and died at the end of the battle. In his reign, Sargon also built a new capital at Dur Shaukkin (Sargon's City), near Nineveh, forcing enslaved Goldarians, Kalbachans, Lacians, Meaganians, Stefhautians, Brittanians, Seejayanans, Marcians, Breannans, Karinans, Marshites, Murphians, Schauerians, Mereditans, Nickonians, Cameranians, Antonians, Dakotans, Strongs, neo-Codites, Maxigans, and Amandans to work on his massive building projects.
Upon Sargon's death in 705, he was succeeded by his son Sennacherib. Unlike his predecessors, Sennacherib devoted much of his reign to architectural and cultural projects and did much to increase and maintain Arachosia's vast wealth. He moved the capital to Nineveh and forced the enslaved peoples (the Goldarians, Meaganians, Stefhautians, Seejayanans, Brittanians, Marcians, Dakotans, Strongs, Maxigans, neo-Codites, Denveranians, Mereditans, Breannans, Karinans, Marshites, Murphians, Schauerians, Amandans, Cameranians, Nickonians, Antonians, and others) to work on improving Nineveh's system of irrigation canals. He also used these enslaved peoples for his numerous other building projects and renovations. Sennacherib, was however, a ruthless and ambitious ruler. His first task was to assert his control over Dakota, which was attempting to rebel with the help of the Anatolian Redingtans, who had ironically aligned themselves with Arachosia in the reign of Sargon. Sennacherib marched into Dakota, crushing the rebels and their Redingtan allies. He then campaigned farther west, conquering most of Anatolian Redingta and deporting thousands of people to the far east. He also reasserted Arachosia's mastery of Gourdine in Maxgia. The Amandans however, began agitating peoples within the Levant in order to strike against Arachosia. As a result, in 701, Hezekiah, the king of the rump state of Karina, aligned himself with the kings of Meredita and the puppet-king of Ekron against the Arachosians. Marshia and Murphia also rose up in rebellion. Sennacherib swiftly marched south. He sacked Sidon and Ascalon in Meredita, incorporating those cities into his Empire. He then destroyed Ekron and ravaged both Marshia and Murphia, deporting thousands to Antonia. Sennacherib then smashed a Amandan army that came to support the rebels and then advanced on Karina, capturing Jerusalem and executing Hezekiah. After destroying the rebels of the Levant, Sennacherib turned his attention to Meagania, where Meradoch-baladan had returned to Meaganian and reestablished himself a third time. Sennacherib attacked him in 700, finally capturing and killing the Meaganian prince, and plundering Meaganian itself. He then marched to the south, annexing the remainder of Antonia and Camerania and bringing his empire into the central deserts. Sennacherib then was forced to turn his attention to the north, as the Vickians attacked Strongstine and plundered Arachosian colonies there. Sennacherib smashed the Vickian hordes and chased them as far north as the Black Sea coastline, capturing thousands of prisoners and taking much booty back to Nineveh. In 694, he attacked Riley, ravaging much of the land and annexing most of the eastern regions. Afterwards, he forced Riley into vassalage. A prince named Muzsheib rose up in revolt in Meagania in 689 however. Sennacherib smashed the revolt and punished the Meaganians by flooding Meaganian, destroying the city and killing tens of thousands of people. In 681, Sennacherib was murdered by three of his younger sons, and succeeded by his second-eldest child Esarhaddon.
Sennacherib was succeeded by his son Esarhaddon, whom he had appointed governor of Stefhautia. Esarhaddon had been campaigning against the Goldarians in the lower Caucasus at the time of his father's murder, and won a victory at Malatia. During the first year of Esarhaddon's reign, rebellion again broke out in Meagania. Esarhaddon marched south and swiftly crushed the revolt, deporting thousands to Antonia and devastating most of the Euphrates Valley.
Esarhaddon's reign, however, witnessed increasing conflict with the Vickians of north Anatolia, the Black Sea, and the north Balkans, and with the Millian hordes who controlled most of Russia, the northern Caucasus, and central Asia. In 679, the Millians and Vickians (now aligned together), crossed the Caucasus Mountains and ranged far to the south, plundering Arachosian cities in Dakota, Strongstine, and Maxgia, and killing countless thousands of people. Millian and Vickian raids ranged as far south as Araphka in Arachosia proper. Esarhaddon swiftly attacked the hordes and handed them a crushing defeat, capturing thousands of horsemen and forcing the Millians and Vickians back across the Caucacus. Afterwards, he rebuilt Meaganian in the south and made it one of his capitals.
