This is the general history of Laurasia Prime before the Laurasian Empire.

History of LaurasiaEdit

Early Laurasian History (c. 5 billion BH-6000 BH)Edit

The Caladarian Galaxy, one of many billions of galaxies in the Universe, is believed to have formed c. 13 billion BH. The Galaxy emerged out of the gradual consolidation of leftover particles, dust, and universal masses, which had emerged from the Big Bang, the event which created the Universe,which is believed by scientists and astronomers to have occurred as early as c. 15 billion BH, maybe slightly less. Within one billion years of the Galaxy's formation, globular clusters, the central super massive black hole, and a galactic bulge of metal poor Population II stars began to form. Over the next two billion years, this accumulated matter had settled into a galactic disc. Eventually, c. 8 billion BH, the galaxy had cooled down. Around 4.68 billion BH, one of the galaxy's many solar nebulae, located in what is now the Core Worlds, began to rotate, contract, and gain angular momentum. The nebula became a flat disk, and most of the mass began to consolidate in the center. Matter began to condense around dust particles, and around 150 million kilometers from the future star Laurell, the planet Laurasia began to form from the collisions. As Laurell itself began to condense and heat, most of the remaining material was cleared by solar winds, causing the condensation of the other planets. Within one hundred million years, these bodies had cooled down. Laurasia, like the other planets of its solar system, was originally a volcanic and molten world. It is believed that around 4.5 billion BH, a major collision occurred when a large protoplanet slammed into the surface of Laurasia. This collision jettisoned large amounts of rock material into orbit around Laurasia. Over time, this material consolidated into four moons: the two Calaxies, Jadia, and Heupdermia. It is believed that the impact changed Laurasia's rotation and axial tilt.

Gradually, Laurasia began to evolve into a form which would eventually enable the planet to sustain and create life. By c. 4.47 billion BH, the planet's magnetic field had consolidated, which helped to create gravity on the planet. At the same time, the volcanic activity and outgassing which dominated the world at this time helped to contribute to a stronger atmosphere, eventually contributing to the greenhouse effect. By c. 4.1 billion BH, it is believed that Laurasia began to form oceans, as the planet's temperatures cooled down drastically and as condensing water vapor, alongside liquid and ice water delivered by comets, asteroids, and proto-planets, began to consolidate. At first, the world's oceans were brown, but in time, they changed to a color of blue. Conditions for the production of life improved, and the first known single-celled organisms appeared c. 3.8 billion BH, followed by the earliest bacteria mats some one hundred million years later. Life remained in this state for nearly another billion years. As volcanic activity cooled down, the lava and other material left behind allowed for the first landmasses to form, which began to emerge on the planetary surface c. 3.2 billion BH. By about 2.9 billion BH, the First Laurasian Ice Age had commenced, as the majority of the world was covered by ice. This delayed the formation of advanced life for some time until its termination around 2.8 billion BH. By c. 2.7 billion BH, the first oxygenating lifeforms had appeared, such as the stromatolites, who resided on the seashore and pumped oxygen into the atmosphere. Laurasia became truly habitable c. 2.4 billion BH, as the oxygenation of the atmosphere was concluded. One hundred million years later, the Second Laurasian Ice Age resulted in the entire planet being covered by ice sheets. This ended by about 1.9 billion BH. By c. 1.85 billion BH, the first complex organisms appeared. Around 1.7 billion BH, multicellular organisms appeared, a major event in the evolutionary history of Laurasia. By c. 1.3 billion BH, the first advanced sea life was developing. The Third and Fourth Laurasian Ice Ages, c. 910 million and c. 715 million BH, threatened the progress of life, but organisms managed to overcome the challenge. By 900 million BH, the first super continents had appeared.

By around 600 million BH, more advanced bacteria was appearing, paving the way for the development of yet more complex organisms. By around 570 million BH, the first plants had appeared, who began to colonize the surface c. 466 million BH. Fungi however, had colonized the surface of the planet as early as c. 1 billion BH. Around c. 450 million BH, the first fish evolved, developing from the earlier sea life. Insects had appeared c. 430 million BH. By around 410 million BH, the first land animals had appeared, evolving from fish who migrated from the sea. Birds also began to evolve, and around 300 different brands had made their appearance c. 375 million BH. A major extinction event, c. 354 million BH, exterminated earlier forms of bacteria and plant life, allowing for new varieties to develop. By c. 251 million BH, another major extinction event had occurred, known as the Peralian Extinction: nearly 95% of all species on Laurasia at this time were wiped out. Life managed to persevere, however, and by c. 230 million BH, mammals had entered greater maturity, while new kinds of birds appeared. Approximately c. 210 million BH, the Antediluvians evolved, differing themselves from their reptilian ancestors. Around 180 million BH, the Raxius super continent, which had existed since c. 390 million BH, began to split apart, influencing some patterns of evolution. By 150 million BH, the Antediluvians had obtained dominance on Laurasia, and they roamed the land, sea, and water as those different brands for nearly 90 million years. Eventually however, the Antediluvians began to die out c. 70 million BH. In c. 65.5 million BH, the Trandorian Extinction Event occurred, and nearly all of the remaining Antediluvians were wiped out, as were nearly half of all land creatures.

After the extinction of the Antediluvians and the other related creatures, mammals began to increase rapidly in size and diversity. Ants and other insects diversified rapidly, while birds began to organize into yet more groups and reach their modern specifications. The first true primates appeared, while the earliest whales and rodents also evolved. The Fifth Laurasian Ice Age (c. 36-33 million BH) resulted in the appearance of the mastodons and equrills, large beasts who would be the ancestors to the later elephants and rancors. Eventually however, the line of primates on Laurasia began to diversify and develop. Starting approximately c. 8 million BH, two lines of hominids developed: the one being the monkeys and tree-living creatures, or apes as they gradually became; others, hominids who took to the ground. Why the second line differed itself from the first line is unknown; it was possibly because of food needs. In any case, the hominids continued their development. The earliest land-living creatures, belonging to the Australopithecine family, gradually gained the ability to walk upright. Using his hands, the early hominid learned how to gather materials and to handle stones. By around 1.5 million BH, the Homo halbianus variety had appeared, who while retaining a large amount of bodily hair, and monkey-like facial features, were nevertheless more intelligent and were to be the ancestors of the modern Laurasian. Homo halbianus would eventually be followed by Homo estratius, who did not have as much bodily hair and had a greater range of thought. It is believed that the ancestral Laurasians began to develop language skills at this time: it is not known how language originated, but the most likely theory is because men imitated the shouts and grunts of animals and began developing a way to discuss matters with his fellows. Homo estratius also began refining stone tools, living in organized groups, and cooperating more effectively with others. Fire came into usage, it is believed, c. 400,000 BH, although it was another 300,000 years before the usage spread throughout the planet. By c. 200,000 BH, Homo estratius had gone extinct, and three new varieties, Homo makanius, Homo neustraius, and Homo aborginus had appeared, competing for resources across parts of the eastern continents. By c. 120,000 BH, it is believed that nearly 100,000 beings of these three different brands tred the surface of Laurasia.

Evolution on Laurasia would be greatly affected with the rise of the Founders, who established their presence in the Caladarian Galaxy c. 100,000 BH. The Founders, the most technologically advanced species to ever dwell in the Caladarian Galaxy, subjugated many of the ancient civilizations in existence at that time, including the Cree, Shapeshifters, and Paulines. Using the labor of these species, the Founders created technological wonders that spoke of their name throughout the Caladarian Galaxy. These included the Mauryan Warp, the Horacian system, the Rogerian Cluster, and the Galactic Barrier. Besides this, they also manipulated or transplanted the DNA of numerous worlds throughout the Galaxy. Laurasia was to be one of the worlds affected by this process. The Founders are believed to have modified the DNA of Homo neustraius, for after the presumed time of the Founders' presence, Homo nestraius gained a quick advantage over the other two competing Homo genuses on Laurasia. The Founders modified the intellect of that brand, implanting new cells which widened their intellectual activities and made them more aware of how to use nature to their own advantage. They also engineered a genetic modification which reduced the amount of hair in the body and increased the variety of foods that the body could ingest. They also improved the beings' eyesight and hearing, further improving their sensory abilities. These series of DNA modifications and genetic manipulations furthered along the process of evolution on Laurasia and transformed the early hominids into modern, intelligent beings who became the Human Laurasians.

Over the next ninety thousand years, the Laurasians, with the new DNA codes that had been implanted by the Founders, continued to evolve, while the final forms of animals on Laurasia appeared and another Ice Age left its mark on the following eons. The Sixth Laurasian Ice Age would prove to be the last of its kind. By c. 75,000 BH, the continents of Laurasia (North and South Wester, Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis) had obtained roughly their modern form. Shortly after this, however, Laurasia's temperatures began to decline. By c. 73,000 BH, the Northern Ocean and the Varangian Peninsula of the Haustian continent had been completely covered by ice, which also began to make its appearance on mainland Haustia's northern shores. By c. 68,000 BH, the ice sheets had advanced to the Great Haustian Sea, and by c. 54,000 BH, nearly seventy percent of the planet including virtually the entirety of Haustia, most of Cellini, the northern parts of North Westar, and almost all of Explosansis, was covered with ice. At the height of the Sixth Laurasian Ice Age c. 50,000 BH, the planet's temperatures were on average, -45 F, while only the southern portions of North Westar, South Westar, and parts of Cellini remained free of ice. It was thousands of years before the ice began to retreat. By c. 30,000 BH, the ice covering parts of Explosansis and Cellini had thawed. This was followed by the thawing of the Great Haustian Sea c. 17,000 BH, and by 10,000 BH, the ice caps had retreated to the northern tip of the planet. Laurasia's temperatures warmed to an average of 61 F by 9670 BH.

The challenges and issues presented by this severe Ice Age enabled for Homo neustraius to use its advantages, the genetic modifications made by the Founders. By c. 70,000 BH, men had developed clothing, using animal skins taken from the hides of dead beasts. Man began to organize his hunts, cooperating together to take down large animals. The number of mastodons is estimated to have declined from 32.3 million in c. 70,000 BH to just under 50,000 in 20,000 BH. The number of equrills declined from 23.4 million to 25,000 during the same time frame. The Ice Age also influenced the Laurasian homo brands, as Homo makanius proved unable to withstand the cold. By c. 54,000 BH, that genetic brand was virtually extinct, while Homo aborginus had been driven to southern Explosansis. Homo neustraius had adapted to the weather conditions, and by c. 51,000 BH, larger hunter-gatherer societies who resided together in caves had appeared. By around 49,000 BH, the first harpoons, spears, and fishing nets had been invented, allowing for man to hunt for fish in the waters. By c. 45,000 BH, the average Laurasian had obtained full behavioral modernity, with his brain reaching the average size of 1700 cc. Language became more sophisticated, and a full blown set of conversational worlds had come into use c. 44,000 BH.

Over the next fifteen thousand years, a variety of fields including refined toolmaking, sophisticated weaponry, sculpture, cave paintings, body ornaments, and long-distance trade developed, as men became more cultured. The earliest known art object crafted by a Laurasian, the Lady of the Vadarine Mountains, was crafted c. 37,000 BH. The earliest surviving cave paintings were possibly created shortly after this. By c. 27,000 BH, Homo aborginus had been absorbed by Homo neustraius, although the inhabitants of southern Explosansis would long have darker skin color and greater physical strength then their counterparts in other parts of the planet. By c. 24,000 BH, it is believed that religion began to form, as the earliest graves and religious charms date from approximately this time. A system of ethics and morals began to develop as well. By around c. 17,000 BH, men had expanded to the Varangian Peninsula, and within another 2,000 years, had established their presence in western Haustia and in North Westar. By around 14,000 BH, the equrills had gone extinct, at the same time that temperatures were starting to warm. The mastodons were driven to extinction c. 12,000 BH. By c. 12,000 BH, it is estimated that there were 350,000 Laurasians walking the face of the planet.

A major event in the history of Laurasia occurred c. 12,000 BH, as the Neolithic Revolution commenced. In the western regions of Cellini, man began to cultivate produce of the land, at first grasses and later food crops. They soon proceeded in those regions to the domestication of animals, using them as breeds of transportation or to help in the cultivation of the land. Soon, the earliest proto-cities on the surface of Laurasia appeared. Located in the region of the eastern Great Haustian Sea to the Grime Gulf, the cities of Jeream and Nagania each covered 30 acres, and were supported by farming grounds and a warehouse. Productivity and prosperity in those regions increased because of the newly-developed agriculture. Nevertheless, it took a long time for the new techniques to spread throughout the planet. By c. 11,000 BH, agriculture had spread to the coast of the Great Haustian Sea and to the Thatian Plateau. Pottery was refined c. 10,500 BH, allowing for improved storage. By around c. 10,000 BH, agriculture had spread to the majority of central and eastern Cellini. By c. 9500 BH, agriculture and domestication had spread across to the islands of the Eastern Ocean, while pottery had become common and a network of trade routes had been established. By some unknown means (possibly through sea trade), agriculture had spread to southern Explosansis by c. 8900 BH. By c. 8000 BH, Laurasia's population stood at 7 million, a vast increase from 350,000 4,000 years earlier. By c. 7700 BH, agriculture had developed in Westar and had become common throughout Haustia. By c. 7400 BH, the proto-cities of Kasia and Demeni had been established. Hunter-gatherer societies began to accept the rule of organized government, and the first kings, or Basileus, as they were to be known in later centuries, had appeared. By c. 7100 BH, the Yamui, Glezhtye, and Lyrate cultures shared the surface of Laurasia.

During the course of the 7th millennium BH, animal husbandry was developed and spread across Laurasia, while villages and proto-cities began to grow in size. By c. 7200 BH, irrigation had been developed, as is evidenced by a system of ditches around the Grime Gulf which has been dated to approximately that time. The Neolithic Revolution continued to inspire further technological advancements, and by c. 6900 BH, the Bronze Age had commenced. The development of bronze tools allowed for man to hunt more effectively, to cultivate crops more effectively, and to craft weapons of war. In the region of the eastern Great Haustian Sea, the Yamui culture reached its height c. 6800 BH. Eventually however, it is believed that they entered in decline, and around 6600 BH, a people known as the Susanians arrived in the Cellini West regions. The Susanians are believed to have migrated from central Cellini, as Susanian-like objects have been found there. However, exactly why they migrated remains a mystery. Nevertheless, they were to usher in the first urban and formally organized civilization on Laurasia. The Susanians were a inventive people. They were the first to use the wheel and the arch, for transportation and crafting respectively. The Susanians developed an advanced system of irrigation, became masters at weaving, pottery, and agriculture, and traded widely with other civilizations of Cellini and even eastern Haustia for goods, including timber. Gradually, they began to construct more advanced cities, which encompassed significantly larger areas than the proto-cities (an average of 15,000 acres per city). Each city had seven temples (one to each of the seven gods worshiped by the Susanians), fortifications, a commerce exchange, houses, and a government complex. By c. 6000 BH, the Susanians had organized themselves into five city-states: Sydonia, Assad, Dalod, Urynur, and Childi. Each city-state had a king, a high priest, a assembly of elders, and a consul of military affairs.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part I: From the Consolidation of the Susanian Civilization to the Reign of Brethalian Emperor CommodusEdit

The establishment of the Susanian-city states marked the commencement of Laurasian Antiquity, which lasted for 3,500 years, until 2500 BH. At about the time of the Susanian consolidation, various other nation-states appeared on the surface of Laurasia. The Letousian Dynasty of West Perinni was founded by the chieftain Narmius c. 5900 BH, and was to last for over 2,000 years as a independent state. Other Perinni tribal bands established the Kingdoms of Harappa and Agoria in what became known as Acolonia, in the border regions of Cellini with Haustia. In eastern Cellini, the Krayu peoples established a collection of city-states by about 5600 BH. For over 5,200 years, Laurasia was to remain divided into competing nation-states. For the first thousand years of civilized Laurasian history, the Susanians were the predominant civilization on Laurasia. During that time of ascendancy, they continued to provide many contributions to Laurasian society. As their city-states had consolidated, it became apparent to them that a system of record-keeping was needed, in order to store information and to pass on knowledge to future generations in codified form. Pictographs appeared on Susanian objects as far back as c. 6500 BH, although these were simple and limited to defining basic gestures or objects. Gradually, the pictographs evolved into advanced hieroglyphs, representing both objects and gestures: these had appeared by c. 6300 BH. As the need to record more information grew, the range and diversity of hieroglyphs also increased, and symbols began to combine into sentences. By c. 5600 BH, cuneiform script had appeared, the first fully-developed writing system in the history of Laurasia. With the ability to write, the Susanians developed a vast body of literature, including millions of personal/business letters, receipts, lexical laws, hymns, prayers, stories, daily records, and histories. Of these however, less then five percent has survived the ravages of time. Nevertheless, what does survive clearly communicates the feelings and moral views of the Susanians and their relations with other cultures of their time, including the Letousian Dynasty, Harappa, and Agoria. Writing spread across the planet: by c. 5500 BH, the Letousian Dynasty had adopted the Susanian system, followed by the Harappans and Agorians in c. 5450 BH, and eventually, by the states of Cellini, Explosansis, and Haustia by c. 5400 BH.

Besides developing the first system of Laurasian writing, the Susanians engaged in other innovations. They perfected their religious beliefs, establishing a hierarchical system of Sun Deities and creating a body of mythology about the creation of the world, the Deities, and the Heroes of Laurasia. They also developed a mathematical notation system, based on the 360th degree, figured out a way to tell time, and developed one of the earliest calendars on Laurasia, which organized the year into 200 days, based on the lunar rotations. The Susanians also produced the first written codification of laws in Laurasian history, the Codex Hamurabis of Hammeurabis, king of Urynur (c. 5577-50 BH). The Letousians however, followed closely behind. They developed a more accurate calendar, 365 days in length, based on the solar rotation. They gleaned a considerable knowledge of anatomy and medicine, they developed their own organized religion, and they produced a body of literature rivaling that of the Susanians. The Letousians also constructed the Great Vault of Lujan (c. 5590 BH), which is believed to have been a tomb for their rulers, although the ruler's graves have long since been displaced. The Harappans too, had their own achievements, for they developed the Harappan numerics, which were to eventually be adopted by all the civilizations of Laurasia. Despite these innovations, problems emerged for the Susanians. The Susanians never unified into one kingdom, unlike the Harappans or Letousians, and the various city-states disputed supremacy amongst themselves. At times, states such as Assad, Sydonia, and Dalod maintained control over the other cities. One king of Sydonia, Giglathius (c. 5450-31 BH), managed to briefly unify all of the Susanians under his rule, but after his death, his empire quickly disintegrated.

The continuing warfare amongst the Susanian city-states, and their inability to unite against common foes, provided the opportunity to the Akkadians, a barbarian people from the Tethornes Mountains who migrated south to the Grime Gulf around 5400 BH. The Akkadians occupied the northern regions of Civortania (that is, the land of the Seris and Heloctholes Rivers, as it was known by the Susanians) and applied considerable pressure on Dalod, Urynur, Sydonia, Assad, Childi, and the other states. Some of their number broke off from the rest of the tribe and entered the service of various Susanian kings as mercenaries, court officials, or even political advisers. One of these was Sargonius, a young Akkadian noble who became cup-bearer to the king of Dalod. Sargonius, gaining access to a force of disciplined workers and guards, eventually overthrew the king of Dalod c. 5371 BH and usurped the throne of the city-state. He thereafter embarked on vigorous military campaigns, creating the Akkadian Empire in the process. Sargon conquered Urynur, Sydonia, Assad, Childi, Dentari, his fellow Akkadian tribesmen to the north, Harappa, Agoria, and even the cities of Aganian, a border region between Perinni and Civortania. Sargon also forced tribute from the Letousian Dynasty, whose rulers were losing power over their land. Sargon's empire included all of Susania and Civortania, parts of the Thathian Plateau, and even central Demeni, Kasia, and the southern parts of the Tethornes Mountains. By the time of his death c. 5316 BH, he was the most powerful ruler on Laurasia. Under his successors, especially his son Manderus (c. 5307-5291 BH) and his grandson Pausanius (c. 5291-55 BH), the Akkadian Empire extended its power into Haustia, the southern regions of the Tethornes Mountains, the eastern Thathian Plateau, and even into the Peninsula of the Jibines. The Akkadians were responsible for the Circuit of Temples, the first imperial administrative system, and some of the earliest Laurasian astronomical tables known. During their rule, Laurasia's population is estimated to have increased to about 50 million by 5154 BH. Eventually however, civil war, economic deterioration, and the invasion of the Cadines, a barbarian people from the Tethian Plateau, combined to bring a end to the Akkadian Empire c. 5154 BH.

Following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire, the Cadines took control of Susania and installed their suzerainty over the Susanian and Akkadian cities. Being uncivilized scoundrels, they quickly gained unpopularity with the Susanian natives, and after about forty years of dominance, a Susanian king of Dentari, named Yuglius (c. 5112-5092), rose up against them and established the 3rd Dynasty of Dentari c. 5112 BH. Under Yuglius and his successors, Dentari subjugated the other Susanian cities, reduced the Cadines to vassalage, established relations with Letousia, and scattered its outposts as far as the Great Haustian Sea. Eventually however, problems similar to those which had impacted the Akkadians emerged, as the Gasherites, a barbarian people from the Anaki Desert, expanded into Susania and devastated many of the towns in the region. In c. 5004 BH, the last king of the 3rd Dynasty, Huglius, was overthrown, and the Gasherites now established the kingdoms of Yarni, Sork, and Baskalon. During the 50th century BH, the Gasherites were the most powerful people in the Cellini Middle East, as the region came to be known. They displaced the remaining Susanians and eventually subsumed them, while extending the range of operations into the Peninsula of the Jibines. Then, in about 4994 BH, the Kingdom of Gedrosia was founded. At first a minor Gasherite city-state, it began to rise in power towards the end of the 50th century, and under the rule of Telemachus (c. 4892-50 BH), it extended its rule over all of Susania and Civortania, imposed its suzerainty over the Gasherite city-states of the Thathian Plateau, and established outposts in Aganian, Harappa, and Agoria. After his death however, the Gedrosian Empire quickly disintegrated. During the 48th century, the Assyrian kingdom was established in what had been Harappa, Demeni, and Kasia. This kingdom quickly rose to prominence, conquering much of Civortania and the coastal regions of the Great Haustian Sea. Finally, c. 4595 BH, Gaganys, the capital city of Gedrosia, was captured and leveled, and the Gedrosian Empire collapsed.