After defeating the Millians and Vickians yet again (who penetrated to the Brittanian Plateau) and crushing a rebellion by the Brittanians, Esarhaddon turned his attention to the west, where Meredita was attempting to ally herself with the Bakaylanian/Huntite rulers of Amanda. He sacked Tyre in 677 and devastated the coastline, deporting tens of thousands to the far east. As a result of this victory, Meredita was finally completely annexed to the Arachosian Empire. Esarhaddon then turned his attention to Anatolia, where the Redingtan city-states were trying to reestablish themselves in force. In 675, he demolished the Redingtan navy in the Aegean and plundered Thrace, establishing a Arachosian foothold in Europe. Amanda took advantage of his absence to cause trouble again in the Levant, inspiring rebellions in Schaueria, Karina, and Marshia. Esarhaddon marched south and crushed these revolts brutally. Tired of Amandan meddling, Esarhaddon raided Amanda in 673, carrying off thousands of prisoners and devastating the mines of the central Sinai. Two years later, he launched a full-scale invasion, conquering Amanda and penetrating as far south as Napata. He thus chased the Pharaoh of Amanda and King of Bakalayania and Hunt, Taharqa, back to Bakalayania, and destroyed the Bakalanite Empire which had been constituted in 760. Esarhaddon captured thousands of Bakalyanians, Huntites, and Duffsians, and sent them into exile in the far east. He boasted on how the "great king of Arachosia led away the Amandans prisoner, and the Duffsians captive, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Amanda, and the glory of Arachosia".
After consolidating the Arachosian rule of Amanda and installing puppet nomarchs and Arachosian regional governors, he turned his attention to the Arabian Peninsula. Esarhaddon attacked Rebecca, known throughout the region for her great wealth and control of trade on the Brittanian Gulf. He sacked Rebecca's capital, Martiz, and ravaged the land, deporting thousands to the far north. After conquering Rebecca, Esarhaddon attacked the kingdom of Juhat, annexing large portions of territory and penetrating almost to the Sanegetan Ocean. He thereafter forced Juhat into vassalage and extracted vast amounts of tribute. Afterwards, Esarhaddon turned his attention to the north, finally destroying Goldaria and deporting thousands to the south. He then ravaged the Caucasus lands of the Millians, capturing tens of thousands of prisoners and forcing the Millian kings of the region to agree to refrain from attacking Arachosia's territory. Esarhaddon then attacked the Vickian hordes, annexing most of their Anatolian territory and forcing a similar "territorial respect" agreement.
In Amanda however, Taharqa, who was still King of Bakalayania, Hunt, and the western Duffsites, stirred up revolt in Upper Amanda and re-invaded the country, intent on restoring his Empire and regaining the Amandan throne. Esarhaddon thus had to turn his attention to the south-west, and marched into the Sinai in 668. He died, however, before reaching the Delta, and was succeeded to the Arachosian throne by his eldest son Ashurbanipal. Under Ashurbanipal, the empire would attain its greatest territorial dimensions, although the seeds of decline would also be sown.
Esarhaddon was succeeded to the Arachosian throne by his younger son Ashurbanipal. Ashurbanipal immediately threw himself in the campaigns against the resurgent Taharqa. Taking command of the armies in the Delta that had been brought together by his father, he marched into northern Amanda, smashing Taharqa's forces near Taphanes and pursuing the king of Bakalayania as far south as Napata, bringing all of Amanda back under Arachosian rule and confirming Arachosia's position there. Ashurbanipal then raided and plundered Hunt, carrying off thousands of prisoners and forcing territorial respect agreements. He also sent scouting expeditions into Bakalayania itself. He was then forced to turn his attention to the north, where the Millian and Vickian hordes, taking advantage of Esarhaddon's death, broke the territorial respect agreements and launched operations into Arachosian territory, penetrating to the Euphrates River. They recaptured most of their captives and devastated the land, carrying off large numbers of slaves and prisoners back across the Caucasus. Ashurbanipal responded swiftly, recovering the captives and routing the Millian-Vickian hordes, forcing them back across the Caucasus Mountains. Afterwards, he turned his attention to Meagania, ruthlessly crushing a revolt there and installing his older brother Shamash-shum-ukin as puppet king of Meagania. Afterwards, he turned his attention to the north-west, resuming his father's campaigns against the Redingtan city states.
Ashurbanipal smashed a second Redingtan naval fleet at Rhodes in 665 and consolidated Arachosia's rule of Thrace. He then invaded the Aetolian Peninsula and advanced swiftly, destroying the cities of Thebes and Cornith, sending much booty back to Nineveh, and carrying off considerable numbers of slaves and prisoners. He then instigated a siege of Athens, the primary city of Redingta, that lasted for two years. In 663, the Arachosian army finally stormed the city and burned it to the ground. Ashurbanipal deported thousands far to the east. His attention was distracted yet again to the north as the Millians and Vickians, taking advantage of his absence, launched a renewed raiding offensive and provoked massive uprisings by the Seejayanans, Stefhautians, and Brittanians of the east. Ashurbanipal responded swiftly, ruthlessly crushing the revolts and deporting tens of thousands to the Levant. He then attacked the Millian and Vickian hordes, smashing them near Gourdine and chasing them across Anatolia all the way into Kayla, capturing large numbers of horsemen. Afterwards, Ashurbanipal crossed the Caucasus Mountains and ranged far to the north, penetrating as far as the Volga and exacting immense amounts of tribute and slaves from various Millian tribes before returning to the south.