The Assyrian Empire became the new predominant power in Cellini, Haustia, and Explosansis, remaining a important state in the region for the next four centuries. Although at times it was to experience periods of contraction and civil decline, in general it was to be a strong state. Over the course of the 46th century, the Assyrians, especially under their king Xadarus (c. 4590-4564), expanded to the head of the Grete Gulf, conquered the Thatian Plateau, expanded into the Tethornes Mountains, and waged wars against a weak Letousia, which was being threatened by Argru peoples ever since the end of the Middle Letousian Period in 4786 BH. By the end of the 46th century, the Assyrian Empire dominated the Middle East and had established contacts with the island of Karniya. During this time, also, the first civilized Haustian state, that of Grinae, emerged in south-eastern Haustia. Under the rule of King Agrimmon (c. 4540-4500), Grinae conquered the western part of the Acolonian Peninsula, forced Karniya into vassalage, and established colonies throughout the Great Haustian Sea. For Assyria, however, a period of weakness dominated the decades after 4500 BH. During the next century, it was largely weak, while Letousia recovered from its Intermediate Period and conquered Aganian, which had paid tribute to Assyria. Assyria lost control of the Gasherites, where the kingdom of Gaganys reasserted itself. In northern Civortania, the kingdom of Mesia was established, with its capital at Argash. Assyrian rule was now limited to eastern Acolonia.

This period of decline ended in 4400 BH, with the ascension to the throne of Eusebius II (4400-4367). Eusebius II vanquished the Mesians and conquered the wandering Akkadian tribes of northern Civortania. His successor Sathius (4367-4322), conquered Gaganys, Urnyur, Dentari, and Dalod, penetrated into the Thathian Plateau, repelled Letousian forces, and seized Karniya from Grinae. After his death, however, Mesia regained her independence and Assyrian overlordship over the Gasherite cities quickly collapsed. Letousia also emerged to prominence under Queen Antigone (c. 4322-4279), who re-conquered Aganian, penetrated into the deserts of the Jibines Peninsula, and sent naval expeditions throughout the Great Haustian Sea and the Letousian Gulf. Grinae also, revived in strength, as under her ruler Porus (4319-4261), it conquered much of the Haustian Balkans, established dominance over the Euxine Sea, and imposed suzerainty over western Acolonia. Assyria again revived in strength at the beginning of the 43rd century, under Mycernius (4300-4292 BH), who conquered Mesia yet again, established a series of colonies in Kasokania, and reorganized the military, equipping it with chariots. He was unable to advance into Gesheria however, which had now been conquered by the Sophomores, who had migrated from the east. Nevertheless, Assyrian strength was restored, and Mycernius was succeeded by Cheops (4292-4257), who was to engage in a extensive and vigorous war with Letousia. The Battle of Rignay, one of the most famous pre-Space Age battles in Laurasian history took place c. 4274 BH, after nearly two decades of indecisive skirmishes in Aganian and Kaskoania. The King of Letousia by that time, Seleucus (4279-4213), inflicted a decisive defeat on Cheops and halted the Assyrian advance. Seleucus and Cheops, however, did not sign a formal peace treaty until 4264 BH. After the death of Cheops in 4257 BH, the Assyrian Empire entered into terminal decline, and gradually lost control again of Civortania and Mesia. After the death of Porus in 4261, Grinae also entered into decline, and the state of Agroy in western Acolonia gained independence under Barsham (c. 4261-4243). His son and successor Achilles (4243-4229), conquered central Acolonia, expanded into the Haustian Balkans, and seized Karniya from the Assyrians.

Letousia remained strong until the death of Seleucus in 4213 BH, after a long reign of sixty-seven years, one of the longest ever recorded in the annals of Laurasian history. Even in his reign however, Letousia began experiencing raids at its northern boundaries at the hands of the Agorians, who wished to expand themselves into Kasokania and Aganian. By the end of the 43rd century, Assyrian rule was restricted to central Acolonia. Mesia, under King Jordanes (c. 4231-4197), expanded into Gesheria, conquered the Assyrian colonies in Kaskoania, and waged war against the Agroians, Letousians, and the peoples of the Anaki Desert and Plateau. The 42nd and 41st centuries however, were now to witness the First Laurasian Dark Age, a time of ethnic migrations, extensive wars, plague, famine, and other such problems. Under Achilles' son Priam (4229-4184 BH), Agroy entered into war with the states of Grinae, which had disintegrated as central kingship faded away. These wars would form the basis of two of the greatest epics in Laurasian history, the Agorian War and the Odyssey of the Seas, which were written some four hundred years after they took place. During the 4190s, as Grinae's strength was drained in its wars against Agroy, the barbarian Fleshmites and Catilygrians began to launch raids into southern Haustia, penetrating to the Illaic Sea. Grinae's remaining militias were to prove unable to deal with the threat. Eventually, in 4188, the Catilygrians, under the command of their king Midas (c. 4193-4176), migrated south, destroyed the Grinae defenses of Allgrace and Hasurin, and crossed the Hellespont into Cellini. They devastated the northern lands of Agroy, exchanged clashes with Grinae armies in Acolonia, and then moved towards Assyria. Assyria fell under severe assault, until its capital city of Nineveus was besieged and captured c. 4186 BH. The Assyrian Empire was destroyed, and was now replaced by Catilina, which became the new predominant state in Acolonia. Catilina expanded into Kasokania and Civortania, applying pressure on Mesia and raiding to the Tathian Sea. Their raids and expeditions forced the migration of the Coastal Peoples, in particular the Jorians and Gadravs, who began moving into Aganian and Yurthria, the land west of Civortania. In Grinae, the Fleshmites and Neo-Saiks invaded the peninsula in 4184 BH, destroying the cities of Mycenae, Akoni, Latisha, and Maxdurg. The Grinae armies in Acolonia were now pushed into a corner, as the Agorians attempted to drive them back. Catilina however, now instigated its own siege of Agroy, which fell at the end of 4184. King Priam and his son, Prince Paris, were killed in the conflagration which destroyed the city, and most of Acolonia now passed under Catilygrian rule. Catilina thereafter destroyed the Grinae armies in western Acolonia.

Following these events, further turmoil erupted in the Cellini Middle East. The Fleshmites and Neo-Saiks continued their offensives, until by 4170, the primary city of Grinae, Sopholia, had fallen to them. Most Grinae villages and towns were destroyed, while hundreds of thousands of peasants and villagers were killed or enslaved. These barbarian peoples, who did not have a reading or writing system, thereafter settled in Grinae, dividing into a number of tribes and city-states. For the next three centuries, anarchy and disunion would descend on Grinae and southern Haustia. Farther to the east, the Jorians and Gadravs moved down the coast of the Great Haustian Sea. In 4185, they seized Karniya, and launched plundering operations against many of the Acolonian islands, destroying many Grinae colonies and causing further devastation. The following year, they drove into Gesheria and the Peninsula Deserts, destroying many villages and scattering many tribes. By the end of 4184, they were launching raids at the border of Letousia. The following year, they launched a full-scale invasion, destroying the city of Jaina and overwhelming the defenses of the Danite Delta. The new King of Letousia, Seleucus III (c. 4183-4152), managed to gather his armies and remaining fleets together, and in a series of pitched battles, managed to defeat the barbarians. Forced to retreat, the Jorians and Gadravs retreated back into Aganian and Yurthria. The Jorians seized control of the cities of Alkeron, Erath, Jabnith, and Esculon, creating a loose military coalition and occupying the coast of Aganian. The Gadravs moved north into Yurthria, where they established the city of Amath and established the Gadravan Confederacy. By the middle of the century, after a series of further raids against Letousia, they finally settled down. However, in 4175, a tribal leader named Karanus led his people out of Letousia. By 4145, the Jathbrews had reached the outskirts of Aganian and quickly descended into the territory, conquering the native Aganite city-states and establishing their own tribal state. They soon entered into conflict with the Jorians and Gadravs, and numerous wars amongst the three groups would be fought for the next two centuries. During the second half of the century, the Fleshmites were driven into Cellini by the Neo-Saiks and descended to the Tethornes Mountains, bypassing Catilina and establishing their own kingdom. Under their ruler Philip (c. 4146-4127), Fleshiu expanded into the Thathian Plateau and exacted tribute from the tribes of that region, such as the Gesherites, Sophomores, and Thathians.

Fleshiu's prosperity, however, would not last long, as Mesia, under her ruler Tigranes (c. 4115-4077), emerged as a major power in the Middle East. Mesia waged wars against Fleshiu, Catilina, Gesheria, the Jibines, the Thathians, the Sophomores, the Gadravs, and the Jorians, briefly dominating Civortania, Gesheria, western Thathia, and parts of Fleshiu and Acolonia. Tigranes penetrated as far as the Great Haustian Sea and halted the raids of Grinae refugees from the Acolonian Islands. Tigranes proclaimed himself "King of the Akkadians, Assyrians, Civortanians, Susanians, and East Perinni", ancient titles which had not been used for centuries. After his death in 4077 BH, the power of Mesia quickly collapsed, and she lost control of all territories outside of Mesia proper itself. Fleshiu and Catilina recovered their lost territories and expanded into Yurthria, waging wars against the Jorians and Gadravs. In the east, the Thathians unified under a loose tribal confederation and defeated the Sophomores, who now retreated into the Jibines Peninsula. In the west, the Jathbrews conquered more of Aganian and pushed to the borders of Letousia. Beginning c. 4050 BH, the Rose-Jackorites, a people from the northern regions of Cellini, crossed the Tethrones Mountains and invaded Civortania, pushing the Gadravs to the coastal regions and occupying most of Yurthria. They were unable to penetrate Mesia however, whose armies remained strong and defended the kingdom against the barbarians. The Rose-Jackorites established a series of kingdoms, including Duwitt and Hugill, of which the latter arose to ascendancy. At about the same time, the Jathbrews suffered a series of defeats at the hands of the Jorians, who had developed the art of iron, the first people on Laurasia to do so. In c. 4046 BH, they finally unified under one ruler, Sarus (c. 4046-4003), who defeated the Jorians in a series of hard-fought campaigns, conquered the Akkadian nomads to the east of Jatheria, as the land was now known, and established a capital city at Herkorim. The tale of his exploits and actions would be recorded in the Jathbrew Scriptures, which would be the core document of the eventual Almitian Bible. Around 4020 BH, the last remaining Grinae peoples migrated into what became Mararia, establishing a collection of city-states. Later, c. 4003 BH, Sarus was killed in battle against the Jorian king of Jabnith, Elbrus, and a period of civil war, between his son Antigonus and his commander Antiochus began. The 4th millennium BH began with the situation in the Cellini Middle East radically changed from what it had been in the days of Assyria's glory. Eventually, c. 3996 BH, Antiochus defeated his competitor and united the whole kingdom under his rule. His long and successful reign (c. 3996-3961), witnessed Jatheria being transformed into the dominant power of the Cellini Middle East. Antiochus subjugated the Jorians and Gadravs, annexed the Rose-Jackorite kingdoms, conquered the Jibines Peninsula, including the Sophomores, neo-Gesherites, and Jibini, successfully contained Letousia to Explosansis, and extended his influence to the outskirts of Mesia and Gedrosia, which had been reestablished c. 3990 BH. The revolt of his son, Archimedes, from 3971 to 3968 BH did not disrupt Jatherian progress. After Antiochus died in 3961, he was succeeded by his son Athanasius (c. 3961-3922), whose reign was a time of peace with Jatheria's neighbors and relative economic prosperity. Towards the end of his reign however, religious tensions disturbed the state, and Athanasius lost control over Hugill, which established its independence.

After Athanasius died, Jatheria quickly disintegrated into two sub-kingdoms: North and South Jatheria, the latter of which remained under the rule of the Antiochid Dynasty. The Jatherians quickly lost control over their conquests. Hugill seized control of the Gadrav coastal regions and expanded south into the northern regions of Aganian. The Jorian confederation overthrew Jatherian overlordship and expanded into the Border Desert, scattering their colonies almost to the Jibines Peninsula. The Jibini and Sophomores regained their independence, and seized control of the former Akkadian tribal territories. Gedrosia extended its rule over all of southern Susania and Civortania. Around 3918 BH, the King of Letousia, Lysimachus (c. 3945-3915), a Regorian usurper, invaded the Jatherian kingdoms and inflicted severe damage on them, forcing a immense amount of tribute. In 3911, Alexander (c. 3911-3891), ascended to the throne of Mesia, marking a great revival in the power of that northern Civortanian kingdom. He subjugated the Fleshmites and Rose-Jackorites north of Hugill, waged war against Gedrosia, and even expanded into the Thathian Plateau. In the meantime, some stability returned to Grinae, as the barbarian Neo-Saiks eventually established new cities and acquired the Proto-Susanian alphabet, which was now vastly different from its original form. By the end of the century, the city of Elana had been established. During the 39th century, various changes took place throughout the civilized regions. In northern Haustia, populated predominantly by tribal confederations, iron was developed, after having been nurtured in the Cellini Middle East. South of Letousia, the Kingdom of Mixing was established c. 3895 BH. The Jatherian kingdoms, during the first two decades of the century, waged constant war against each other, which severely drained their strength. North Jatheria, in particular, suffered civil wars and various throne coups, assassinations, and conspiracies. Fifteen kings reigned in as many years. In 3891, Alexander of Mesia died and was succeeded by his son Philip (3891-3883), who waged war against the Fleshmites, defeated the Catilygrian Kingdom, and destroyed the neo-Assyrian colonies of Kaskoania. Hugill, under its aggressive king Cliesthenes (3890-3876), seized much of Aganian and destroyed the remaining Gadrav cities. Gadrav refugees fled into the Great Haustian Sea, and established a new kingdom on Karniya. Over the course of the century, they established colonies at Balay, northern Explosansis, and Inoria. In 3814, they would establish the city of Marthage. Mesia's power in the region, however, continued to increase over the course of the century, especially under its kings Heredotus IV (3883-3859) and Mithridates III (3859-3823). Under these rulers, Mesia conquered Gedrosia, the Thathian Plateau, Fleshiu, Catilina, the Jibines, the Tethrones Mountains, the regions of the Grime Gulf, and parts of Aganian. Hugill, North and South Jatheria, the Jorians, Sophomora, Letousia, Karniya, the states of Grinae, and the barbarians of trans-Tethrones became Mesian vassals, while Mesia established trade contacts with the Krathian kingdoms. After Mithridates III died in 3823, Mesia entered into a decade of civil war, and as a result lost most of its conquests except Fleshiu and northern Gedrosia. His grandson Heredotus V (c. 3806-3782), reconquered southern Gedrosia, the Thathian Plateau, Catilina, Hugill, and Aganian.

After Heredotus V died in 3782, Mesia entered into yet another period of decline and civil disunion, which lasted until 3745. During that time, the various other kingdoms of the Cellini Middle East took advantage of Mesian weakness to briefly establish their own strengths. North and South Jatheria were briefly reunited under Flavius (c. 3783-3745), who conquered tribal Akkadia, Sophomora, the northern Jibines Peninsula, the Jorian Confederation, and the southern parts of Hugill and the Rose-Jackorites. The Thathian Kingdom consolidated from the earlier tribal confederation, while Gedrosia dominated southern Civortania and extended itself into Gesherite territory. The city-states of Grinae also finally emerged from the Grinae Dark Age, and in 3776, established the Coalition of Olympia. By 3770, they began establishing new colonies throughout southern Haustia, and in 3761, they seized control of Karniya and western Acolonia from Catilina. Catilina itself entered into decline, and Kaskoania was united under the Assyrian king of Largish Midas (c. 3779-3755), who conquered parts of Civortania and Fleshiu. Letousia was conquered by Mixing c. 3750 BH, who established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Letousia. The Mixian kings of Letousia extended their rule into Paujaica and waged wars against Marthage, which became a republic c. 3747 BH. Eventually however, Mesia emerged out of civil disunion with the ascendancy of Tigranes II (3745-3727), a vigorous, ambitious, determined, intelligent, and powerful ruler who wished to restore Mesian domination in the Middle East. During his seventeen year reign, Mesia waged wars in all directions, taking advantage of the disunity of her enemies and the strength, discipline, and technological supremacy of her own armies. Gedrosia, Fleshiu, Catilina, Neo-Assyria, Hugill, the Rose-Jackorite states of the coast, Grinae Karniya, the Tethornes Mountains, the Thathian Kingdom, and the regions of the Grime Gulf were conquered, while Jatheria, the Jorians, Sophomore, Mixing-Letousia, Marthage, the Coalition of Olympia, and the Olympian kingdom of Western Acolonia were reduced to vassalage. For the next century, Mesia was the predominant power on Laurasia, although its territory waxed and waned. Under Tigranes' successors, Artabanus I (3727-3722), Heredotus VI (3722-3704); Ptolemy (3704-3681); Artabanus II (3681-3668); and finally, Demetrius (3668-3627), Mesia conquered all of the Middle East from Letousia in the west to the outskirts of Thathia in the east, extended its sphere of influence into Falloria, and defeated the barbarian Nilkis, Lugilles, and Stepies of the trans-Tethornes. Grinae, Marthage, Mixing, and Mararia were vassals. Under Mesian rule, the population of Laurasia increased from 110 million in 3745 BH to 175 million in 3627 BH.

By the end of the reign of Demetrius however, the Mesians were overextended, as their armies could no longer effectively maintain control over such a vast region. After his death in 3627, Mesia slipped into civil war, which provided the opportunity to the subjugated peoples. The Galarian chieftain Neuchrus (3626-3605), who had led his tribe from the southern parts of the Jibines Peninsula, conquered Gedrosia in 3626 and established the independence of his people. In 3624, the Thathians, Sophomores, Jibini, and neo-Akkadians erupted in rebellion against the Mesian Empire, reestablishing their independence. In 3623, King Nicator of Letousia (c. 3623-3600), overthrew Mesian domination and established the Twenty-Seventh Dynasty of Letousia. By 3620, Catilina and the Grinae of Acolonia had regained their independence also, and Mesian rule was restricted to Jatheria, Aganian, Hugill, Mesia, and Fleshiu. In 3616, Demetrius' son, Africanus, was finally defeated, and the usurper Theodosius now took the Mesian throne. That year, Neuchrus of Galario-Gedrosia allied himself with the other states and declared war against Mesia. For the next four years, a vigorous war ensued, as the Mesians resisted the Galarian invaders fiercely. Eventually however, when Neuchrus established a alliance with the Lugilles and Stepies, the Mesian power collapsed. In 3612, Argash, the old Mesian capital, was besieged and destroyed by the allied coalition. Africanus himself was killed defending his capital. The Mesian armies retreated into Hugill and Jatheria, receiving aid from Nicator, who feared Neuchrus's rapid gains in power. The remnant Mesians, under their last king Nicanor (3612-3605), resisted for several years, but were crushed in the Battles of Iran (3608) and Joshuh (3605). In 3605, Neuchrus died and was succeeded by his son Antigonus (3605-3562), who completed the destruction of the Mesians at Joshuh and assumed control over Gadvaria, Hugill, and North Jatheria. Antigonus then forced Nicator to retreat to Letousia. By 3600, at the close of the 37th century, the whole coast of the eastern Great Haustian Sea, from the border with Catilina to the border with Letousia, was under Galario-Gedrosian rule. Antigonus then turned his attention to the south, defeating the Sophomores and conquering the Jibines Peninsula. The Lugilles, who had conquered the Thathians and occupied their kingdom, remained peaceful with the Galario-Gedrosians however, and instead focused their efforts on destroying Catilina. By 3590, their empire included most of eastern and central Acolonia, while the west fell under the Kingdom of Doria, established by Grinae colonists a decade earlier. In 3587, Antigonus destroyed the restored kingdom of South Jatheria, capturing Herkorim and executing the last Jatherian king, Philidus (3597-3587). The following year, he invaded Letousia and ravaged the land, taking advantage of the chaos which ensued since the death of Nicator in 3600. Letousia became a Galario-Gedrosian vassal. Antigonus spent the remainder of his reign maintaining internal stability, asserting control over Karniya, and organizing a strong government bureaucracy. Upon his death in 3562, however, civil disunion broke out in Galario-Gedrosia. Four kings occupied the throne over the next six years until it was seized by Nabonidus (3556-3539).

By the time that Nabonidus ascended to the Galario-Gedrosian throne however, a new threat had emerged in the east. Lugilla, whose empire extended from central Acolonia to eastern Thathia, had begun disintegrating into a variety of smaller sub-kingdoms, among which was the Kingdom of Tatiana. Tatiana was the strongest of the vassal sub-kingdoms, for she had a strong army, a bustling sea trade, and a prosperous set of cities. In 3559, Honorius ascended to the throne of Tatiana, and in 3556, gained control of the second-largest sub kingdom, Smderia, through a union of inheritance. He began increasing his strength at the expense of the Lugille overlord kings, gaining support in this from Nabonidus, who believed that this would keep the Lugilles off balance. What Nabonidus could not anticipate was the speed of the success of Honorius. In 3554, Honorius erupted in rebellion against the Lugilles, quickly gaining control of Thathia Major, Cougia, and other major sub-kingdoms. By 3550, the Lugille capital, Gehtrys, had been conquered, and Honorius was now King of Tatiana and Lugilla. In 3547, he conquered Doria, bringing all of Acolonia, including the islands, under his rule. In 3545-42 the Stepies were subjugated, and the dominion of Tatiana was extended into Central Cellini. By 3541, Tatianian dominions extended to the Jashu Peak. Finally, in 3539, Honorius invaded Galario-Gedrosia. The Gedrosian army was destroyed at Athens, and soon all of Gedrosia had fallen. Nabonidus himself was killed, and Honorius proclaimed himself King of Susania, Civortania, Gedrosia, Mesia, Assyria, Sophomora, Jatheria, Hugill, Joria, and Karniya. Thus, all of the territories from the Great Haustian Sea to the frontiers of Falloria were united under one ruler. The vast Tatianian Empire had been established, which would be a major world power for the next two centuries. Honorius, who ruled until his death in 3530, was one of the most benevolent pre-Space Age monarchs in Laurasian history, becoming known for his generosity to conquered peoples, his reliance on wise and experienced advisers, and his grant of privileges to various conquered peoples. The Jatherians, for example, who had been exiled by Antigonus to Mesia in 3587, were allowed to return to South Jatheria, now the province of Jatheri, in 3538. In 3531, the Neo-Assyrians, who had been banished to the Jibines Peninsula by Antigonus, were allowed to return to Karokania. Honorius also established the capital city of Securis, in Gedrosia, which became the center of the Empire. After his death in 3530, his son Valens (3530-3522), conquered Letousia and Mixing in 3525, imposed Tatianian overlordship over Marthage, and established a treaty with Elana and the other Grinae city-states, now under the Coalition of Elana.

After a brief period of palace conspiracy, Valens was succeeded by Aetius (3522-3486), under whose reign the Tatianian Empire obtained its greatest extent. Aetius established the Tatianian navy, expanded the Empire into northern Falloria, conquered the Neo-Saiks of the Hellespont, and engaged in expeditions in the trans-Tethrones. But the latter part of his reign also witnessed conflict with Grinae, which ironically sowed the seeds for the Empire's eventual downfall. In 3497, the Grinae cities of western Acolonia erupted in rebellion against Tatiana, wishing to regain independence and align themselves in a independent alliance. They received support from Elana, Gentz, and Brethalia, resisting Aetius and his armies for the next four years. In 3493, Aetius finally crushed the revolts, and punished the Grinae rebels by a spate of massacre, enslavements, rapine, and deportations. He was now determined to punish Grinae for its support of the rebellions. In 3492, Tatiana invaded and conquered Brethalia, thus bringing its forces to the north of the Grinae city-states. In 3490, Aetius launched a invasion of Grinae proper. His forces penetrated to Elana and Merl but was then defeated in the Battle of Marathonis at the end of August. The Tatianians were forced to retreat, although retaining Brethalia and the Hellespont. Aetius prepared his forces for another invasion, but died suddenly in September 3486. He was succeeded by his son Trajan (3486-3465), who was determined to complete his father's work. After amassing a large force and quelling uprisings elsewhere in the Empire, Trajan invaded Grinae in 3481. The Tatianians destroyed Gentz, defeated the Elanan army in the Battle of Thermoplyae, and penetrated to Elana itself. In September 3480, however, they suffered a grave defeat in the Battle of Ralamis, when the Grinath commander Themistocles destroyed the Tatianian fleet. The Tatianian army was forced to retreat, and the last detachment in Grinae territory was crushed at Iloru in 3479. Having suffered a loss of prestige, the Tatianian Empire was forced to end its territorial expansions. The Grinae city-states now took the advantage, and in 3477, they established the League of Delos. During the next three decades, the Grinae city-states waged a series of wars against Tatiana. Doria, western Acolonia, Brethalia, the Hellespont, Karniya, and Cyris in Letousia were liberated from the Tatianian Empire, although in 3471, Themistocles was disgraced and banished from Elana. In 3465, Trajan was assassinated and succeeded by his son Hadrian (3465-3425). Hadrian attempted to deflect the invasion of his dominions by the Grinae. He provoked tensions amongst the city-states, and in Gentz, Gornith, and Seris, his agents passed out bribes to governmental leaders. Soon, Gentz and Elana were engaged in their own war, which lasted for over a decade. Eventually, by 3451, the new leader of Elana, Pericles (3451-3429), made peace with Gentz, and in 3449, signed the Peace of Callios with Tatiana. Grinae gains in Acolonia, Karniya, and Letousia were acknowledged by Hadrian.

For several years, general peace reigned in Grinae, as Pericles promoted the expansion of democracy in Elana, sponsored the arts and sciences, and cemented Elana's dominance over the League of Delos. By 3440, the population of Laurasia was approaching 200 million, most of which was concentrated in Grinae and Tatiana, who together contained nearly 70% of the world's population at the time. Elana was the largest city on Laurasia in that time, with nearly a million inhabitants. By then, the League of Delos had been transformed into a Elanan Empire, as Elana exacted tribute from the member states of the League, employed military force and economic sanctions to crush rebellions against its rule, and dominated western Acolonia. Gentz was again alarmed by Elana's aggressive actions, and finally, in 3431, the Grinae War erupted. For ten years, vigorous war waged between Elana and Gentz. Gentz, whose strength was in her army, invaded the Elanian regions and devastated the countryside, but was unable to attack Elana itself, defended by its massive fortifications. Elana on the other hand, employed her navy to launch raids against Gentian possessions and to maintain control in Acolonia. In 3430, however, a major plague struck Elana. The city proved susceptible to the spread of disease, especially because of its poor sanitation and cramped condition. Nearly half of the city's population, including Pericles himself, died of the plague. The plague severely weakened Elana's strength and drained its army. Elana however, under its new commanders Demosthenes and Cleon, carried the war to Gentz, capturing many villages and winning the Battle of Sphacteria (3425) and Lura (3422). Elanan attempts to seize Aeneaspolis, however, were defeated. In 3421, the Peace of Nicias was signed, by which the status quo ante bellum was temporarily reimposed. For six years, peace held.

Eventually, in 3414, however, war resumed as Elana attacked the Gentian ally of Tegea. The offensive was defeated by the Gentians however, and Gentz soon launched its own offensives against Delos and Deloria. The following year, the Elanan colony of Rembium in Balay was attacked by Jurcuse, a ally of Gentz. Elana now sent a naval armada, which comprised nearly half of its total fleet, to assist Rembium. In 3412, however, this force was destroyed by the Gentians and Jurcusans, who employed a storm to their advantage. The whole armada was destroyed, thus severely weakening Elana's naval strength. In 3411, Josia signed a treaty of alliance with Gentz, and the two allies drove the Elanans from the islands of Redosia and Violetnam. Shortly after, Demosthenes was killed in the Battle of Cyranius. In 3409, Cleon proclaimed himself dictator of Elana, justifying his decision because of the war. Meanwhile, Tatiana began contemplating entering into the war. Hadrian had died in 3425, and was briefly succeeded by his son Trajan II, who held the throne for two years before being assassinated in 3423, being succeeded by his younger brother, Aetius II. Aetius signed a treaty with Gentz in 3408 and launched a invasion of Doria. By 3406, the Tatianians had regained the Hellespont and leveled Sardis, reasserting control in western Acolonia. Karniya and parts of Gedrosia were recaptured by them thereafter. In 3405, the Gentians, with the assistance of Tatiana, established their own navy, and that year began a siege of Elana. They destroyed the city's supplies and plundered its port, Piraeus. Elana's citizens now suffered severe starvation, and eventually, on approximately April 25, 3404 BH, she surrendered to Gentz unconditionally. Gentz forced the signing of the Treaty of Piraeus, by which Elana lost all its overseas possessions, was stripped of its military forces, and was required to submit to Gentz as a vassal. Gentz installed the Thirty Tyrants as the new rulers of Elana, who quickly persecuted all of their opponents. With this, the Grinae War had ended. By 3402, all of the Grinae city-states were allied or subject to Gentz, and even Brethalia signed a treaty of alliance with Gentz. Tatiana once again ruled the Grinae of Acolonia. Later in 3404, Trajan II died and was succeeded by his son Hadrian II (3404-3358), the longest reigning ruler of the Tatianian Empire. In 3401, Honorius the Younger, Hadrian's younger brother, revolted against him, but was defeated. At the close of the 35th century, Laurasia's population was 220 million.

During the 34th century, major political changes took place on Laurasia. Hadrian II of Tatiana campaigned in the Jibines Peninsula, subduing the Cadarian nomads and extending the Empire's dominion to the eastern shores of the Letousian Gulf. In 3398, however, the Letousian rebel Cyrus (3398-3393), seized control of Latis and reestablished the independence of Letousia, creating the Twenty-Eighth Dynasty. From 3396-95, Hadrian attempted to reconquer Letousia, but was defeated in the Jibines Peninsula and the Delta by Cyrus. In 3394, he was forced to acknowledge the independence of Letousia. Cyrus died in 3393, and under his successors of the Twenty-Ninth and Thirtieth Dynasties, Solon (3393-3380), Gallus (3380-3362), Hannibalius (3362-3360), and Antigonus (3360-3343), Letousia enjoyed the final period of prosperity, native independence, and internal strength in its history. Tatianian attempts to reconquer Letousia failed. In the meantime however, further changes took place in Grinae. In 3396, Elana, Parthost, Josia, Rembium, Jurcuse, Jyprus, and Brethalia allied together against Gentz, whose brutal exactions and dictatorial regime had become despised. For the next four years, a vigorous war waged, but in 3392, Gentz allied itself again with Tatiana and with her assistance, gained victory. The other Grinae-city states were crushed and again reduced to thralldom. Tatiana once again regained the Hellespont, with Brethalia compelled to pay tribute. In 3389, Gentz directly annexed all of Grinae and reorganized itself into the Kingdom of Grinae. For the next fifteen years, the kings of Gentz briefly ruled all of the Grinae city-states. Tensions simmered throughout the period however. Uprisings in 3387, 3386, 3384, and 3383 symbolized the resistance towards the rule of Gentz. In 3374, Parthost, Josia, and Jurcuse finally arose in full-scale rebellion against Gentz. In 3370, they finally destroyed the Gentian army in the Battle of Placidia, and in 3369, Gentz itself was captured and leveled. Parthost thereafter established the League of Parthost and attempted to now dominate the other Grinae city-states. In 3366, it managed to defeat Elana. In 3365, Parthost instigated renewed war against Tatiana, and actually proved successful, conquering almost all of Acolonia and Karniya by 3362. In 3361, Parthost formulated a alliance with King Hannibalius of Letousia against Tatiana. In 3359, it waged war against Marthage, which by now dominated the islands and lands of the western Great Haustian Sea. Marthage was driven from Balay, but attempts to attack its colonies in Mararia were defeated. In 3356, King Paris of Parthost (3367-3356) died, and upon his death, the League of Parthost collapsed. Elana regained independence in 3355, followed by Doria in 3354. In 3353, the League of Delos was reestablished by Elana, Josia, Rembium, and Doria, although this time on a equal basis. The following year, they attacked Parthost. Parthost itself was captured in 3351 and its last king, Antipater (3356-3351), was killed.

Decades of war had weakened the Grinae city-states, however, and Tatiana, under her last strong ruler Hadrian III (3358-3338), now experienced a great revival in power. In 3356-53, Hadrian had already reasserted Tatianian rule in western Falloria and defeated the intrusion attempts of the Kasyinate Confederacy, which had been established in 3407 by Jannus. He provided support to the League of Delos in their wars against Parthost. In 3350, Hadrian reconquered Karniya, reincorporating it as a province of the Tatianian Empire. Hadrian III now determined to take the advantage of the weakness of Doria, and in 3349, he launched a massive invasion of Acolonia. The Dorian armies were destroyed, and in 3347, Sardis was recaptured. By 3345, all of Acolonia was again under Tatianian rule. He then turned his attention to Letousia, whose King Antigonus had gained excessive unpopularity with his subjects. Amassing a vast army and naval fleet, Hadrian III invaded Letousia in 3344. He penetrated to the Danite Delta and destroyed the cities of Jaina, Jorkia, and Anthineses. In 3343, Hadrian III defeated and captured Antigonus in the Battle of Palmeris, and finally reincorporated Letousia into the Tatianian Empire. Thereafter he crushed rebellions in Hugill, Karniya, Neo-Assyria, Jatheria, Gedrosia, and Mesia. In 3341, he defeated a Elanan attempt to expel the Tatianians from Doria and Sardis. In 3340, he campaigned in the trans Tethrones, repelling Amazonite raids on the northern boundaries of Tatiana. Hadrian III then returned to his capital city, Necropolis, and instigated a number of architectural projects.

In his final years, he grew increasingly concerned at the growing power of Philip of Brethalia. Philip (3358-3336), ever since his ascension to the Brethalian throne, had reorganized and strengthened his military, transforming it into a sophisticated force. He waged wars against the Garians and Toris of the Haustian Balkans, seized control of Grinae colonies on the northern shore of the Euxine Sea, and repelled Tatianian incursions from the Hellespont. After 3350, Philip had decided to take advantage of the weakness of the Grinae city-states. Over the next decade, he waged wars against Elana, Gentz, Josia, Jurcuse, Jyprus, Rembium, and the petty Grinae city-states, doubling Brethalia's territory. He also plundered the Acolonian islands and penetrated to Karniya. Finally, in 3338, he destroyed the army of Jambory, the last surviving city-state, in the Battle of Gornith and conquered the Grinae city-states. By the Treaty of Gornith (September 3338), Philip was acknowledged as overlord of Grinae and was given absolute command of defense, foreign affairs, justice, and trade. Philip now began planning a invasion of Tatiana, determined to destroy the Tatianian Empire. In 3336, however, he was assassinated by his officer Pausanius, and his 20-year old son, Cliethus (3336-3281), now became King of Brethalia and Lord of Grinae. Cliethus was to become one of the greatest pre-Space Age monarchs in Laurasian history, for he was to establish the Brethalian Empire, which would dominate much of Cellini, Haustia, Explosansis, and eventually North Westar for centuries. The Grinae city-states, attempting to recover independence, revolted upon the ascension of Cliethus, but he, in the first display of his military genius, utterly crushed their rebellion. In 3335-34, he conquered the Garians and Toris, extending Brethalian dominion into central Haustia. Then, in 3334, at the head of a Brethalian-Grinae army, Cliethus invaded the Tatianian Empire.

Hadrian III's successor, Aetius III (3338-3330), the last King of the Tatianian Empire, was a weak and ineffectual figure who proved unable to resist the Brethalian threat. Cliethus gained a major victory in the Battle of Grania, which was fought in the latter half of 3334. He destroyed the Tatianian army of Doria there. Cliethus thereafter proceeded into central Acolonia, occupying Sardis, Gordium, and Jurnon by the middle of 3333. Cliethus's army then descended into what had been Catilina, and there, he encountered Aetius III, who had hustled with his hordes from the east, for the first time. The Battle of Io, fought in the summer of 3333, resulted in a decisive victory for Cliethus, who scattered Aetius's hordes. Aetius himself barely evaded capture. Cliethus then advanced along the coast of the Great Haustian Sea, capturing the ports of Adyre, subduing Karniya, and occupying most of Hugill and Gadravia. By the beginning of 3332, he had advanced into Jatheria, occupying Herkorim. The old Jadian cities of Alkeron, Erath, Jabnith, and Esculon, which now served as Tatianian fortresses and ports, were conquered by him. By the end of 3332, Cliethus had descended into Letousia, proclaiming himself King of Letousia at Jaina. Cliethus then advanced into the Jibines Peninsula, and Sophomora, Akkadia, and Jibini fell into his possession during 3331. He then advanced through Hugill and Aganian into Mesia. At Gaugamela, fought in the autumn of 3331, he shattered Aetius's hordes, destroying Tatianian power. Thereafter, Gaganys, Necropolis, Securis, Yusa, and Esather fell to the Brethalian army, and Aetius III fled to the east. In 3330, he was assassinated by his commander Coenus, who then proclaimed himself King of Tatiana. Cliethus however, hunted the usurper down, and in the early part of 3329, he was defeated and captured. By then, Cliethus had proclaimed himself "Great King of Tatiana, Brethalia, Doria, Catilina, Neo-Assyria, Mesia, Gasheria, Gedrosia, Jibini, Jatheria, Hugill, Aganian, Joria, Letousia, Thathia, Lugilla, Grinae, the Balkans, and the Cellini lands of all regions". Now the most powerful monarch on the surface of Laurasia, he now advanced farther east. He conquered central Cellini, scattering the Amazon tribes and penetrating to the Central Sea. He then descended into Falloria, defeating the Kasyinate Confederacy and conquering "all tribes without exception".

Cliethus now decided to return to Necropolis, which he established as the capital city of the Brethalian Empire. He returned there in 3326 and for the next six years, concentrated his efforts on consolidating his conquests, reorganizing his military, and exploiting the resources of his vast dominions. He now planned for campaigns in eastern Falloria, against the Mandulay Empire, the Krayuite Kingdom, and other such states. His ambition was to penetrate to the "Great Eastern Sea" (Eastern Ocean). He also wished to conquer Marthage and Mararia. Finally, in 3320, he began his campaigns. Between 3320 and 3303, Cliethus conquered all of Falloria, Krayia, trans-Tethornes, the south Jibini Peninsula, Mixing, Marthage, Mararia, and the Western Balkans. All of the Great Haustian Sea fell under the rule of the Brethalian Empire, the largest yet seen on the surface of Laurasia. Cliethus, hailed as "the Great", was one of the most successful rulers in pre-Space Age Laurasian history. In 3299, he completely incorporated the Grinae-city states, and in 3297-94, suppressed a series of uprisings in Tatiana, Gadveria, Gedrosia, and Mesia. During the rule of Cliethus, the population of Laurasia increased from 237 million in 3336 to 296 million in 3281. During the last decade of his rule, Cliethus experienced problems within his household. The conspiracy of his guards officer Croetus, from 3292-89, and the uprising of Lysimachus from 3287-85, in particular threatened his rule. These were suppressed however, and by the time of his death in September 3281, the Brethalian Empire was a strong and stable state.

Under the rulers of the Philipic-Clithae Dynasty (3358-3202), the Brethalian Empire continued its territorial expansion. Under Cliethus's grandson and successor, Hephaestion (3281-3261), Brethalia defeated and subjugated the Grants, consolidated rule in northern Mararia, and began establishing outposts in Maul. Hephaestion's son and successor, Agores (3261-3237), conquered the Mexae and Hottentot confederacies of central Explosansis, sent naval expeditions into the Great Fallorian Ocean, and sponsored surveys of much of the coast of Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis. Agores' son and successor, Ptolemy I (3237-3206), conquered Ingray and colonized the islands of Cirhon. He also established the new capital city of Clethucia. Ptolemy's son Ptolemy II (3206-3202), however, was assassinated by a guards officer, Porus, who usurped the throne and established the Poran Dynasty (3202-3089). During his rule (3202-3187), the Empire faced uprisings by Elana, Marthage, Gedrosia, and Mesia, but these were all crushed. Porus expanded across the Thathian Sea, conquering the central regions of Al-volga. Porus was then succeeded by his daughter Theodosia (3187-3140), the first Queen of Brethalia, who sponsored the arts and sciences, constructed a series of fortresses along the Empire's frontiers, and maintained internal stability. Her 47-year reign witnessed a period of great internal prosperity and unity for the regions under Brethalian rule, which stretched from Inoria to Cirhon. Theodosia did conquer Maul and Mathiania (3160-57), expanding the Empire's boundaries to the Northern Ocean. Upon her death in 3140, she was succeeded by her son Ptolemy III (3140-3116), who continued his mother's policies. Towards the end of the 32nd century, however, the barbarian Varangians of the north began raiding the Empire's northern frontiers. In 3117, they launched a massive invasion of Mathiania, destroying a Brethalian army in the Battle of the Games. The following year, they descended on Maul, having seized Mathiania, and then crushed Ptolemy in the Battle of Allia. He himself fell in the battle. The Varangians occupied Mararia and Inoria thereafter, and penetrated into the Balkans, threatening Brethalia proper, the Hellespont, and Garia. Ptolemy's son and successor, Pausanius (3116-3107), proved an ineffectual ruler, and his campaigns against the Varangians proved costly failures. By 3106, it seemed that Brethalia would fall apart. A revival followed, however, under Agores II (3107-3089), who reconquered Mararia in 3106, expelled the Varangians from Inoria in 3105-03, and then crushed the barbarians in the Battles of Cimae (3103), Wonther (3102), and Zama (3101). By 3097, all of Maul and Mathiania had been reconquered. In 3096-94, he launched a massive invasion of the Varangian Peninsula, finally subduing the barbarians by 3093. In 3089, however, he died of plague, leaving no heirs. The throne was then seized by the general Ptolemius, who became Ptolemy IV (3089-3081).

Ptolemy IV established the Ptolemaic Dynasty (3089-2903), under whose reign the Empire made considerable gains. The rulers of this dynasty were all named Ptolemy and as such there was Ptolemy V (3081-3066); Ptolemy VI (3066-3046); Ptolemy VII (3046-3006); Ptolemy VIII (3006-2985); Ptolemy IX (2985-2941); Ptolemy X (2941-2911); and Ptolemy XI (2911-2903). Brethalia came to rule all of Haustia, the majority of Explosansis, as far south as Fresoi, on the edge of the Southern Ocean, and all of Cellini to the Pole Sea, and was the predominant government on Laurasia Prime at the end of the 4th millennium BH. During the 30th century, a religious preacher, named Paul (c. 3000-2969), conducted his ministry in Jatheria, preaching a message of brotherly love, spirituality, and worship to one Lord and his agents of Almitis (the Brethalian term for creation). Paul was executed by the Governor of Jatheria, who considered his message to be a threat to the traditional Brethalian Gods: Messalina, the Goddess of All Earth, Jupiter, the God of All Who Reside, Venus, the Goddess of All who Believe, Neptune, the God of those who Fight, Hera, the Wife of the God Who Resides, and Honorius, the God of All Humans. Indeed, Paul had preached that these Gods were false and that salvation and true belief in one Lord of Almitis would be one's way to salvation. He had emphasized the equality of all and the rights of all to grace and paradise, for those who had treated others respectfully, conducted themselves in a proper manner, and did good deeds for society. His message proved powerful, and his adherents, especially the disciple Eusebius (c. 3012-2939), spread his message throughout the Brethalian Empire. Almitism, as the religion came to be known, progressed rapidly throughout the Brethalian Empire. By 2900, it has been estimated that there was already upwards of 20 million believers throughout Laurasia.