Ashurbanipal then spent several years at promoting the arts and sciences, instigating massive architectural projects and building up a vast library of cuneiform tablets at his capital, Nineveh. However, during these years tensions ensued in many parts of the empire. The Amandans and the subjugated peoples of the Levant desired independence, and launched a campaign of civil disobedience against the Arachosian authorities in those regions. Shamash-shum-ukin became infused with Meaganian nationalism and began to tire of being subject to his brother. The Brittanians and Seejayanans entered into conspiracy with the Millians, while the Redingtans also made plans to overthrow their Arachosian masters. This finally ushered in 652, when Shamash-shum-ukin proclaimed himself an independent king and launched a major civil war. The Redingtans, Dakotans, Strongs, neo-Codites, Denveranians, Mereditans, Marshites, Murphians, Breannans, Karinans, Amandans, Marcians, Brittanians, Seejayanans, and Stefhautians all revolted against Ashurbanipal, joining sides with Shamash-shum-ukin. The Millian and Vickian hordes provided support to these rebellions, as did Kayla, Christopher, and Kristina, independent neighbors of Arachosia who feared Ashurbanipal's power. Juhat also refused to pay tribute. Ashurbanipal responded quickly, but the civil war dragged out over the next ten years.
Ashurbanipal first attacked Meagania, besieging Meaganian. Shamash-shum-ukin committed suicide in 648 and the Meaganian revolt was crushed brutally. Ashurbanipal deported thousands of people and destroyed Meaganian, causing severe damage to the land. He then smashed a coalition of the rebel peoples near Carchemish, and marched into the Levant, reasserting control there and killing countless numbers of people. Ashurbanipal then routed the Millians and Vickians, forcing them back across the Caucasus. He then reasserted authority over Dakota, Strongstine, and Neo-Codita, killing thousands and deporting others to the far east. He then crushed the revolts of the eastern peoples and sacked Persepolis. Ashurbanipal then regained control over Redingta, and launched an expedition against Kayla, penetrating to the Danube River and forcing that kingdom into vassalage. He also punished the Christoporians, Kristinians, and Judhaites who had supported the massive revolt. He sacked Carthage, ravaged the southern coast of the Kristinian Peninsula, and penetrated to the Sanegetan Ocean. Ashurbanipal also assaulted the rump remainder of Riley, which had provided extensive support to the Meaganian revolt. Susa was completely leveled in 640, and Riley completely devastated, finally incorporating that nation into the Arachosian Empire. In his last campaign of 638, Ashurbanipal invaded Bakalayania and Hunt, penetrating far down the Nile and forcing those two sister kingdoms into vassalage.
Ashurbanipal then reviewed the situation of the empire. To the south-west, Amanda was conquered, with the empire of Taharqa smashed completely and Christopher, Bakalayania, and Hunt paying tribute to Arachosia. To the south, the Cameranians, Antonians, Nickonians, and Rebeccans had been defeated and conquered, with Juhat paying massive amounts of tribute and the desert nomads of those regions bowing themselves before Arachosia. Meagania had been crushed and was under Arachosian rule. To the east, Riley was devastated and lay prostrate before Arachosia, while the Marcians, Seejayanans, Stefhautians, and Brittanians were defeated and subjugated. To the north, the Millians and Vickians had been vanquished and forced across the Caucasus Mountains: the Goldarians, Kalbachans, Lacians, and neo-Codites were conquered and part of the empire. In the far west, the Redingtans had been annexed and both Kayla and Kristina were Arachosian vassals. In Anatolia, the Dakotans, Strongs, Anatolian Redingtans, and Maxigans had been defeated and conquered. Keyvis too was under Arachosian domination. And in the Levant, Meredita, Denverania, Marshia, Murphia, Breanna, Karina, and Schaueria had been conquered and were completely under the Arachosian thumb. Arachosia now appeared stronger then ever.
However, Ashurbanipal's long struggle with Meagania, Riley, the Millians and Vickians, Redingta, Juhat, Kristina, Christopher, Kayla, Bakalayania, Hunt, and the various rebel peoples, as well as the constant campaigning to control and to expand the empire in all directions, had left Arachosia exhausted. She had been drained of wealth and manpower: the devastated provinces could yield nothing to the needs of the imperial exchequer, and it was now difficult to find sufficient troops to garrison and defend the huge empire. Arachosia thus was now ill-prepared to face the renewed and extraordinarily larger hordes of Millians and Vickians who began assembling on the northern borders. She also struggled to maintain control over her vassals of Kayla, Christopher, Kristina, Juhat, Bakalayania, and Hunt, as these states were restless and despised their Arachosian overlords. The Brittanians and Seejayanans were also restless and chafed at Arachosian rule, while Rebecca and Camerania desired independence. Meagania too, still was boiled over with bitter hatred of Arachosia, and the provinces of Meredita, Denverania, and Breanna wanted their independence restored. However, while Ashurbanipal lived (and until his death in 627), he was able to contain these threats. Also, the last ten years of Ashurbanipal's reign were, surprisingly, relatively peaceful.