At first, the Kings of Brethalia considered the new religion to be a threat to their authority and to the traditional cults. Ptolemy IX was the first Brethalian King who instigated a major persecution of the religion. In 2961, he had declared that any religion which was contrary to the Gods of Laurasia were to be "destroyed and dispersed, so that they may be rid of the planet". This policy was continued by his son Ptolemy X, who ordered a massacre of Almitians in Necropolis and Gaganys in 2940 and then had Eusebius executed the following year. Despite the efforts of the Brethalian Government, Almitism continued to flourish. Eventually, by the 2920s, as the Ptolemaic Dynasty was distracted by inflation and wars in Westar, pressure on Almitism dropped. The faith continued to gain in numbers, establishing bishoprics in Necropolis, Gaganys, Elana, Gentz, Schaffer, and other major cities of the Empire. When Ptolemy XI died in 2903, the throne was usurped by the general Commodus (2903-2886). Commodus, in his correspondence with regional governors, established a policy of moderation and toleration towards Almitians. With the religion now protected from persecution, it began moving upwards in society. Many governors themselves converted to Almitism, and the number of believers increased from 20 million in 2300 to 67 million in 2886. Almitians were not yet a majority of the Laurasian population, still remaining very much a minority. Under Brethalian rule, Laurasia's population had exploded to 476 million by 2900. Nevertheless, they were now a prominent religion, and many continued to be attracted by their teachings. In the meantime, under Commodus, the Brethalian Empire obtained its greatest territorial extent. In 2900-2896, Commodus defeated and conquered the Merdanian Confederacy, expanding the Empire into the Islands of Merdania. In 2894-92, he established colonies in Greshuland, and in 2889-86, subjugated the female-dominated Asorites of the Mexicanian Desert. Commodus sponsored the arts and erected the famous Column of Commodus, a landmark of Laurasia until its destruction in the 2nd century BH.

At the time Commodus died in August 2886, the Brethalian Empire dominated all of Laurasia with the exception of Australania, the Southern Pole, South Westar, and the southern tip of North Westar. Nevertheless, strains had already begun to appear in the Empire. The Brethalians were overextended, their forces being located on virtually every continent. The Empire's long frontiers overstretched the military, which had to be deployed in many regions. For a long time, the Kings had followed the policy of only conscripting Brethalians, Grinaes, and Tatianians into their forces. The sheer size of the Empire's territory and population, however, forced them to begin conscripting subjugated populations into the forces, who naturally despised their masters. Kings also began to depend on the loyalty of their guards regiments, passing out extensive presents and bribes to them. In order to pay for these, and to finance their many construction projects, the Kings began to devalue the currency, reducing the amount of silver. By 2886, the silver uyranius was worth only one third of the value it had possessed a century earlier. This was complicated yet further by the insubordination displayed by various regional governors, especially the viceroy of Ameridini (a early form of the name Americana) and the Governor of the Merdanian Islands. These rulers controlled the Empire's farthest flung territories, and as such were the ones least under the King's control. Finally, piracy in the Great Fallorian Ocean and Western Ocean harassed commerce, and the difficulty of communications in a time with no modern technologies, still very much the period of Laurasian Antiquity, made it impossible to coordinate effectively.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part II: From the Death of Commodus to the Establishment of the Al-Volgan Kingdom of MarariaEdit

After Commodus died, the Empire was sent into a spiral of decline which was to eventually bring about its destruction and the end of Laurasian Antiquity. Commodus had died without children, and as such, the throne was immediately thrown open to competition. The Tlyurian Guards were the official regiments of the Brethalian Empire, having been established by Ptolemy I in 3210. Until then, the Guards had generally been kept under control by succeeding sovereigns. But now, with a situation over the succession emerging, they seized their opportunity. Clethucia was disturbed by their uprising of October 2886, which resulted in the Guards seizing control of the Royal Palace and proclaiming the household general Artabanus (2886-83) as the new Great King of Brethalia. Artabanus was very much dependent upon their support, and he spent much of the first year of his reign passing out bribes, rewarding soldiers for their "loyalty", and then exempting the Guards from taxation. Eventually however, in 2883, a general named Pertinax erupted in rebellion against his master, and quickly seized control of Necropolis, Gaganys, Yusa, and Esather. He then advanced into Gedrosia and seized Clethucia in February 2883, where the Guards acclaimed him as the new Emperor. Artabanus was killed by his own household servants shortly thereafter. The Brethalian Empire now began to divide into smaller satrapies, as various ambitious generals and governors, hearing of Pertinax's conspiracy, now determined to assert themselves as rulers. The Viceroy of Ameridini, Julius, proclaimed himself King of Ameridini in the spring of 2883 and denied the authority of the Brethalian Empire. By August or September 2883, the previously obscure general Mark Antony had seized control of Letousia, Marthage, and Inoria, establishing his own Marthiganite Empire. Pertinax proved unable to deal with these threats, and his popularity with the Guards declined quickly. In the winter of 2883, he was assassinated by a ambitious guards officer named Balbinus, who thereafter usurped the throne.

Balbinius managed to hold the throne for three years, but ultimately he too was deposed and assassinated by the Jatherian general Hezekius in 2880, who then occupied Clethucia and usurped the throne. The governor of Mesia, Lysimachus, proclaimed himself King of Tatianian Mesia in the early part of 2879, and broke away from the authority of the Brethalian Empire. Hezekius now had lost communications with his territories in Fleshiu, the trans-Tethornes, the Al-volga, and the regions of the Pole Sea and northern Cellini. These territories now revolted under their garrison general Julianus, who established the Al-Vogan Empire in 2878 and asserted his independence. Julianus then advanced to the south, defeated Lysimachus at Gaugamela in 2877, and then hurled his forces into Gedrosia and Gasheria. Hezekius stood no chance, and in the early part of 2876, was captured, tortured, and then executed. Julianus then proclaimed himself Great King of Brethalia and waged wars against Mark Antony (2876-73), which severely weakened his strength and led to the loss of Sophomora, Jibini, Jatheria, Hugill, and Aganian to the Marthiganian usurper King. In 2872, Julianus was assassinated by his bodyguards and was succeeded by the weak Gordian, who held power for just a year. Gordian was followed by Philip IV (2871-2869); Philip V (2869-2866); Narses (2866-2860); and Carolus Magnus (2860-2857). Under these rulers, Brethalia retreated from the Merdanian Islands, Cirhon, and Krayia, which fell under the control of a series of Brethalian officers, native rulers, and even women. Mark Antony, who ruled until his death in 2863, advanced into Mesia, Doria, and Karniya, severing the Brethalian dominions from the Great Haustian Sea. His successor Caesaerion (2863-2842), a half-Marthagianian and half-Brethalian fellow, conquered southern Grinae, including Elana and Gentz, seized Jurcuse, and raided into the Hellespont. Caesaerion also conquered the whole of the Jibini Peninsula, reducing the territories of the Brethalian King yet further.

Mararia, Maul, Varangia, trans-Alpua, Euxina, the northern Balkans, the Hellespont, Brethalia itself, northern Grinae, Inoria, and Mathiania were unified by the Mararian nobleman Augustus (2867-2844), who established the Mararian Empire and declared his independence from Brethalia. Augustus was the first to take the title of "Imperator (Emperor)", which derived from the old Mararian version of Great King or "supreme king". This title, along with the traditional Basileus, would last into the Space Age, and indeed, down to modern times. Augustus defeated Mark Antony and Caesaerion's attempts to expand into Balay, repelled Al-Vogan forces who penetrated into Florencia, established colonies in Varangia and the Pole, and annexed the island of Richland, which had managed to remain independent of Brethalian territory. His son and successor Tiberius (2844-2814), invaded North Westar, defeating King Dicolectian (2863-2837) in 2839-37 and annexing the majority of North Westar. Tiberius then conquered Doria, Acolonia, Catilina, and Karniya from Caesaerion's son and successor, Brutus (2842-2826), in 2836-33. Tiberius then advanced into Al-Volga and crushed King Maximus (2872-2827) at Ramae (2830); Rbrendia (2829); and Scythia (2827). By 2826, all of the dominions to the Eastern Ocean in north Celini were under Mararian rule. During all this time, Almitism had advanced. The number of believers had increased to 150 million by 2860, and the Almitian bishop of Clethucia, Gregory I (2860-2841) had become acknowledged as the leader of the "Almitian Church". Gregory established new bishoprics in the Merdanian Islands, Mixing, Cirhon, and Australasia, whose native chieftains had been contacted by Almitian missionaries in the 2870s. By the end of his pontificate, the number of believers had increased to 200 million. In 2841, the population of Laurasia Prime was 600 million, meaning that Almitians now comprised a third of the total. After 2841, Tiberius, who felt threatened by the spread of the religion, launched a violent persecution, and nearly 12 million Almitians were slaughtered between 2841 and 2814. Bishop Gregory II (2841-2830), was one of the victims. Only upon his death in 2814 did the bloodletting stop, for his successor, Constantine (2814-2796), issued a decree of toleration for all religions. By the end of the century, Almitism had expanded to encompass 230 million believers.

Constantine, who ruled until 2796, annexed central and southern Explosansis, including Mixing and Hottentia, expanded into the Jibini Peninsula, and reduced Marthiganian dominions to Marthage, Letousia, and Paujaica. King Igis of Marthage (2826-2790), became a Mararian vassal. Constantine also defeated the incursion of the Oslemites and Breshites, tribes of South Westar who had plundered the Mexicanian Deserts continually since the 2820s. Constantine's sudden death in 2796, however, left the Mararian Empire paralyzed. His son, Valentinian (2796-2787), was a boy of only ten years when his father died, and he quickly fell under the control of his general Theodoisus (2846-2789). This gave the opportunity to Vespasian, who had become Great King of Brethalia in Gedrosia in 2797. Vespasian was determined to reunify the Brethalian dominions, and he now engaged in vigorous campaigns in order to accomplish that goal. He first campaigned in Falloria, defeating King Antipater of Great Falloria in 2796. Then in 2795-92, Cirhon, Krayia, the Merdanian Islands, and even the northern parts of Australasia were reacquired. In 2791, he launched his first war against Mararia, reacquiring all of the Jibini Peninsula in 2790. When King Igis of Marthage died in 2790, Vespasian intervened into Marthagian affairs and annexed the whole of Marthage, Letousia, and Paujaica. Then in 2789 he seized Hottentia and Mixing, and penetrated to the Southern Ocean. Theodosius then attempted to invade Gedrosia, and penetrated as far as Nercopolis, but was decisively defeated by Vespasian in the Battle of Ctesiphon, in the autumn of 2789. Theodosius himself was slain. In 2788, Vespasian invaded Karniya and Acolonia, capturing Sardis, Gordine, and Schaffer. In 2787, Valentinian was assassinated by his commander, Demetrius, who then proclaimed himself Emperor (2787-83). That year, Vespasian crossed the Tethornes Mountains and reconquered Al-Volga, Northern Cellini, and Eastern Oceania. In 2786-85, he subdued the Varangian Peninsula, and then conquered Richland and the Pole Islands by 2784. Then, in 2784, Vespasian's forces invaded Inoria, Mararia, Grinae, the Hellespont, and Brethalia. Elana, Gentz, Jurcuse, Josia, and Rembium were captured in the first half of 2784, as was Jeyu, the capital city of Inoria. Finally, in the winter of 2784, Mararia's capital, Romtania, was besieged by the Brethalians. The city resisted ferociously, and it was not until December 2783 that the Brethalians finally managed to breach the walls. Demetrius himself was killed in the heat of the battle, and Vespasian, now proclaiming himself Great Emperor of Brethalia, entered the conquered city. By the end of 2782, Mathiania, Maul, northern Mararia, and North Westar had also been reconquered, and the Brethalian Empire was once again unified.

Vespasian now established a new capital city at Pontus, in central Mararia, and sought to consolidate his reconquests. Determined to insure that the Brethalian Empire would not splinter again, he instigated a series of extensive political, military, and economic reforms. Vespasian now divided the Empire into five "sub-Empires": the Empire of Ameridini, the Empire of Brethalia Major, the Empire of Gedrosia, and the Empire of Cirhon. Ameridini was to comprise of all the territories in the Americas and the Polar Islands; Brethalia Major, of those in Haustia; Gedrosia, of those in Explosansis and Cellini to the frontiers of Falloria; and Cirhan, of those in Falloria, Cirhon proper, Krayia, the Merdanian Islands, Australasia, and Eastern Oceania. Ameridini was to be ruled by his son Titus; Brethalia Major, by his son Daedalus; Gedrosia, by his daughter Alexandra; and Cirhon, by his son Elaglablus. Vespasian himself would be Great Emperor, holding suzerainty and the ultimate jurisdiction over the entire empire. Each of his children would be merely "Caesar" or co-Emperor, and their children would be "Kings" or "Queens", assigned rule of sub-territories within their dominions. When he died, Titus would become Great Emperor, with the others remaining Caesars. If any of them died, their child would be elevated to the rank of Caesar. And this would continue in a line. Besides this, each of the sub-Empires was divided into five dioceses, which each had its own military commander and governor. Each diocese, in turn, was divided into twelve provinces, each with a lieutenant governor, council of legislators, and assembly of nobles. The military was now to be organized along priority basis. Patrol units would be stationed at the Westar and Australasian borders, while stronger garrisons would protect the cities. In case the borders were threatened, the garrisons would move out and stop the threat. A series of price levels were established and persons with a occupation were forbidden to move residence or even transport goods without a passport: this was the start of serfdom, which would plague Laurasia for over a thousand years.

The "Co-Empires" system established by Vespasian operated effectively until his death in 2766. However, during the last years of the reign, barbarian attacks on the frontiers increased. Oslemite and Breshite raids in Mexicana and the Syrenes Sea increased, with Titus being forced to construct a series of elaborate border defenses in 2780-77. Piracy intensified yet further, and Elana was even threatened by a pirate fleet for a few months in 2776 before Vespasian mustered enough naval vessels to destroy the pirate bases. In 2775, Australasian natives unified into the Kingdom of the Kaliees, and her King Septimius (2775-56), began organizing his military forces for a push into the Merdanian Islands and the Usai Peninsula. In 2770-69, the Varangians erupted in a massive revolt against their Brethalian masters, and it required the combined efforts of Vespasian, Titus, Alexandra, and Daedalus in order to crush the rebellion. Finally, in 2767, Oslemite pirates began launching raids in western Explosansis. At first minor irritations, they would eventually escalate in importance. It was also during Vespasian's reign that Almitism finally became the state religion of the Brethalian Empire. Vespasian had always been sympathetic towards Almitism, and in 2783, the Almitian clerk Laucantius had been appointed his personal secretary. Under the influence of Laucantius and his associates, Vespasian began to implement more measures to support Almitism. In 2780, he reconfirmed Constantine's edict of toleration and extended its effect to the whole Empire. In 2779, he exempted Almitians from conscription, imperial sacrifices, and gladiatorial games. In 2778, Almitian properties were exempted from taxation and enumerations. In 2775, Vespasian established a Almitian chapel at the Royal Palace. Finally, by the edicts of Elana, of 2773-71, Almitism was proclaimed the official religion of the Brethalian Empire. Traditional Brethalism remained tolerated, but was no longer professed by the imperial government. Similar edicts by Titus, Alexandra, Daedalus, and Elagabalus confirmed Almitism's new position. In 2768, Vespasian summoned the Council of Sardis, which decided on important matters of church doctrine and administration. By the time of Vespasian's death in the summer of 2766, nearly 300 million people were "believers in Almitis".

The death of Vespasian signaled the end of the last strong period for the Brethalian Empire. Overextended and weak, the Empire was no longer able to effectively govern all of its dominions, and Vespasian's "Co-Empires" system, had, ironically, reestablished the same system which he had sought to destroy, which was the division of the Empire. Although Titus was now Great Emperor, he was not as formidable or effective as his father. Daedalus instigated a major civil war against his brother in 2764, refusing to acknowledge his authority. He was soon joined by Elagabalus, who did not want to be subservient to Titus. In 2763, Titus's garrisons in Genta, Elana, Sardis, Jurcuse, and Romtania were destroyed. In 2762, Richland was seized by Daedalus. Ameridini itself was invaded in 2761, but Titus gained a major victory in the Battle of Ickiway, destroying most of Daedalus's transports. Peace was established in 2760, with Titus recognizing the independence of his brothers and of Alexandra, who had repudiated her brother's suzerainty in 2761 and seized his consulate at Herkorim. Daedalus however, now recklessly involved himself in war with Alexandra, beginning in 2759, attempting to expel his younger sister from Doria, the Hellespont, and Karniya. Although he managed to level Sardis in 2758 and penetrated to the Tethornes Mountains, Alexandra then crushed his armies in the Battle of Myrgie, and forced him to retreat from Acolonia. In 2756, her fleet seized the Acolonian Islands, and in 2755, Elana was captured and plundered by her army. She then overran Brethalia and the Balkans in 2755-53. In 2752, with Alexandra's armies entering Mararia and Maul, Daedalus was forced to sue for peace. By the Treaty of Gorne, he recognized his sister's gains. Alexandra then withdrew to the east. In 2749-47, she fought Elagabalus in Falloria, penetrating to the Great Fallorian Ocean and annexing the provinces of Trans-Garis, Nurgia, and Chandragupta.

In 2746, however, Alexandra was poisoned by her steward, Eumenus, who considered the rule of women to be "a abomination". Eumenus was supported by Daedalus, who wished to recover his lost territories. Eumenus, upon seizing the throne, returned all of Alexandra's conquests to their previous owners, which cost him a lot of popularity amongst the Guards. In 2744, he was overthrown and assassinated, being succeeded by Syncellus (2744-2733), under whose rule the Gedrosian Empire disintegrated. Syncellus attempted to regain Grinae and the Balkans, but his forces were crushed by Daedalus in the Battle of Josia in 2742. In 2741-39, Daedalus occupied Doria, Eastern Acolonia, Karniya, and Hugill, thus weakening Gedrosia's access to the Great Haustian Sea. Daedalus himself, however, was assassinated in 2737, and his successor, Mardonius, was to also prove a weakling. In 2735, the Sophomores revolted and seized control of the Jibini Peninsula. Their ruler, Xenophon (2735-2721), conquered Jatheria, Letousia, and Paujaica in 2733-30, defeating and killing Syncellus in the Battle of Aedom. Syncellus was succeeded by Gregory (2733-2723), who would be dominated by his household officials for the whole of his reign. Gregory lost control over Mesia and Western Fleshiu to Xenophon in 2727, and in 2725, Elagabalus's son and successor, Alexander (2740-2717), seized Thathia, Lugilla, and most of eastern Fleshiu. By 2722, Gedrosian rule was restricted to Gedrosia itself and Gasheria. In the meantime, in Ameridini, Titus died of the Jaugilles' Plague in 2734. His son and successor, Domitian (2734-2714), proved to be a weakling ruler. The Oslemites, under their King Osirus (2731-2719), broke the Ameridini defenses in Maya in 2727, penetrating into Mexicana and destroying all cities in their path. Domitian's attempt to halt their advance was defeated at Grathate in 2724. By 2720, all of Mexicana and Texana had been occupied by the Oslemites. Domitian staggered on until his death in 2714, being succeeded by his weak son, Nerva, under whose rule the Empire of Ameridini lost control of the Polar Islands. Farther to the east, the Australasians took advantage of the death of Alexander of Cirhon in 2717. In 2716, they expelled the Brethalian garrisons from Northern Australasia. The following year, they conquered Eastern Oceania, the Merdanian Islands, and parts of Cirhon. By 2715, their raids were reaching mainland Krayia and Ignaty. In 2714, the Australasians descended into Falloria, and established the Kingdom of Abay. In 2713, Gedrosia was forced into vassalage by Xenophon's son and successor, Marcus (2721-2698). Marcus had already conquered Marthage and Inoria in 2719-17, defeating Mardonius's son and successor, George (2730-2709). In 2712-09, he advanced into Karniya, Doria, Acolonia, and Hugill, conquering those territories and driving the Brethalian Majorian Empire out of western Cellini. After George died in 2709, Marcus invaded Mararia and conquered most of the peninsula by 2705. In 2704, he proclaimed himself Emperor of Sophomora. In the meantime, in Ameridini, the Breshites began applying pressure on the Oslemites. Under Decabalus (2717-2697), the Breshites moved into Mexicana, conquered the islands of the Syrenes Sea, and then penetrated to Relapundium by 2703. By the end of the century, the Oslemites were migrating into Ameridinian territory. Nerva, who ruled until 2696, proved unable to stop the migrations and in 2698, was forced to sign a treaty with the King of Oslem, John (2713-2690).

By the end of the 28th century, the population of Laurasia had actually increased to 650 million, while the number of Almitians had risen to 400 million. Almitians were now a majority of the Laurasian population, with just 250 million remaining pagans, shamanists, naturalists, or atheists. They were to retain this dominance for over 2,000 years. Nevertheless, as Antiquity was swiftly moving towards its close, further turbulence took place on Laurasia. The Kaliee Kingdom of the Austalasians invaded Krayia and Falloria in 2697-94. As a result of these campaigns, the cities of Barsul, Insiminy, Emria, and Colleria were completely devastated, while millions of women, children, and old men were enslaved or butchered. The Australasian tribes of the Kingdom, however, now began competing amongst themselves however. By 2686, they had splintered into numerous competing kingdoms, included Kalina, Gyler, Malickit, and Rotik. In the meantime, Decabalus had died in 2697, and the Breshites now began penetrating more deeply into North Westar. Under Antonius (2697-2681), the Breshites conquered Texana in 2696, defeated the Oslemite hordes of Floriana in 2695-93, and then crossed into Ameridinian territory in 2692. In 2691, the Oslemites retreated to the coast, and they destroyed the last effective army of Ameridini, commanded by Ulipus, the last King of Ameridini (2696-2691). Ulipus himself was slain in the battle. The Breshites then conquered the city of Raisae and forced the Oslemites to flee across the Western Ocean in transports. The Oslemites headed to Mathiania and Maul. In 2689, they descended on those islands, decimating the Brethalian garrisons. By 2687, all of those regions had been subjugated by the invaders. In 2685, the Oslemite King Caligula (2690-2668), conquered trans-Alpia and the Varangian Peninsula, creating a vast new Oslemite Empire.

In the meantime, after the death of Marcus in 2698, the power of the Sophomores rapidly collapsed. In 2696, the Varangians, who were now migrating east, descended on Sophomore territory and devastated Acolonia, Doria, Karniya, Fleshiu, Mesia, Hugill, and Karokania. Six years later, they penetrated to Gasheria, and King Northius of Gedrosia (2733-2689), was killed. He was replaced by Pompey (2689-2685), who was a impotent ruler. In 2685, the Varangian king Rorus (2693-2673) deposed Pompey and annexed Gedrosia, thus destroying the Gedrosian Empire. In 2684-81, he conquered Lugilla, Thathia, and Centralita, destroying the Cirhon Empire. In 2680, Jatheria and the Jibini Peninsula were conquered by the Varangians, who thus forced the Sophomores into North Explosansis. Eventually, in 2676-74, he conquered Explosansis, and destroyed the Sophomores. Rorus then died in 2673, and after his death his empire collapsed. The Oslemites raided Doria and Acolonia, while the Australasian kingdom of Rotik to the north began descending into Centralita and Lugilla. In 2665, the Varangian Empire collapsed, as Jatheria and Jibini Patreana emerged as kingdoms, while the Gasherians established the Neo-Gaganys Kingdom in Gedrosia, Mesia, and Hugill. The Varangians themselves retreated to Fleshiu, Catilina, Neo-Assyria, and Doria. Jatheria soon conquered Letousia and Marthage by 2662. Stability then ensued for thirty years, as the Oslemite King Devraldus (2668-2646), proved to be a peaceful ruler and spent his reign consolidating his territories. He did however, eliminate the last Brethalian Emperor, Demetrius, in 2657, annexing Mararia, Brethalia, and Grinae. Thus, the Brethalian Empire was destroyed after seven hundred years. The Breshites also were peaceful, and contented themselves with North Westar. The Australasian kingdoms were too distracted by their internal wars to contemplate any western adventures.

During those decades of peace, the Almitian Church consolidated its position. In 2659, the Council of Herkiorim decided matters of church finances, declaring that all properties held by the Church were to be considered as "belonging to Almitis" and requiring congregation members to pay a tithe to the Church. In 2657, these were confirmed by King Deveraldus and by King Nero of Varangia (2661-2639), who both sponsored the Church and supported its activities. By 2656, the number of Almitians had increased to 500 million, out of a population of 700 million. In 2653, Archbishop Leo I of Clethucia (2657-2648) was proclaimed the first Pope of Almitis, thus formalizing the Church administration. By the time of his death in 2648, there was 500 archbishoprics and 5,000 bishoprics throughout Laurasia. The Church established a extensive system of hospitals, hospices, and workhouses, from the 2640s onwards. In 2639, the monk Anthony of Letoucia (2669-2589), established the Order of St. Anthony, the first monastery on Laurasia. He was followed in 2632 by Benedict of Elana (2664-2584), who established the Order of St. Benedict and created the Benedictine Creed, which remained the set of rules for Almitian monasticism for over a thousand years. However, by the 2630s, further issues had arisen on Laurasia. The proto-Chilians, a tribe of the region of Hausae in southern Explosansis, revolted against Jatheria in 2631 under their leader Cicero (2631-2601). Cicero conquered all of Hausae by 2629 and defeated King Leonidas of Jatheria (2637-2619) in the Battle of Victoria in 2627. In 2627-25, he advanced to the Great Fallorian Ocean, and in 2625, conquered Mixing. By 2624, most of southern Explosansis had been severed from Jatherian control. The Hisigoths of South Westar, in the meantime, began migrating across the Western Ocean in the 2620s, and by 2623, they had reached Mathiania. The Oslemite King Maricinus (2640-2620), confronted the invaders in the Battle of the Games in 2622, but was defeated and killed. The Hisigoths occupied most of southern Mathiania and drove the Oslemites out of Richland. In 2617, King Boethius of the Hisigoths (2617-2606) conquered Northern Mathiania and occupied the whole of the Mathianian Isles.

In the meantime, Kalina, under the rule of King Artogastus (2624-2602), began expanding into Varangian and Fallorian territory, determined to extend her dominion to the Great Haustian Sea. Artogastus descended to the Central Sea and the Garis River. He defeated King Sulla of Abay (2631-2609) in the Battles of Crim Gatary (2619); Ajaud (2618); Magadha (2617); and Saconithia (2616). By 2615, most of northern Falloria had been conquered by Kalina. Artogastus then turned his attention to the west, seizing most of Thathia, Lugilla, and Tatiana by 2613. King Galba of Varangia (2630-2607), who had in 2629-26 regained control of those territories from the Australasians, was defeated in the Battle of Necropolis in 2612 and was forced to accept the loss of Varangian territories in the Eastern Regions. Artogastus then descended into Gedrosia and Mesia, crushing Gaganys by 2607 and cementing rule of the territories to the Great Haustian Sea. In 2606, he invaded Letousia and sacked Jaina, deposing the Sophomore King Athanasius (2611-2606). He then planned for campaigns against the proto-Chilians, but died in 2602 before these could be implemented. His son and successor, Anastasius (2602-2650), was to conquer Varangia (2601); Acolonia (2599); the trans-Tethornes (2598); and the Hellespont (2597-95). Anastasius also seized Marthage in 2594. In 2600 BH, the population of Laurasia was 715 million, a vast increase from 350 million at the beginning of the millennium.

When Anastasius died in 2590, he provided for a division of his dominions among his two sons, Justin and Zeno. Justin was to rule Kalina, Northern Falloria, the Garis regions, Thathia, Lugilla, Gedrosia, Mesia, Fleshiu, and the trans-Tethornes, while Zeno was to rule Acolonia, Doria, the Hellespont, Hugill, Aganian, Jatheria, Joria, Gadravia, Neo-Assyria, the Jibini Peninsula, Sophomora, Letousia, and Marthage. The two brothers however, despised their father's settlements, and Justin wished to assert himself as the ruler of the whole Kalinan Empire. Thus a extensive civil war waged from 2599-86, with battles at Gaugamela, Instatius, Gaganys, Necropolis, Yusana, Urynur, Dalod, Crim Tatary, Schaffer, Sardis, Gordium, Luthum, Clethucia, and numerous other cities throughout the territories of both brothers. The civil war severely weakened the strength of the Kalinans and left them exposed to other threats. When Justin finally managed to defeat Zeno in 2586, much of Kalina's military strength had been exhausted, while the economic resources of the state were driven to a new low. King Decius of Oslem (2620-2581), now sought to take advantage of the situation. In 2585 he invaded Acolonia and destroyed Justin's army in the Battle of Nicomedia. By 2584, Sardis, Gordium, and Caesarea had also fallen to the invaders. In 2583, Decius penetrated into Fleshiu, and by the end of 2582 he had occupied all of Hugill, Karkoania, Gadravia, Neo-Assyria, Joria, and Jatheria to the borders of Letousia. Justin was now cut off from his territories in Marthage and Letousia, and his effective rule was now restricted to the region east of Heloctholes.

Justin was then assassinated in 2581 and succeeded by Anthemius (2581-2573), who lost control of Falloria to a resurgent Agay under Majorian (2587-2567). In the meantime, Decius had also died in 2581, and his son and successor, Belisarius (2581-2574), proved to be a weakling. The proto-Chilite king Leo (2588-2569) seized control of Marthage and Letousia from Anthemius without challenge in 2578-77, and then in 2576, invaded and conquered the Jibini Peninsula, penetrating to the Fallorian Ocean. In 2574, Leo moved his capital to the Letousian city of Alexandria, which had replaced Jaina in 2589 as the primary city of Letousia. Belisarius died that year, and his successor, Romulus (2574-2568), withdrew from Hugill, Gadvaria, and Joria in 2573-71, surrendering those territories to Leo. Under Leo's son and successor Procopius (2569-2557), the Proto-Chilite Empire obtained its greatest extent, conquering Doria, Acolonia, and Karniya from Romulus' younger brother and successor, Marcellinus (2568-2554) in 2568-64. Procopius then waged war against the son and successor of Anthemius, the young Nicasius (2573-2562), annexing Gedrosia, Mesia, Fleshiu, and parts of Lugilla to the Thathian Sea. Procopius then returned to Alexandria, and spent several years promoting the arts and sciences.

He died in 2557, and was succeeded to the throne by his son Boethius (2557-2545), who came under the control of his mother, Galla Placidia. Placidia, a ambitious and scheming woman, became involved in numerous court intrigues, and she struggled with her deceased husband's leading general, Flavius Aetius, for dominance in the state. Placidia forced Aetius into exile in 2555, but soon, other major events were looming on the horizon. In North Cellini, the Florensians, a nomadic people who had long been subject to the suzerainty of various foreign empires, established their position in 2570 and conquered most of Al-Volga, Eastern Oceania, and the Polar Regions. By 2565, their raids and incursions were reaching into the Varangian Peninsula, straining Oslemite resources to a breaking point. In 2559, King Narses of the Florensians (2570-2559) died, and was succeeded by his nephews Basil and Justinian. For the next four years, the two brothers ruled jointly over the Florensian hordes, who now launched attacks against Australasian settlers in North Krayia, Ganchuria, and the outskirts of Oceania. Basil and Justinian also led incursions across the Tethornes in 2558-57, plundering many villages and fortresses before the last approach of Procopius compelled them to retreat. After Procopius died in 2557, and with the throne now occupied by a minor with his mother, Basil and Justinian decided to press the advantage. In 2556 the first significant Florensian invasion of the Middle East was launched. Nearly a million marauders, a number "impossible to count", according to the historian George of Gaganys (c. 2509-2429), crossed the Tethornes Mountains and devastated Fleshiu, Mesia, Gedrosia, Gasheria, Sophomora, Catilina, Neo-Assyria, Hugill, and Gadravia. Nercopolis, Agita, Yusana, Gaganys, Argash, Nerduner, and Alexandropolis were destroyed by the invaders, who devastated the land and slaughtered millions of innocent civilians. The army of Chilsia collapsed under the onslaughts, and soon, Basil was directing his hordes into Jatheria and Karniya. Schaffer, Lapolo, and Magae were sacked, and much of the island was left desolate.

A outbreak of plague however, halted the Florensian attack, and at the beginning of 2555, the barbarians withdrew to behind the Tethornes Mountains, carrying off some 20 million women and children as slaves. Nevertheless, they had conquered the Varangians, and much of Chilsia's dominions in Cellini were now devastated, and economic revenues had been weakened. In the summer of 2555, Justinian, deciding that he wished to be the sole King of the Florensians, assassinated Basil and usurped sole occupancy of the throne. Justinian now reorganized his forces and decided to launch a massive subjugation of the Australasian kingdoms. In 2555-53, his hordes invaded and subjugated Cirhon, Krayia, the Merdanian Islands, and Australasia, forcing the Australasian kingdoms to abandon their borderland territories and to recognize Justinian as their overlord. In 2553, Justinian proclaimed himself Great King of Florencia and then prepared his forces for a march into Haustia. In 2551, the Florensian hordes penetrated to the Euxine Sea, destroying Oslemite colonies in Caria, Ludia, and Lycia. In 2550, he overran the Varangian Peninsula, and in 2549, the province of trans-Alpia and Neopolosia was conquered. Justinian's attacks and offensives had now urged Boethius (who had recalled Flavius Aetius from exile in 2551), King Maxentius of the Oslemites (2560-2543), and King Suetonius of the Hisigoths (2567-2539), to enter into a anti-Florencian alliance in 2548. That year, Justinian, believing that he would be able to impose his will, launched a massive invasion of Hisigoth, Oslemite, and proto-Chilsian territories. At first, his hordes seemed irresistible, and much of Grinae, Mararia, Mathiania, Maul, Inoria, Marthage, Mixing, the Jibini Peninsula, Mesia, Gedrosia, Lugilla, Thathia, Fleshiu, Doria, Catilina, Neo-Assyria, and many other territories were overwhelmed and devastated by the invaders. Finally, in the Battle of Catalunia in June 2548, Maxentius, Suetonius, and Flavius Aetius managed to defeat Justinian's hordes. Justinian was forced to retreat back to Florencia and the vast territories north of the Tethornes and the Hanube, recuperating his forces and preparing for a even larger invasion. In the latter part of 2548, his hordes penetrated into Gedrosia, approaching the very walls of Clethucia. Pope Leo II (2560-2539), met the invader outside of the walls of the city, and persuaded him to not intrude "into the holy city of the Almitis, in whom you believe". Justinian, awed by the authority of the religious leader of his faith, agreed, also persuaded by the fact that plague was again impacting his army's ranks. Justinian withdrew again to Florencia, marrying a Oslemite princess named Honoria. In 2547, however, Honoria, who was a agent in the pay of Flavius Aetius, poisoned Justinian, thus bringing a end to the career of one of Laurasia's greatest invaders. The following year, many of the peoples subject to the Florensians, including the Al-Volgans, Moringesies, Varangians, and Australasians, revolted. In 2546, they destroyed a Florensian horde in the Battle of Nedao, and liberated themselves from the Florensian yoke. The Florensian Empire collapsed.

After the end of the Florensian threat, the disintegration of the Hisigothic, Proto-Chilian, Breshite, and Oslemite kingdoms dominated the remainder of the century. In 2546, Flavius Aetius was assassinated by Theodosius, a agent of King Boethius, who had decided to dispose of his services. Galla Placidia had died in 2549, and thus, Boethius no longer had any persons who tried to monopolize his power. Nevertheless, the assassination of Flavius Aetius aroused much anger against Boethius, and in 2545, Boethius himself was assassinated by Aetius's former officers. Boethius was now succeeded to the throne of Chilia by a series of ineffectual successors: Petronius (2545); Avitus (2545-44); Marcian (2543-2539); Libius (2539-2535); Livius (2533-2528); Olybrius (2528); Glycerius (2527-2526); Julius (2526-2525); and finally, Augustulus (2525-2524). In 2545, the Moringesies, who had descended across the Euxine Sea in 2546 and sacked Heliotrope, Elana, Gentz, Jurcuse, and Joria, then proceeded towards Letousia, destroying Alexandria and carrying off most of its population as slaves. Afterwards, they landed on the northern coast of Explosansis, and over the next five years, destroyed and plundered many villages. King Cornellius (2546-2523) then occupied Marthage in 2539 and established the Kingdom of Moringeia. In the meantime, the Thathian king Artabanus (2545-2540) established the independence of Thathia and soon conquered Lugilla, Tatiana, Gedrosia, Mesia, and Fleshiu. His raids reached into Catilina and Neo-Assyria. In the Jibini Peninsula, the Carolignans, under the rule of Merlius (2545-2519) migrated across a vast distance, beginning in 2543, devastating much of Jatheria, Hugill, Joria, Karniya, Acolonia, and Grinae before passing over into northern Maul by 2536 and establishing the Kingdom of Carolina. In 2524, Augustulus was assassinated by his military commander Nepos (2524-2520), who proclaimed himself King of Chilsia. Nepos however, lost control of most of Explosansis, which degenerated into a series of splintered military confederacies, tribes, and other such nations. That same year, King Agamemnon of the Oslemites (2543-2524) was deposed, being replaced by his commander Julian, who established the Kingdom of Mararia in Mararia, parts of Maul and Inoria, and the western Balkans. Julian ruled for twelve years, until in 2512, the Al-Volgan commander Anastasius, who was seeking a new homeland for his people, invaded Mararia, and stormed Ralispont, which had become the Mararian capital. Julian himself held out until 2507, when he was finally captured and executed.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part III: From the Reign of Anastasius of the Al-Volgans to the Mission of Augustine in the Mathianian IslesEdit

Anastasius established the Kingdom of the Al-Volgans and ruled successfully for the next thirty-three years, until his death in 2474. By the time of his ascension, Laurasian society had expanded so much to a global scale that Antiquity is considered to have come to a end and the Middle Ages to have begun, after 3,500 years. Anastasius was to prove a powerful and effective barbarian king. Seeking to reconcile the Mararian and Inorian populations with their conquerors, he issued a series of decrees that allowed them to retain their old system of provincial administration, as long as they acknowledged his authority and agreed to abide by Al-Volgan laws. Anastasius established a series of colonies for his people, organized the military along Al-Volgan lines, and extensively reformed the currency, aiming to increase the amount of silver and the purity of the coin.

He also was a fervent supporter of the Almitian Church. In 2503-02, Anastasius proclaimed that all in the Kingdom "was blessed by Almitis", and went so far as to stress the importance of religion for all people. In 2499, he established the monastery of Camlduvenum and granted it a charter of privileges. In 2497, he began construction of the Cathederal of St. Joseph's, and in 2496, he appointed the Archbishop of Ralispont, Liberius, as his personal secretary and state chancellor. Under the patronage of Anastasius, Pope Gregory III of the Almitian Church (2503-2490) moved his see from Cliethucia to Ralispont in 2495, and was appointed by the King as the personal governor of the city. In 2494, Anastasius persuaded the Pope to convene the Council of Marathon. At the Council of Marathon, the Marathonite Creed was formulated, by which Paul was recognized as the "Prophet of Almitis" and was declared to be one of his "angels of the Universe". It was now given out that Paul was the "earthly representative" of Almitis and that he was the son to the Angel of the Heavens, brother of the Lord Almitis himself. Thus, the Council of Marathon confirmed the canon of the Almitian Bible, with the old Jatherian Scriptures as the Old Testament and the Sayings of Paul, Eusebius, and the Disciples of Almitis as the New Testament. The Council also ordered the adoption of the "Age of Almitis" system, with Year I of the system being reckoned as the approximate year of Paul's birth, which according to the writings of Stilyus of Herkiorim, had been the "358th year of the age of the Brethalian Empire", or c. 3000 BH. All years before the epoch would be "Before the Age of Almitis" (BAA) and all years from Year I, afterwards, "Age of Almitis" (AA). Thus, 2494 BH was reckoned as AA 506. The Age of Almitis system was to remain in use for 2,658 years, until it was replaced by the Hyperdrive Era system by the Congress of Vellae in AH 164.

Anastasius however, was not the only strong ruler emerging at this time. It must be remembered that others of the original kingdoms in Cellini, Haustia, and Explosansis had also been displaced by newly invading peoples. One of these peoples had been the proto-Chilites themselves, who, by the invasion of the Moringesies and then the secession of the Hottentots, Mixians, and Neo-Letousians, had been severely weakened. In 2520, Methodius (2520-2489) came to the throne of Chilsia, and decided to undertake a massive migration of his people into Haustia. Moving his nation across the land routes of Explosansis, the Chilsites embarked in ships and transports and headed north in the Eastern Ocean. After bypassing Inoria, now under the dominion of the kingdom of Julian, the Chilsites landed in Daurania and the northern parts of Maul in 2518. By 2517, they had established a capital city at Newsultiz, and in 2514, Methodius seized control of the Oslemite Kingdom of Soissons, established by the general Syagrius in 2523 upon the disintegration of Oslemite power. Over the next four years, he campaigned against the Hisigothic tribes of the Varangian Peninsula, the remnant Florensians, and the nomads of the Eastern Plains. By 2510, Methodius had consolidated his rule over all of northern Maul and Daurania. In 2509-08, he campaigned against Mathianian refugees who had seized control of Argoica, and repelled their offensives against Chilsian territories along the coast of the Mathianian Channel. Methodius now had to deal with the threat of the Wallachi, who had migrated from South Westar in 2511 and had moved into eastern Daurania, Heletia, and parts of the trans-Alpia. In 2505, he defeated the Wallachi king Articus in the Battle of Tolibac and forced him to concede the Chilisian Kingdom rights of military access in Heletia. In 2501, he attacked Mathiania and ravaged the southeastern parts of the island, wrecking many of the Hisigothic tribal kingdoms in that region. By 2500, the territories of Methodius touched with those of Anastasius, who was starting to become alarmed by his neighbor's aggressive and expansionist policies. Tension ensued between the two monarchs, as Methodius now began amassing his military resources and preparing for campaigns into Mararia and Inoria, aiming to destroy his rival. These tensions finally erupted in 2493, as Methodius now invaded Inoria and quickly advanced towards the port of Benoventum. He devastated the Galdrone Mountains and caused much havoc, but was eventually confronted by Anastasius in the Battle of Pollies, which took place in September 2493. The result was a decisive Al-Volgan victory, as Methodius lost most of his infantry units and was forced to retreat back to his own dominions. Anastasius thereafter seized the provinces of Larshia and trans-Galdrone, determined to keep his enemy a distance from Inoria. Methodius, retreating back into his dominions, ruled until his death in 2489. He was succeeded by his son Vitellius (2489-2439), under whose reign Chilsia was to recover from her losses. For the first fifteen years of his rule however, Vitellius coexisted peacefully with Anastasius, knowing that he did not have the strength to overcome him.

Further events on Laurasia were taking place during this time however. Farther to the East, Grinae, Acolonia, Karniya, Hugill, Aganian, Joria, Gadravia, the Jibini Peninsula, and Jatheria had fallen into anarchy after the collapse of the power of the Chilsian Empire. Taking advantage of the vacuum of power, a ambitious figure named Justin (2483-2473) seized control of the ancient city of Elana in 2483 and proclaimed himself King of Elana. He thereafter embarked on a series of extensive campaigns, seeking to reunite the territories from Grinae down to Letousia. In 2482-81, Justin conquered Gentz, Jurcuse, Rembium, Josia, Brethalia, the Hellespont, the Acolonian Islands, and the regions of the Euxine Sea, reunifying all of Grinae and the Balkans under one rule. He thus changed his title to "Great King of Brethalia and Grinae". In 2489-77, Justin embarked on campaigns in Doria, Acolonia, and Catilina, penetrating to the Heloctholes River and crushing the kings of Sardis, Gordium, Schaffer, and Nerdis in a series of hard-fought battles. By 2476, he had annexed Karniya, and in 2475, he deposed the King of the Neo Hugillites, Peter (2479-2475). By 2474, Jatheria, Joria, and Gadvaria were also under his rule, and in January 2473, he invaded and conquered Letousia and Paujaica, which had fallen into relative anarchy after the withdrawal of the Chilsites.

In the fall of 2473, Justin died and was succeeded by his ambitious nephew Justinian (2473-2435), under whose rule the Neo-Brethalian Empire was to briefly dominate the Great Haustian Sea. Justinian came to the throne at a opportune time. To the east, Thathia, Lugilla, Tatiana, and the other regions of the Thathian Plateau had degenerated into anarchy, with Australasian, Florencian, and Varangian tribes struggling with each other for control of the region. Most of Explosansis was divided amongst a multitude of internecine confederacies, tribes, and coalitions which would pose no threat to Brethalian power. And then, in Haustia, better opportunities awaited. Anastasius, after defeating and halting Methodius in his expansionist attempts, then became the guardian of the Kingdom of Moringeia in 2487, thus wielding authority over what had been Marthage and parts of southern Inoria, alongside Balay and the island of Corinia. There was a problem of succession in his dominions however, as he had no male children and only one daughter, Constancia. Constancia married the prince Hercules in 2485, and produced a son, Crassus. Nevertheless however, issues were to emerge, as the death of Anastasius in the summer of 2474 required for a regency.

Crassus was thus under his mother's control for the next seven years, until his premature death in 2467. Constancia proclaimed herself Queen of the Al-Volgans, but was resisted by the nobleman Theodosius, who poisoned her in 2466 and then usurped the throne. The death of Constancia and the usurpation of Theodosius gave Justinian the excuse he needed to intervene in Al-Volgan affairs. In 2470, his general Belisarius had proved his military prowess by invading and conquering Moringeia, capturing, torturing, and executing the last king of Moringeia, Cinnacticus. The Moringesies themselves had been enslaved or deported, while Marthage became a major port of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Thus, in the winter of 2466, Belisarius landed in Mararia and besieged Ralispont. In the spring of 2465, Ralispont fell to the invaders, and Theodosius himself was captured and executed. By the autumn of 2465, half of the Mararian peninsula had been occupied, but northern Mararia, under the new Al-Volgan king Constantine, resisted the invaders fiercely, while Inoria remained unsubdued. What Justinian had expected to be a easy campaign dragged on for the next nineteen years. Belisarius faced extreme resistance from Constantine, who employed classic guerrilla tactics and utilized his superior knowledge of the land to constantly harass the Brethalian invasion forces. It was not until 2460 that southern Inoria was pacified, and it took until 2454 for the invaders to progress to the Western Ocean. In the meantime, Vitellius of Chilsia took advantage of the war to seize trans-Alpia, the northern Balkans, and Dacia (2460-54), considerably expanding the territory of his kingdom. He also advanced into the Galdorne Mountains and recovered Larshia and trans-Galdorne. Finally, in 2447, the remainder of Mararia and western Balkia were subdued, and the Al-Volgans were completely subjugated. Nevertheless, the war had imposed considerable strain on the resources of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, and helped to plant the seeds for its future collapse. The treasury had been forced to significantly raise taxes and the Empire's economic stability was severely impacted. In 2443-42, the devastating Plague of Justinian impacted the Brethalian Empire, striking down nearly 50 million people in a matter of weeks. The Plague eventually spread throughout Laurasia and led to the deaths of nearly 150 million people, lowering the Laurasian population from 850 to 700 million. The plague would continue to impact the planet occasionally for the next two centuries and would, along with famine and constant war, help to reduce the population to 450 million. Justinian's wife, the formidable Queen Theodora, herself died of the plague in 2441. Finally, after ruling for thirty-eight years, Justinian died in November 2435 and was succeeded to the throne of the Neo-Brethalian Empire by Justin II (2435-2422). Justin was dominated by regents for most of his reign. In 2432, the barbarian Cleothards, under the command of their rule Constantius, invaded Mararia and quickly destroyed the Brethalian garrisons, who were exhausted by decades of war. Soon most of the old Al-Volgan Kingdom except Ralispont and Balay had been overwhelmed by the invaders. Justin II was also forced to withdraw from Gedrosia and Mesia, pulling the Empire's boundaries back to Hugill and Fleshiu. His successors were Tiberius (2422-2416); Maurice (2416-2398); Phocas (2398-2390); and Herculius (2390-2359). Under all of these, Brethalia lost control of the remainder of Mararia, Inoria, and parts of the northern Balkans.

Mararia was now divided amongst two different entites: the Almitian Papacy, which controlled the Papal Exarchate of Ralispont and Cervania, and the Kingdom of Cleothardy, which ruled northern Mararia. In the South, the Cleothard King was represented by the Dukes of Benvolio and Mercutio, who acted as more or less military magnates. The Papacy was at first threatened by the invaders, and King Athanasius of Cleothardy (2416-2410), destroyed the fortifications of Meking and plundered the Papal Castellan Palace in 2414. After Athanasius died in 2410, he was succeeded by his far more peaceful son Galerius (2410-2384), who signed the Treaty of Pavia with the new Pope of the Almitian Church, Gregory IV (2410-2396), who was to be one of the most effective Popes of the Almitian Church. Galerius's wife, Queen Consort Theodosia, established a positive relationship with the Pope and invited his representatives to her court at Pavia. Gregory was one of the most prolific Popes in history, producing a large amount of letters, histories, chronicles, stories, and translations, a more extensive body of writing then any of his predecessors. Recognized as ruler of the Exarchate by the King of Clethoardy, Gregory took measures to strengthen Ralispont's fortifications, encourage trade, maintain control over the aristocracy, and sponsor the arts and sciences. He eliminated slavery in his dominions, considering it "a crime against Almitis" and applied pressure on King Galerius to free all prisoners of war, which he eventually did in 2407. Gregory also sought to reorganize, expand, and strengthen the structure of the Almitian Church. In 2409, he reorganized the archbishoprics of the Church, creating new dioceses in Maul, trans-Alpia, Varangia, and Florencia. In 2406, Gregory dispatched missionaries to South Westar, the last largely pagan continent on the surface of Laurasia. And then in 2404, he dispatched the Abbot Augustine of Excalbis to the Mathianian Isles.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part IV: From the Conversion of Aeneas to the Reign of Desiderius of ChilsiaEdit

The Mathianian Isles had lapsed into anarchy, as a new barbarian people, the Darsians, had commenced raids in 2430. The Hisigothic and Mathianian tribal kingdoms, severely weakened by the attacks of Methodius, were in no position to resist them. In 2424, Darsian bands descended on the southern coast of Mathiania, and within a decade, they had penetrated to the Games River and conquered all the kingdoms of the southern regions. Their victories at Durnerg (2413) and Elcoluia (2409) resulted in the Hisigothic tribes fleeing north. By 2405, most of eastern Mathiania had been occupied, and a series of Darsian kingdoms (Choleria, Northamberia, East Emmerina, Kathynsex, Collsett, South Dorsit, and West Emmerina) had been established. Eventually, the land was to become known as "Darsis", the "land of the Darsians". The Darsians were pagans however, and Gregory was determined to convert them. Augustine landed at Sluibe, a city within the kingdom of Collsett. He progressed to Collsett's capital city, Umarina, where he was received by King Aeneas (2410-2384). Aeneas proved suspectible to the preaching of Augustine and his mission, and in 2403, he converted to Almitism, followed thereafter by the rest of his court. Augustine was appointed by the Pope as Archbishop of Umarina and became the first Almitian official amongst the Darsian kingdoms. Gregory ruled prosperously over the expanding Almitian Church until his death in 2396. He was succeeded by Sabinian, who ruled for two years until his death in 2394, when he was succeeded by Boniface III (2394). Boniface III was followed, in turn, by Boniface IV (2393-2386); Adeotatus I (2386-2383); Boniface V (2382-2376); and Honorius I (2376-2363). Under these Popes, the Church largely continued its expansion. A new sect of Almitism however, was to emerge, eventually evolving into a religion which would conquer much of Laurasia and be in opposition to the Popes.

In 2398, the same year that Phocas usurped the throne of Neo-Brethalia from Maurice, Severenius ascended to the throne of the Thathian Kingdom of Yusana. Determined to reunify the regions east of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, Severenius embarked on a extensive series of military campaigns and expeditions. He conquered the Thathian kingdoms of Yusander and Gaganys (2398-96); conquered Lugilla (2395); subdued the kingdoms of Centralita and Varangia at the Jorus (2394-91); and then subdued Falloria, the Australasian kingdoms of the Western Juncture, and the Tatianian towns (2390). In 2389, Severenius conquered Mesia, Gedrosia, Gasheria, and the northern parts of the Jibini Peninsula, extending the rule of Yusana into the regions which had once contained the Mesian, Gedrosian, Akkadian, and Susanian civilizations. In 2388, Hugill, Gadravia, and parts of Eastern Aganian were devastated, depleting many of the resources of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Then in 2387-86, Herkiorim and Amath were captured and devastated by the Yusanians, who carried the Archbishops of Herkiorim and Amath as captives. For this sacrilege, Severenius was denounced by Pope Adeotatus I. By 2382, Joria, Letousia, Neo-Assyria, Fleshiu, Catilina, Karniya, and even parts of Doria had also been subjugated, and the Yusanian Empire now claimed to be the successor to the Brethalian, Tatianian, Gedrosian, Lugillian, Mesian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and other empires of ages past. Severenius indeed proclaimed himself "Great King of Brethalia, Tatiania, Gedrosia, Lugilla, Mesia, Akkadia, Assyria, and the other lands of our ancestors". In 2380, Sardis was captured and leveled, and Elana itself was besieged by Yusanian fleets.

In 2390, however, Phocas had been assassinated, having been succeeded by the general Hercalius, who had gained fame fighting the remnants of the Al-Volgans, the Lydians, and Carians in the northern Balkans. Hercalius however, upon proclaiming himself King of Neo-Brethalia, was then distracted by civil war with his general, Cassander, for over a decade. It was this that allowed Severenius to advance to the Great Haustian Sea and to conquer as much territory as he did. In 2380, Cassander was finally defeated by Hercalius, who then amassed the military forces and resources which he needed in order to repel the invader. In 2378, Hercalius, at the head of the largest Neo-Brethalian army ever to be assembled, descended on Doria and destroyed the Yusanian fortresses near the Hellespont. The following year, he defeated Severenius in the Battle of Abath, and recovered Sardis, Jurcuse, Josia, and the Acolonian Islands for the Neo-Brethalian Empire. In 2376, most of Doria and central Acolonia was reoccupied, followed by Catilina and Karniya in the early part of 2375. In 2374-72, Hercalius and his armies marched along the Great Haustian Sea. The provinces of Hugill, Gadravia, Yurthria, Jatheria, Joria, Akkadia, and parts of Sophomora were recovered for the Empire, while Severenius' capital at Necropolis was destroyed. Finally, in the winter of 2372, Clethucia was conquered and Letousia was recovered. Severenius was forced to sign the Treaty of Alexandropolis, by which he recognized the re-acquisitions of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, agreed to pay Hercalius tribute, and promised to no longer violate Brethalian territory. Severenius was then assassinated at the beginning of 2371. Upon his death, he was succeeded by his son Pausanius, who ruled for only a few months before his death sometime in the spring of 2371. Pausanius was then succeeded by Thedus (2371-2369), who ruled until his assassination by his general, Eurpides. Eurpides ruled for only a few months, until he was deposed and replaced by his sister, Livia (2369-2368). Livia was followed by Julia (2368); Arcadius (2368-2367); and finally, the last King of Yusania, Telemachus (2367-2348).

In the Jibini Peninsula, in the meantime, a new political and religious power had been emerging. In the Sophomoran city of Marsia, a previously obscure Jibine merchant named Matthew (c. 2430-2367) came to the notice of city residents in the year 2389, according to the Truist Scriptures, which remained the foundational religious literature of Truism for nearly 2,000 years. Matthew had a habit of withdrawing from the city into its nearby plateaus, and there claimed to have meditated with Almitis. There, it is said, he is supposed to have received revelations from "the Angel of the Heavens". The Angel informed him that what had been said about Paul and Eusebius, the Apostles of Almitism, and the like had been false. Instead, these men were "false idols" who had been deluded by Satan into believing that there was one Lord of Almitis. The Truist Scriptures, in fact, claimed that Matthew was the actual Son of the Highest Lord and that he was being sent a message as his Prophet of Almitis. The Angel is said to have revealed to him that Matthew's purpose in life was to spread the word of the Three Gods of those who Reside: Almitis, the Great God of All, who nevertheless did not wield supreme authority over creation; his wife, Tessala, the Great Goddess of All and Goddess of the Land, the Humans, and the People; and Tessala's son, Perander, the God of the Underworld, the Cosmos, and the Spirits. The Three Gods each had a cadre of servants, who spread their message amongst all Laurasians, who executed their commands, and who punished disbelievers. Almitians and Jatherian Traditionalists were to be considered "heathens" and "the corrupted", who deserved to be only eliminated. Matthew believed that the five duties: fasting, prayer, meditation, obedience, and charity were the keys to success. At first, Matthew was considered to be a heretic and he gained few believers. By 2377, he had only converted less then five hundred people in Marsia. That year, Bishop Odysseus of Marsia drove Matthew into exile and excommunicated him from the church services. Matthew and his followers headed to the smaller town of Jesdina, whose inhabitants, who had long been plagued by anarchy, accepted his message and appointed him as their leader. Matthew then instigated war against Marsia and the Sophomore kingdoms of the southern Jibini Peninsula, which lasted for the next eight years. Finally in 2369, Marsia and the Sophomores were subdued. Matthew now proclaimed himself the "Prophet of Truism" and forcibly converted all of his conquered subjects to his religion. In 2368, Pope Honorius I, hearing of the new movement, declared Matthew a infidel and excommunicated all of his people. Matthew refused to recognize the Pope's authority and labeled him the "evil consort of Satan". The following year, Matthew died, and his religion was now firmly implanted.

After Matthew's death, however, the new Truist faith spread quickly across the surface of Laurasia. When the "Prophet of Truism" died, the Marsian council of elders, now controlled by Truist clerics, decided to appoint a successor, or "Grand Master", who would be the successor to Matthew and who would lead the new Truite Empire as it would spread its religion and power throughout Laurasia. Their choice fell upon Ulysses (2367-2365), who had been one of Matthew's first converts and had accompanied the Prophet in his ministries, his adventures, and his military campaigns. Ulysses proved to be a vigorous and successful Grand Master, determined to bring all of the Jibini Peninsula under the rule of the Truite Empire. Although he ruled for only two years, he did much to consolidate Truite control. Ulysses ordered the formal compilation of all of the writings of Matthew, which became the Truist Scriptures. These writings were intended to supersede the Almitian Bible and to provide a foundation for the new faith. Ulysses also executed all of his opponents and destroyed the final remaining resources of the Almitian Church in his territories. Truist priests and ministers took control of all Almitian religious properties. Ulysses then conquered the Gasherites and the Jibini portions of the Yusanian Empire, extending the rule of the Truite Empire to the outskirts of the Neo-Brethalian and Yusanian Empires, which were both severely weakened by war and civil unrest. Ulysses, wishing to take advantage of this weakness, now ordered his general, Lucius, to begin campaigns against the Yusanian Empire, particularly in Gedrosia and Mesia. In the spring of 2366, Gedrosia and Mesia were invaded. The Truites won decisive victories at Gaganys, Necropolis, Arbesh, and Chains, destroying every Yusanian army which they encountered.

By July of 2366, all of Gedrosia and Mesia had been subdued. The Gedrosians and Mesians were converted by sword-point to Truism, while all Almitian priests, bishops, nuns, and monks were slaughtered and their properties destroyed. In November, King Telemachus assembled a army in order to confront the invaders and signed a agreement with Hercalius, who provided him auxiliaries and military supplies. The following month, however, Lucius destroyed the Yusanian-Brethalian army in the Battle of Artheria, and he penetrated into Tatiana, destroying all towns in his path. In the meantime, attention had been turned to Hugill, Jatheria, and Akkadia, still under the rule of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Lucius rushed across Gedrosia, and in the winter of 2366, he descended into Hugill. The border forts of Dolores, Bama, Etherly, and Sandran were captured by the invaders, who devastated the land and destroyed many Brethalian towns. By the spring of 2365, most of Hugill and Yurthria had been conquered, and a Brethalian army sent by Hercalius was crushed decisively in the Battle of Ajoria. Following this, Theoranscius, the capital city of the Province of Hugill, was conquered in September 2365. In August 2365, Ulysses had died and was succeeded by Menander (2365-2355), who appointed Cliesthenes, a companion of his, as the new commander of the invasion forces. The progress of the invasion was somewhat slowed, but nevertheless, the Truites continued to be victorious. Cliesthenes however, kept Lucius as his co-commander, and divided the invasion force into two detachments. One moved north to Gadravia and Rose-Jackoria, conquering the town of Emerina, while another moved south into Jatheria. Hercalius sent a army to attempt the recapture of Theoranscius, but this force was decisively defeated by Lucius in June 2364. Over the remainder of the year, most of Jatheria and Joria, with the exception of Herkorim, was captured. Then, in the summer of 2363, Hercalius himself led a army south into Hugill, attempting to halt the invaders. His force was crushed by Lucius and Cliesthenes in the Battle of Samousia in July 2363, which witnessed the final collapse of Neo-Brethalian power in the region. Afterwards, the invaders moved south into Jatheria and north into Gadravia. In June 2362, Herkorim, after having been besieged since December of the preceding year, finally surrendered to the invaders. The Archbishop of Herkorim, Chlorus, was executed, his head being imposed on a pike, and all Almitians in the city were slaughtered, enslaved, or by sword-point converted to Truism. For the next 461 years, the city was to remain under Truist rule, until its capture by the Almitian Crusaders of Truism in 1901.

The Truites now consolidated their rule over Jatheria and began organizing a force to launch a invasion of Letousia. To the north, Lucius captured the city of Herseopo in October 2362, which had become a major city of the Neo-Brethalian Empire in Karkoania. Soon, Truite raids and espionage operations penetrated into Catilina and the heart of Acolonia. Hercalius now focused his efforts on establishing a series of fortifications in order to halt any further advance into the territories of the Brethalian Empire. Letousia, however, had been left exposed by the Truite conquest of the Levantine regions, and in the spring of 2360, a army commanded by Commodus, one of the Grand Master's chief generals, breached the defenses of the Letousian Desert and penetrated to the Danite Delta. Jaina, Alexandria, Helios, and other major cities were attacked and conquered, and in June or July of 2358, the Letousian garrisons along the border with Mixing, which had recovered independence, were destroyed. By the autumn of 2358, all of Letousia was in thrall to the Truite Empire. The Truites implemented similar policies as they had in other conquered territories, forcing the Almitian natives of Letousia to convert to Truism by sword-point and executing many others. In 2357, a expedition was undertaken against Mixing, but King Draco managed to repel the Truite forces. He was, however, forced to recognize the Grand Master as his overlord and to pay tribute. During all this time, expansion into the Yusanian Empire had been resumed. In 2360, Telemachus of Yusania assembled a final force to attempt the reconquest of Gedrosia and Mesia, but this was decisively mauled by the Truites in the Battle of Alambambara. By 1758, Tatiana, Lugilla, and the Thathian Plateau had been subjugated, and in 2357, Yusana itself was captured by the Truites. Truite armies thereafter conquered Centralia, the trans-Garis, Chandrgupta, the Australasian kingdom of Arachosia, and the territories to the border with Western Krayia. Telemachus however, survived at his stronghold at Mesi until his assassination by Truite agents in 2348.

Herculius died in February 2359, being succeeded by his son Constantine, who ruled for only a few months in 2359. Constantine however, was poisoned by his wife, Marcia, in the fall of 2359 and was succeeded by the court official Hercuklas, who held the throne for only a few months when he was deposed by the army at the beginning of 2358 and replaced with the general Constans (2358-2332). Under Constans, the Brethalian Empire suffered further reverses. Constans had to contend with constant Truite raiding parties and plundering expeditions into Doria and Catilina, with many Brethalian villages, towns, and cities being destroyed or severely devastated. The loss of control over Hugill, Gadravia, Neo-Assyria, Jatheria, Akkadia, and Letousia led to a sharp decline in imperial revenues, which weakened the economy and strained the resources of the civil administration. Menander, who continued to rule until his death in 2355, spent his efforts consolidating his conquests, sending expeditions north of the Tethornes Mountains, and consolidating the position of Truism throughout the Cellini Middle East. Truist missionaries began to penetrate into Explosansis, and converted many of the trans-Hottentot tribes to Truism. After Menander died in 2355, he was succeeded by Plato (2355-2343), under whose rule wide-scale expansion resumed. The trans-Tethornes, parts of Florencia, Lycia, and Lydia were conquered in 2355-52. In 2351, the Truites forced the Exarch of Marthage, Pompey, into vassalage, and in 2350, Jurcuse and Josia were seized from ineffectual Brethalian defense units. By 2349, Truite raids were reaching the very walls of Elana itself, and in 2348-46, Karniya and parts of Catilina eastwards of the Harappan Mountains were conquered. In 2345, Gentz and Rembium were sacked, and finally, in 2344-43, a major siege of Elana was instigated. For several months, Elana was at the verge of falling to the Infidel. Contemporary chronicles, especially that of George Syncellus and Demetrius of Elana, provide a eloquent account of the suffering that took place in the streets. Eventually however, the Brethalians managed to drive away the besiegers. The Neo-Brethalian Empire managed to survive and retained control over Doria, western Acolonia, Grinae, the Euxine Sea, Brethalia Major, and the southern Balkans, including the Hellespont.

Plato was assassinated in 2343, and his successor, Aristole (2343-2338), spent his whole reign under the cloud of civil war. His authority was challenged by Lacedaemon, who was the governor of Jatheria, Joria, and Akkadia. He also faced challenges from the first wife of the deceased Plato, Clymenstra, and from Clymenstra's lover, the General Doryssus. Lacedaemon courted popularity amongst the warrior corps of the Truite army and with the subjugated populations under his governance, pointing out to how he was determined to insure stability, religious toleration, and economic strength. In 2342, Aristole's army was defeated in the Battle of Gazid, and Jatheria was firmly consolidated under the rule of Aristole. In 2341, Aristole signed a treaty with Clymenstra and launched a offensive against Alexandropolis, Gaganys, and Esather, conquering those cities and extending his dominion into Mesia, Gasheria, Gedrosia, and parts of Thathia. By 2340, Karniya and Hugill had also been occupied, and in 2339, Lacedaemon invaded and conquered Letousia. Then, in the early spring of 2338, Aristole was assassinated by Ligonius, who was in the pay of Lacadaemon. Lacadaemon thereafter progressed into Mararia, seizing control of the city. He proclaimed himself Grand Master of the Truites, establishing the Lacademid Dynasty (2338-2250). Under the Lacademid Dynasty, the Truite Empire was to obtain its greatest territorial extent. After establishing himself as Grand Master, Lacedemon turned on Clymenstra and Doryssus, ordering their execution in 2337. He executed all of the relatives and associates of Aristole, purged the army of Aristoliean supporters, and installed his favorites in major positions of power. He then moved the capital to Theoranscius and established a new government bureaucracy there. Lacedaemon now sought to revise the earlier policies of religious oppression directed against Almitians. Although he continued to uphold the Truist belief that Almitians were heathens, he now directed that they were to be allowed to worship in their own fashion in private, on condition that they paid a special tax to the Grand Master, acknowledged his authority, and participated in public Truist ceremonies.

For a decade, there was relative peace on the surface of Laurasia, as Lacedaemon focused his efforts on promoting economic prosperity, strengthening the military, and establishing the core of the Truist naval fleet. By that time, Truist rule extended from Letousia and the outskirts of Mixing in the west to Falloria in the east, and the Truist Empire was the largest since the time of the Neo-Gedrosian Empire of Brethalia. Lacedaemon proclaimed himself "Master and Great Lord of Assyria, Catilina, Akkadia, Gedrosia, Mesia, Jatheria, Hugill, Lugilla, Tatiana, Thathia, the Sophomores, Gasheria, Harappa, Aganian, Letousia, and the other ancient lands". Raids and border disputes between the Truites and the Neo-Brethalian Empire continued to take place however.

In 2332, Constans died and was succeeded by his younger brother Constantine (2332-2315). Constantine became determined to recover the lost Neo-Brethalian territories, and in 2330 Pope Vitalian (2342-2328) granted him permission to raise a special crusade tax in order to finance his ventures. In 2327, Constantine declared war against the Truite Empire, and his naval fleets attacked Rembium, Josia, Jurcuse, Balay, and even Truite outposts in Inoria. The Exarchate of Marthage, which remained under nominal Brethalian rule, sent armies into Letousia. The Truites quickly defeated the Neo-Brethalians however, and in 2326, a ferocious siege of Elana was instigated. For two years, the city was under severe pressure by the invaders. In 2324, however, Constantine's navy unleashed a new weapon, known as Brethalian fire, upon the invaders. The Truite fleet was scattered and Lacadaemon was forced to retreat. Nevertheless, parts of Gentz and all of Balay were now under the authority of the Truite Empire, and Truite raids reached into Mararia, Inoria, and Maul, which was now becoming known as Chilia, which had since the death of Vitellius in 2339 been mired in relative anarchy. In 2323-21, Paujaica and Mixing were finally conquered, and the Truites began waging wars against the Hottentot, Heusue, and Athopian confederacies of the Horn of Explosansis. In 2320, Lacedaemon died, and Archelaus (2320-2317), succeeded him to the throne. Archelaus's authority, however, was insecure, and in 2317 he was deposed and replaced by Polydorus, who held the throne for only a year before being in turn assassinated and replaced by Eurysthenes (2316-2315). In 2315, Eurysthenes drowned to death in the Master's Pool, and was succeeded by Linidus (2315-2295). Linidus focused his efforts on maintaining internal stability, sponsoring economic prosperity, and continuing the expansion of Truite territories in Explosansis and Cellini. In 2314-2309, Truite armies descended into Falloria and destroyed Abay, Neo-Magadha, and the Kingdom of Curgume. In 2307, the island of Corinia was conquered, and in 2306, Ralispont itself was threatened by the Infidels. Pope Sergius I (2313-2299), was forced to pay a ransom to the Truite Grand Master in order for the Truites to abstain from attacking the city. His successor John VI (2299-2295), was forced to pay a further ransom in 2297. In 2303-02, Marthage was finally conquered, and the last Exarch of Marthage, John, was executed. Thus all of northern Explosansis was now under Truite rule. By 2300, the Truites had also established a foothold in the Syrenes Sea, subduing the island of Ariola. Ariola was to be abandoned in 2290 however, because of communications and supply difficulties.

After Linidus died in 2295, he was succeeded by Cloemenes (2295-2285), under whose reign the Truite Caliphate now expanded into the Haustian mainland. By 2291, the Pillars of Achaederies had been seized by the Truites, thus allowing for raids and plundering operations into Inoria. Inoria was under the rule of the Breshite Kingdom of Vrilla, having been established a century earlier after the collapse of Brethalian power in the region. Vrilla, however, had been severely weakened by internal dissent, religious tension, and economic decline, partially caused by extensive Truite slaver raids in the Great Haustian Sea. The last King of Vrilla, Rogerius (2289-2288), had faced down a palace conspiracy and a series of uprisings at Benevoentum, Madriana, and Calsays in order to consolidate his position. Thus, the Inorian Peninsula was defenseless as on May 11, 2288, a army of Truites, Explosansians, and mercenaries commanded by the Truite general Laconius advanced from the Pillars of Achaederies and moved swiftly across the southern territories of Vrilla. At the beginning of June, they destroyed a army commanded by Rogerius in the Battle of the Achaies, smashing Vrillan power forever. Rogerius himself was killed in the battle. Thereafter, Benoventum, Madrian, Calsays, and a variety of Vrillian forts fell swiftly to the invaders, and by 2281, all of Inoria was under the rule of the Truite Empire. The successor of Cloemenes, Polybius (2285-2283), in the meantime had embarked on another siege of Elana in 2284-83, confident of his ability to destroy the Neo-Brethalian Empire, now under the rule of Leo III (2284-2258). The Truite fleet was however, scattered, both by Brethalian fire and by the aid of a devastating whirlpool storm. Polybius had died in 2283 and was succeeded by his cousin Suetonius (2283-2280). Under Suetonius, the Truite Empire signed the Treaty of Delos with the Neo-Brethalian Empire in 2282 but continued its conquests in western Haustia, conquering all of trans-Galdornes and the Neioria Valley by 2279. Suetonius was followed by Nero (2280-2276) and then Caligula (2276-2257).

At the same time that the Truites were increasing their power, however, Chilsia was becoming reunified. It had been divided into the competing kingdoms of Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgunthia. In Austrasia, the ambitious and intelligent nobleman Dematraus had become Chancellor of Austrasia in 2320. Dominating the weak king Eudamidas, Dematraus embarked on a series of campaigns to bring Neustria and Burgunthia under his rule. His main opponents were Leonidas, Chancellor of Neustria and Burgunthia, and his puppet king, the weak Archidamus. Leonidas had gained extensive unpopularity in his territories for the cruel and ruthless way in which he handled his subordinates and for the corruption, glutton, and stupidity of his representatives and counts. Dematraus began exploiting this, spreading rumors about the inabilities of his opponent and creating propaganda which made him out as the savior of Chilsia. This worked, as many of Leonida's supporters and associates began defecting to Dematraus. In 2314, Dematraus invaded Neustria, and in the spring of the following year, he destroyed the army of his opponent in the Battle of Teuthalia. Leonidas and Archidamus fled back to Constantinople, by now the Chilsian capital, but they were soon captured by Dematraus. In September 2313, the victorious Chancellor ordered their execution, and in October, he was recognized as Chancellor of Chilsia. Then in the early part of 2312, Dematraus deposed Eudamidas and proclaimed himself King and Lord of the Chilsians. He thus established the Dematran Dynasty, which was to bring Chilsia to its greatest heights as a Empire. Over the next two years, the King subdued the Neopolosians, the Lydians, Dacians, and Wallachians, imposing Chilsian suzerainty over much of Wallachany, as the lands east of the Trans-Alps were now known as. Dematraus also began to lay the foundations for the system of feudalism, as he granted his commanders and nobles estates and serfs as long as they promised to help their master in his military campaigns and to enforce his laws. Dematraus granted similar privileges to various towns and religious orders, and gave them deeds for the possession of serfs. These serfs were to be attached to the land and subject to the complete authority of their master, manager, or overseer. Nearly half of all the Chilsian peasants thus fell under the system. Dematraus died in August 2286, and a civil war broke out between his legitimate son, Antigonus, whom he had designated his heir, and his bastard, Lysimachus Martel, who was nevertheless possessed of great energy and military genius. For the next three years, vigorous civil war was waged in the territories of Chilsia, and the kingdoms to the east managed to overthrow Chilsian overlordship.

In 2283, however, Lysimachus Martel finally managed to defeat Antigonus and executed him. Proclaiming himself King (2283-2259), he thus immediately plunged into a series of military campaigns and ventures in order to restore and expand the power of Chilsia. In 2282-81, the Halxons, who resided in the territory of Halxony, to the north-east of Chilsia, were attacked and subdued, being forced to secede Afrisia and to recognize Lysimachus as their overlord. In 2280, he crushed the Neo-Hisigoths of southern Demnia, and cleared Varangian merchant-raiders from the port city of Jasoth. From 2280-77, King Lysimachus campaigned against the Wallachians and Neopolosians, penetrating to the head of the Hanube River and subjugating all peoples in the region. In 2276, the Lycians were attacked and scattered, and Chilsian armies now penetrated to Western Pasonia. In 2275-72, uprisings by the Halxons, Argoricans, and Mathianians of the Channel Isles were subdued. By now, however, the Truite campaigns in Galdornia were threatening the security of the Chilsian Kingdom. In 2280, they had attacked the Chilsian port of Jarbonne, but Lysimachus's subordinate and the Viceroy of Jarbonne, Publius, had managed to halt their advance. By 2275, however, they were posing more of a threat, as Truite raiding parties constantly harassed Burgunthia, Mararia, and the Kingdom of Cleothardy, whose King Ligonius (2287-2256) was forced to sign a treaty of alliance with Lysimachus in 2276. Throughout the latter 2270s, Lysimachus sought to expand his army, maintain defenses along the border with the Truite Empire, and keep his kingdom in readiness for any attack. By 2270, the Truite Governor of Inoria, Achilles, was preparing his forces for a push into the territories of Chilsia. Indeed, Grand Master Caligula had ordered him to proceed without haste and to conquer all of Haustia for the Truite cause. In 2269, Jarbonne was conquered, followed by Argoica in the fall. Then, in the early spring of 2268, the Truite army, estimated by contemporary accounts as comprising about 800,000 marauders, moved against Pothiers, the chief military outpost of the Chilsian Kingdom along the border with Galdornia. Lysimachus moved south at the head of a army of 400,000 men. Although the Chilsians were vastly outnumbered, they had a well-disciplined and efficient corps of knights, excellent knowledge of the landscape, and more effective military command. Lysimachus used this advantage to gain a decisive victory in the Battle of Pothiers, obliterating the entire Truite army. This battle decisively halted the Truite advance into Haustia, and was to be one of the most important battles in the annals of pre-Space Age Laurasian history. Had the Truites gained victory, all of Haustia would have fallen, for Chilsia was the only strong power besides Neo-Brethalia. Neo-Brethalia would have been overwhelmed, for the Truites would have been more powerful then ever before, and over time, they might have conquered the whole planet. All Laurasian historians and chroniclers are agreed that this battle determined Laurasia's destiny. Over time, Almitism would indeed triumph over Truism, although after only several more centuries of conflict.

After the Battle of Pothiers, the King focused his efforts on containing the Truites, extending the rule of Chilsia into Galdornia, and also maintaining Chilsian suzerainty over the territories of the East. In order to maintain his authority, he reorganized the administration of his kingdom. Lysimachus installed new counts throughout his lands, placed the royal estates under the control of a single Chancery, and forced all of the nobility to swear oaths of fealty to him personally. Lysimachus also constructed new castles, established a Chilsian navy in order to patrol the Mathianian Channel, and maintained positive relations with the Cleothards and the Neo-Brethalians, directed against the Truites. In 2267-65, Lysimachus seized control of the towns of Jforth, Negroth, and Nsiga from the Truites, and installed his subordinate Odysseus as the count of those border towns. In 2264, the Truites, under the command of Cassander, launched a renewed invasion of Galdornia, but they were crushed by Lysimachus in the Battle of Sicky. Lysimachus thereafter refortified Negroth, conquered Truite Corni (the new name for the Northern Mararian Island), and halted Truite raiding parties into Argorica. Arsles, which had been used by the Truites as a stage-point for military advances, was captured and destroyed. In 2263, Cassander's army was decimated at Jarbonne, and the Truite threat to Chilsia was terminated. In 2262, Lysimachus now turned his attention back to the east, and the barbarian Couvars, who had migrated from Eastern Oceania, were defeated and forced to pay homage. In 2261, a uprising in Neustria by disgruntled Chilsian nobles was crushed. In 2260, Lysimachus assisted Ligonius in halting a Truite attack on Benvolio. In 2260, Pope Gregory V (2269-2259) begged Lysimachus for aid against Ligonius, who was now bent on seizing the Papal Exarchate. Lysimachus refused to intervene militarily, but he applied diplomatic pressure on Ligonius, who decided to halt his offensive. Then in August 2259, Lysimachus died, appointing his sons Desiderius and Sophocoles as co-Kings. Desiderius ruled over Neustria, Burgunthia, and Chilsian Galdornia, while Sophocoles ruled over Austrasia, Wallachay, and Dacia. For the next six years, until 2253, the brothers ruled alongside each other with few difficulties, concentrating their efforts on maintaining internal stability.

In the Truite Empire, however, changes took place. In 2257, Caligula died, being succeeded briefly by Claudius (2257-2256). Claudius however, gained unpopularity quickly, and in 2256, he was deposed and assassinated by general Otho, who ruled for only six months before dying. Otho's successor, his brother Mardonius (2256-2250), consolidated his position by murdering some of his rivals. Mardonius soon faced other difficulties however, as the rebel leader Daedalus incited tensions in Thathia, Lugilla, and Yusania in 2253-52. Then in 2251, a member of the Abratian clan, named Arriadeus, arose in rebellion against his master, determined to overthrow the Lacademid Dynasty. Theoranscius was conquered in January 2250 and Mardonius was driven south to Herkiorim. Finally, in June 2250, he was defeated and executed. Arriadeus proclaimed the establishment of the Abratian Dynasty (2250-1742), the longest-lived of the Truite Grand Masterships. Arriadeus himself ruled until his death in 2246. He was succeeded by Judas (2246-2225), under whose rule the Abratian Dynasty was consolidated. In Inoria however, the Lacademid governor, Appian (2244-2212), proclaimed the establishment of the Kingdom of Inoria in 2244 and asserted his independence. Judas did not attempt to regain control, and signed a treaty with Appian in 2243. Judas attempted to compensate for the loss of Inoria by expanding the Truite territories to the East, conquering Western Krayia by 2240. By 2236, most of central Explosansis, as far as Lake Kakuna, had been converted to Truism. And by 2234, the Horn of Explosansis was under the complete rule of the Truite Empire.

In 2253, Sophocoles died, leaving Desiderius as the sole King of Chilsia. He now sought to resume the expansion of the Chilsian Kingdom. In 2256, King Ligonius of Cleothardy, who had been such a ally and friend of Lysimachus Martel, died, and was succeeded by his son, Argonius (2256-2244). Argonius was far less friendly towards Chilsian interests then his father had been, and he was determined to conquer the Papal Exarchate, seize Balay from the Truite Empire, and consolidate all of Mararia under his rule. In 2249, Argonius had conquered Corvania and had driven the Papal representatives from his court at Pavia. In 2248, he besieged Ralispont and ravaged the Papal Villages, slaughtering many bishops and carrying off much booty. Pope Stephen (2248-2243), appealed to the Chilsian King for assistance against his enemy. Desiderius marched into Cleothardy, defeated Argonius in the Battle of Agvores, and then proceeded to Pavia. In the early part of 2247, he confirmed the Papacy's rule of the Exarchate and forced Argonius into agreeing that Papal territory was blessed by Almitis. Desiderius thereafter withdrew to Chilsia. He marched now to Galdornia, determined to continue his father's campaigns against the Truites of Inoria. In the summer of 2247, Jarbonne was refortified, while the Truite pirate base of Torduse was destroyed. In 2247-45, the towns of Varathie, Argos, Myceria, and Sihul were conquered and established as military garrisons in the Velliore Plateau. In 2244, Appian, who had just proclaimed his independence from the Truite Empire, advanced north with a army of 200,000 men, aiming to halt the Chilsian offensives. His force was defeated however in the Battle of Yasuay, and he was forced to withdraw to Septimania, the last remaining territory of Truite Inoria north of the Galdornes Mountains. By 2243, Srthies had been captured. Desiderius then besieged Nagorium, a major Truite stronghold in Septimania and the central base for Truite military forces in the region. In 2241, Nagorium finally fell to the Chilsians, and all of Septimania was annexed by Chilsia. In 2240, he moved against Duke Otho of Galdornia, who was now attempting to establish his own independent kingdom. Pothiers, Jforth, and Nefroth were attacked and pillaged, and most of Otho's castles were besieged, confiscated, or razed. By 2235, all of Galdornia was again subdued under the might of the Chilsian King, and Otho was executed.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part V: The Reign of Demetrius the GreatEdit

In 2232, Desiderius died, and following his father's example, he had divided his dominions among his two sons. The elder, Demetrius (2232-2186), received Neustria, West Austrasia, North Galdornia, Argorica, and the Channel Isles, while the younger, Peithon (2232-2229), received East Austrasia, South Galdornia, Septimania, Burgunthia, and suzerainty over the peoples of the East. In 2231, the Galdornians, seeking to take advantage of the partition, revolted with the assistance of Appian. Demetrius first displayed his military genius as he swiftly marched south, scattering the rebel armies and reconquering most of the region. Thousands of rebels were imprisoned, executed, or exiled. In 2230, Demetrius married Desiderata, the daughter of the Dacian Duke Volroes, but divorced her after only a year. In December 2229, Peithon died suddenly, and as a result Demetrius was recognized as King of All Chilsia by his subjects. Over the next forty-three years, Demetrius was to become one of the most powerful monarchs on the surface of Laurasia, as he expanded the Chilsian Empire to its greatest extent and subdued much of Haustia. His first opportunity came into Cleothardy. In 2244, Argonius had died and been succeeded by his younger brother, ironically named Desiderius (2244-2226), who was to be the last King of Cleothardy. Desiderius was determined to accomplish what his brother had failed to do: that is, to annex the Papal Exarchate and seize Ralispont. In 2228, Desiderius invaded the Exarchate and conquered the cities of Papia, Molorvia, and Rathena. Ralispont and the port of Ostia were soon threatened by the Cleothard King, and the new Pope, Adrian (2228-2205), appealed to Demetrius for assistance, asking the Chilsian King to uphold the Treaty of Pavia. Demetrius responded by sending a demand to Desiderius, stating in vehement terms that he should not threaten what Almitis had given to his representative on Laurasia. Desiderius however, ordered the execution of Demetrius's emissaries, which angered the Chilsian King. In 2227, Demetrius invaded Cleothardy at the head of a army of 300,000 men and quickly progressed through Heletia, trans-Alpia, and the Nomes Valley. These territories were swiftly conquered. In the winter of 2227, Pavia itself was besieged. Desiderius was now rushing from the Papal Exarchate in order to confront the invaders, but his efforts were to be prove to be in vain. In the spring of 2226, Pavia's walls were finally breached and the Cleothard capital was sacked. Desiderius himself was shortly after captured and executed by the Chilsian King's command. Demetrius thereafter proclaimed himself King of Cleothardy and formally annexed Northern Mararia into the Chilsian Empire. Demetrius thereafter traveled to Ralispont, where he met with the Pope. He confirmed the terms of the Treaty of Pavia and granted the Pope supreme civil jurisdiction in the Papal Exarchate. In return, the Pope bestowed Demetrius with the title of "Patrician of the Mararians" and granted him the supreme license to crusading, holy war, and Mother of Almitis taxes. In 2224, the Dukes of Benvolio and Mercutio were subdued and Southern Mararia was annexed to the Chilsian Empire.

Demetrius now embarked on campaigns in Halxony, which were to last for over thirty years. In that span of time, the Chilsian King fought eighteen battles against the Halxons and contended with numerous guerrilla bands, mercenary armies, and peasant militias. Already in 2228, the King had advanced into Halxony, destroying the city of Umbert and consolidating Chilsian rule over the juncture of the Umbert Valley. In 2225, he embarked on yet another campaign against the Halxons, destroying the fort of Simbrery and subduing the Larky band of the Stiles Forest. Demetrius thereafter progressed to Engria, where he sacked the Halxon treasury of the Armory of Dennis and carried off 200,000 Halxonian women as concubines and serfs. All noble properties in Halxony were confiscated or bequeathed on the Pope, whose control in the region had long been tenuous. Then in Eastphaila, Demetrius defeated another Halxon army under the command of Syaggrius. Demetrius then progressed through all of Halxony, forcing Armenius, the Halxon Great King, to pay him homage. Demetrius established garrisons at Withor and Iorroes in order to maintain Chilsian domination in the region. Most of Halxony was now under the suzerainty of the Chilsian Kingdom, but Halxon resistance had by no means ended. Then in 2224, Demetrius was forced to return to Halxony, as Iorroes was overwhelmed and destroyed by a band of Halxon mercenaries and rebels. The rebellion was crushed and the mercenary force was dispersed, although Armenius, who had helped to provoke the rebellion, managed to flee north to Austiana. In 2223, Demetrius forced all of the Halxon nobles, lords, and chieftains to pay him homage at Bingley, which was established as a new fortress for the Chilsian Army in the region. Demetrius proclaimed himself Great King of Halxony and annexed the territory to the Chilsian Empire. For the next few years, there was relative peace, and Demetrius focused his attention on his extensive campaigns in various other theaters. In the summer of 2221, however, Eumenes, the Halxon Lord of Dunrth, erupted in rebellion and liberated Eastphalia, Dennis, Simbrery, and Withor from the Chilsian garrisons. Demetrius once again arrived in Halxony and reconquered those regions, killing Eumenes at the Grit River. In 2220, he divided Halxony into five dioceses, or districts, and diverted vast sums to administration and justice in the region. Until 2218, Halxony enjoyed a brief peace. In 2218, however, Demetrius issued the Codex Halxonis, which confirmed the supremacy of Chilsian officials and relegated Halxons to second-class status. This provoked massive rebellion in Halxony, and Armenius now returned to lead a new revolt against Chilsia. In response to this, Demetrius had 100,000 Halxon men, women, and children executed at Jribe, in order to provide a example to future rebels. Three years of bloody warfare with Armenius and the Halxonians ensued (2218-2215). Demetrius finally managed to defeat Armenius in the fall of 2215, however, and the Halxons again submitted to him as their master. For seven years thereafter, there was relative peace. In 2208, however, the Eastphalians erupted in revolt and destroyed Bingley. In 2207, they were joined by the Afrisians and the Larkians. In 2206, however, Demetrius crushed the uprising, and had nearly 100,000 Halxons deported or enserfed. In 2204, the Halxons again rose up in rebellion, but Demetrius crushed this one with ease. In 2196, the last uprising of the Halxons against Demetrius took place, thirty-two years after Demetrius had first campaigned against them. Demetrius crushed this one ruthlessly and had virtually all of the Halxons deported. Halxony was completely resettled with Chilsians and was placed under the rule of a military viceroy. Thus, the region was finally subdued under the Chilsian might.

During all this time, Demetrius had consolidated Chilsian rule along the northern end of the Galdornes Mountains and had engaged in further campaigns against the Inorian Truites. In 2222, he had defeated the Count of Aldorra and had subdued the regions of Aldorra and Nieses, thus finally eliminating resistance to Chilsian power in the region. That year, Demetrius received a plea for assistance from the Truite rulers of Benoventum, Madrian, and Calsays, who had erupted in rebellion against King Appian. Demetrius saw this as his opportunity to expel the "Heretics" from Inoria and to considerably expand the territory of the Chilsian Empire. At the head of a army of 600,000 men, he crossed the Galdornes Mountains in the summer of 2222 and immediately proceeded south into Truite territories. Benoventum was quickly captured and Governors Josephus, Titus, and Vespasian submitted to the authority of the Chilsian King. Demetrius now attacked the major Inorian stronghold of Stargossa, but now found himself facing the most difficult battle of his military career. Appian, learning of the King's invasion, had moved north with his army and now forced the Chilsians from their advance positions near Stargossa. He thereafter reconquered Benoventum and had Josephus and Titus executed. Vespasian, who had converted to Almitism, fled north with Demetrius, who was now forced to retreat back to the Galdornes Mountains. At Rocalvures, the Chilsian rearguard was ransacked by Truite marauders, but the Chilsians managed to prevent Appian from advancing into Galdornia. Demetrius now decided to proceed in a more cautious manner, and he now was determined to maintain defenses at the Galdornes Mountains and to proceed slowly into Inorian territory. In 2219, he established the County of Vrtheria and installed a garrison at the Galdornes foothills. In 2218-15, the Counties of Rocalvures, Series, and Zerthia were organized. A series of fortifications, military supply camps, and agricultural colonies were established in Septimania and in the border marshes. In 2215, the town of Gersalan on the other sides of the Galdornes was conquered, and Appian was forced to withdraw his forces back to the Suvres Pass. Over the next ten years, all of Suvrers, Inorian Galdornia, and parts of Benoventum-over the River were conquered, and the Chilsians consolidated their position in northern Inoria. In 2212, Appian died and was succeeded by Heredotus (2212-2204), who proved incapable of halting Chilsian campaigns. In 2205, the Duchy of Chilsian Inoria was established, and Demetrius appointed his son, Laudraus, as governor of the region. The following year, Heredotus died and was succeeded by Thaddeus (2204-2178). In 2203, Benoventum was recaptured by the Chilsians, who now dominated the northern parts of Inoria. The Truites attempted to recapture the city, but were eventually defeated in 2199. By 2191, Torthira and Calsays had been conquered by the Chilsians, who now extended their power past the Ebrithian River. In 2190, Thaddeus finally sued for peace with the Chilsians, and in 2189 the Treaty of the Ebrithian River was signed, by which Truite Inoria recognized the Chilsian territorial gains. Although Demetrius had not conquered most of Inoria, he had inflicted severe defeats on the Truites, paving the way to the eventual reconquest of the entire peninsula by succeeding Almitian kingdoms. Besides the Inorian Truites, Demetrius maintained peaceful relations with the Truite Empire proper. In 2203, he exchanged ambassadors with the Grand Master, Ignatius (2214-2191). Ignatius and Demetrius held each other in high esteem, and in 2200, the Grand Master granted the Chilsian King permission to send Chilsian clerics and pilgrims to Herkiorim. In 2199, the Treaty of Delornia confirmed Truite possession of Balay, while Corinia and Suthria, the Islands of Mararia, were confirmed as the property of the Chilsian Empire.

Demetrius now embarked on further campaigns in the Eastern Regions, determined to extend the authority of the Chilsian Empire over all of Wallachy and to consolidate the Chilsian position in the region. In 1112, the death of Volroes, the King's former father-in-law, who had left no sons, allowed Demetrius to intervene into the affairs of the Dacian Duchy. Seizing upon his rights as overlord of Dacia, Demetrius proclaimed that the duchy needed a new protector. He thus proclaimed himself Duke of Dacia and annexed the territory to the Chilsian Empire. Dacia was divided into fifteen dioceses, each of whom received a military viceroy, a civilian governor, a count of affairs, and Chilsian barons of the land. Demetrius installed garrisons at Altugye and Sultize in order to maintain Chilsian military power in the region. Later that year, however, the Couvars, who continued to dominate Neopolonia and Pannonia, launched a major raiding offensive into Dacia, Halxony, and Trans-Alpia. They managed to devastate many towns and to carry out hordes of prisoners before they were repulsed by Chilsian border garrisons. In 2211, Demetrius invaded Couvarnia and destroyed the Couvar base of Nerkop, recovering the captives. The following year, he penetrated to the Hanube River and devastated Couvar territory, uprooting many tribesmen and slaughtering many others. In 2208, the rebellions of the troublesome Halxons forced Demetrius to turn his attention to the north. He left his son, Peter, in command of the Dacian garrisons and ordered him to harry Couvar positions and camps. Peter destroyed the Great Couvar Camp, carrying off their treasures and liberating nearly 100,000 women and children from captivity. Finally, in 2204, the Couvar King Radrattus was captured and executed, and the Couvar Confederation was destroyed. Chilsia annexed Pannonia, Hanubia, and Couvarnia, extending its power to the very outskirts of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, under the rule of the ineffectual Constantine (2220-2203). Constantine had suffered defeats against the Truites and the Lydians, and in 2203, he was deposed and executed by his own mother, Irene, who proclaimed herself Queen of Neo-Brethalia. In the meanwhile, in 2197, Demetrius proclaimed himself Great Lord of Couvarnia and received homage from the Couvarnian chieftains. Besides the Couvarnians, other barbarian peoples, such as the Neo-Polosians, Neo-Varangians, Florencians, Barlavs, and Auguri were subdued from 2211 to 2205, being forced to pay homage to Demetrius and to acknowledge Chilsian suzerainty.

Now in control of the most powerful Empire in Haustia since the time of Justinian, and even before, since the time of the Oslemites, Demetrius decided to go yet further. In 2205, Pope Adrian I, whom the King had protected from the Cleothards, died, and was succeeded by Leo VI (2205-2184). Leo quickly gained unpopularity in Ralispont, for he persecuted his enemies, engaged in acts of bribery and theft, and employed the tax revenues of the Papal Exarchate in order to enrich his own person. The relatives and associates of the deceased Pope Adrian, who loathed the actions of Leo, conspired against him, and in 2201, they organized a band who attacked the Pope. Leo was blinded and castrated, being left for dead. However, the Cardinals, comprised mostly of his own cronies, maintained the Pope in his position and ordered for the arrest of the mob, the relatives of Adrian, and others who opposed Leo's rule. Demetrius was shocked by what happened to the Pope, and although he loathed Leo's personal actions, he believed that the Papacy was inviolable. The King received the Pope at Pavia and expressed his sorrow for what had happened to him. He thereafter marched into the Papal Exarchate, and at the beginning of 2200, convened a general church council in order to decide about the matter. The Council condemned the mob, the relatives, and associates to death, excommunicated them from the church services, and acknowledged Leo as Pope. Leo in return, agreed to halt any further actions against Almitis and to maintain the strength of Almitism. He swore this by oath. Then, on December 25, 2200, as King Demetrius prayed in the Chapel of St. Eusebius, the Pope came up to him, crowned him with the Imperial Crown of Ralispont, which had been specially crafted by his jewelers, and proclaimed Demetrius "Emperor of the Chilsians, Brethalians, and Tatianians". Demetrius would claim that he did not know the Pope would crown him. Nevertheless, it had much symbolic worth for him. His assumption of the title was meant to underline that Chilsia had restored the glory of ancient Brethalia and Tatiana, and that Methodius's ambitions were finally being fulfilled.

At the time Demetrius was crowned Emperor, Irene of course ruled over Neo-Brethalia. The fact that she was a woman, and the even more repulsive fact of how she had murdered her own son, alienated much Haustian opinion against her. The Pope thus declared that Demetrius was now Emperor of those who believe in Almitis. However, the inclusion of Tatiana in the title was very much a symbolic gesture, that distant land being under the Truite yoke. Nevertheless, Demetrius was marking himself as the successor of Honorius and Cliethus. His reign as Emperor of Chilsia lasted for fourteen years. In 2199, Demetrius sent a offer of marriage to Irene, attempting to gain control of the Neo-Brethalian territories by peaceful means. She rejected his offer, however, and refused to recognize him as Emperor. The Pope, enraged at this, excommunicated the Neo-Brethalian Queen, who herself became Empress in 2198, and absolved her subjects of allegiance to her. In the autumn of 2198, Nicephorus, Irene's chief general and finance minister, overthrew his mistress and proclaimed himself Emperor of Neo-Brethalia (2198-2189). In 2197, the Treaty of Inviorlium was signed between the Neo-Brethalian and Chilsian Empires, providing for commerce and peaceful diplomatic relations, but Nicephorus refused to recognize Demetrius as Emperor. Relations thereafter deteriorated, as Demetrius now sought to conquer Neo-Brethalian territories. In 2194, the only war between the Neo-Brethalians and the Chilsians broke out. Demetrius conquered Rethaie, the last remaining Neo-Brethalian holdout in Mararia, and then advanced into Brethalia, the Hellespont, and Garis. His attempts to besiege Gentz, Jurcuse, and Rembium, again in the possession of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, were defeated. Neo-Brethalia however, suffered severe pressures, and in 2190, by the Treaty of Ralispont, negotiated with the meditation of the Pope, Nicephorus agreed to recognize Demetrius as Emperor and to secede Rethaie, Garis, and the Euxine Sea to him. In 2189, Nicephorus was slain in the Battle of Gimane against the Barlavs, and was succeeded briefly by his son Staurakios, who was then deposed and replaced by Michael I (2189-2187). In 2188, Michael launched a renewed war against the Chilsian Empire, but his naval fleet, dispatched to blockade Rethaie, was crushed in the Battle of Dalmatia. In December 2188, the "Eternal Peace" was signed at Elana, by which the conditions of the earlier Treaty of Ralispont were confirmed and Michael recognized Demetrius as Emperor.

In the last years of his reign, Demetrius focused his efforts on consolidating the Empire, strengthening the governmental bureaucracy, and instigating various beneficial reforms. His reign in fact, was dominated by the Demetrid Renaissance, a cultural and social flourishing which had not been present on Laurasia since the time of Justinian of Neo-Brethalia, more then two centuries earlier. In the time since Justinian's campaigns, much of Laurasia had fallen into anarchy and disorder. The Westar continents were divided into a multitude of military confederations, tribal states, and loosely organized dominions, and were destined to remain in that state for the next seven centuries. The same situation prevailed in Explosansis, most of which below the confines of Truite influence had lost touch with civilization. The population of Laurasia had reached a new low of 375 million in 2300 BH. Feudalism and serfdom were now generally widespread Within the borders of Chilsia, however, urban stability had managed to survive. Demetrius wished to preserve his empire's economic strength and to stabilize the currency. In order to do this, Demetrius established a new standard, the libra chilsium, by which a pound of silver was used as the basis for currency, divided into units of sous, daedalus, and dennier. In 2198, the Emperor promulgated a edict on accounting and expenses, which was applied to the whole of his dominions. As a result of these actions, and the imposition of regulated levies on goods, the economy of Chilsia remained stable and prosperous throughout his reign. Demetrius also supported education. Although he himself did not know how to write, he was determined that his nobles and soldiers be literate. He established a educational academy at the royal court, sponsored scholarly institutes in Pavia, Ralispont, Durnum, and Gerlanz, and provided his children and grandchildren with the best tutors available. Demetrius also assembled scholars from throughout Haustia at his court, including Eusebius of Elana, George of Ralispont, and Altherius from the Darsian kingdom of Northamberia.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part VI: From the Conversion of Collsett to the deaths of Virgil and SeleucusEdit

Since Altherius has been noted, we can now note the general situation of the Darsian kingdoms. Ever since King Aeneas of Collsett had been converted in 2403 to Almitism, the Almitian Church's power in the Mathianian Isles had been restored. Augustine, who remained Archbishop of Umarina until his death in 2396, established a school for the clergy in Umarina, encouraged missionary missions into the other Darsian kingdoms, and maintained constant communications with Gregory, who provided him advice as how to best deal with pagans in his territories. Augustine appointed two of his subordinates, Uflius and Rogerius, as the bishops of Yorthium and Lodarnia, two other important towns in the kingdom of Collset. After his death, these men wished to continue the consolidation of the Almitian Church in Darsis. By 2390 they had established new bishoprics in Northamberia, East Emmerina, South Dorsit, and West Emmerina. Persuaded by Aeneas, King Tacitus of East Emmerina (2402-2374), converted to Almitism in 2389, although he continued to maintain pagan rituals at his court. Tacitus was followed by King Virgil of Kathynsex (2396-2384) in 2388. In 2384, however, a setback was suffered by the Almitian Church when both Virgil and Aeneas died, a few months apart of each other. Their respective successors, Melitus (2384-2383) and Herod (2384-2360) both lapsed into paganism and expelled the Almitian officials from their dominions. Almitian properties which had been established in their territories were destroyed and pagan rituals were encouraged. In 2383, Melitus was killed in battle against Laurentius I the Little (2383-2347), a fervent Almitian who had been one of Augustine's first converts. Laurentius restored Almitism in Kathynsex, confirmed the Church's position in a series of charters, and ordered for the destruction of all pagan temples, altars, and sacrifice pillars in his kingdom. Pagan priests and oracles were executed and all subjects were required to swear a oath to Almitism. In 2379, Laurentius convinced Herod to be baptized, and Herod now also restored Almitism in his kingdom. Laurentius now sponsored the activities of missionaries throughout Darsis, and he applied much pressure on his fellow paganist monarchs to convert to Almitism.

To the north, Jovian (2384-2368), King of Northamberia, who had been installed on the throne of that state by King Tacitus in 2384, converted to Almitism in 2374. Jovian had been a powerful king ever since his ascension, displacing Tacitus as the overlord of the northern Darsians in 2380 and conquering the Hisgothic and Mathianian tribes of Chestoria. He now established a bishopric at Insporic, protected Almitian missionaries from confiscation, and granted clergymen who resided in his territories exemptions from taxation, enumerations, and conscription. Jovian was now determined to impose Almitism on Choleria, Northamberia's primary rival and, along with West Emmerina and South Dorsit, one of the last remaining pagan kingdoms. Choleria, however, was ruled by the powerful Clodius Albinus (2374-2345), who had consolidated the rule of Choleria over the Mathianian kingdom of Lindthay and had established alliances with West Emmerina, under the rule of Badonicus (2389-2357), and South Dorsit, under the rule of Orosius (2370-2359). Clodius Albinus did not wish to see Almitism expand further and he also wanted to contain the power of Jovian. In 2369, Choleria, West Emmerina, and South Dorsit declared war against Northamberia, East Emmerina, and Collsett. The following year, Clodius Albinus, Badonicus, and Orosius clashed with Jovian, Herod, and Laurentius in the Battle of Carthisgeld. The result was a decisive victory for the pagan coalition, as Jovian himself was killed in the battle. Jovian's brother Athanasius (2368-2359), was forced to acknowledge the supremacy of Clodius Albinus and to secede various borderland territories. Athanasius now focused his efforts on maintaining and consolidating Almitism in his kingdom. It was under his patronage that the monasteries of Sassow and Rorthius were established, which were to become major chapter houses in the Mathianian Islands. In the meantime, Clodius Albinus imposed his suzerainty over Collsett and East Emmerina, briefly dominating much of southeastern Darsis. He also waged wars against the Mathianian kingdom of Porthria, and from 2364-63, he waged war against Badonicus, briefly driving his former ally into exile. Clodius Albinus also maintained dominance over South Dorsit and forced Orosius to pay tribute in 2361. In 2359, however, Athanasius, feeling confident, revoked the terms of vassalage and launched a major invasion of Choleria. He was crushed by Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Masorgone, becoming the second Northamberian king to be slain by the King of Choleria. Athanasius was succeeded by Prosper (2359-2330), who was, for the next thirteen years, a vassal of Clodius Albinus. Clodius Albinus was now the supreme overlord of all the Darsian kingdoms, and by 2356, all of the Mathianian kingdoms west of Choleria also acknowledged his overlordship. He also intervened into the affairs of the other kingdoms. East Emmerina's king Albertius (2359-2346) was deposed in 2346 by the Cholerian King and replaced with his brother Justin.

The following year, Clodius Albinus, who wished to incorporate Northamberia into Choleria, assembled a massive army of some 100,000 men, comprised of Cholerian, South Dorsian, East Emmerinian, Collsettian, Emsettian, Mathianian, and Hisigothic units. King Justin of East Emmerina accompanied his overlord and pledged to fight under him in the ensuing campaigns. Prosper, who was determined to maintain Northamberia's independence, now revoked his terms of homage to Clodius Albinus and formed a alliance with the King of West Emmerina, Homer, who had succeeded Badonicus in 2357. In the fall of 2345, Clodius Albinus invaded Northamberia and swiftly advanced to the Wetherian River. He soon clashed with the forces of Prosper. A series of misfortunes now impacted the Cholerian King. First, King Justin was slain by some of Prosper's archers, thus depriving Clodius Albinus of a major ally. Then, King Homer with his army hurled from the south and cut off the Cholerian archer units, disabling them. Clodius Albinus and his retainers were now forced into a corner, and in the struggle that followed, the King and his men were cut down with the sword. Prosper wiped up the remaining Cholerian forces and now imposed his dominance in all of Darsis. He advanced into Choleria and installed Clodius Albinus's son, Galerius, as King of Southern Choleria. Northern Choleria was annexed directly by Northamberia. For the next three years, Prosper maintained his overlordship over the other kingdoms, and the kings of East Emmerina, South Dorsit, West Emmerina, Collsett, and Kathnysex acknowledged his suzerainty.

In 2342, however, Clodius Albinus's youngest son, Lanatus, arose in rebellion against Galerius, and with the assistance of his father's former chief magnates, he overthrew and killed his brother. Lanatus became King of Choleria and thereafter rejected the suzerainty of Prosper, who was forced to retreat north. Restoring Cholerian power, Lanatus waged war against King Homer of West Emmerina, annexing the northern Games districts and exacting tribute. He launched raids against the Mathianian kingdoms west of the Cholerian Dyke and harried the territories of East Emmerina, now under the rule of Demosthenes (2345-2337). After Demosthenes died in 2337, he was succeeded by Procopius (2337-2277), one of the longest-reigning kings of any of the Darsian kingdoms. Procopius, however, signed a alliance with Lanatus in 2336. Lanatus also maintained positive relations with King Eddius of South Dorsit (2340-2315), and Eddius became his godson in 2334. On account of this, it is notable to note that Lanatus was the first king of Choleria to convert to Almitism. In 2335, Archbishop Honorius of Umarina (2336-2332) baptized the Cholerian King and received him into the Almitian faith. Lanatus demolished all of the pagan pillars, temples, and sacrifice sites in his kingdom, including a "site of homage" to the traditional Darsian Gods which had been erected by his father. He established monasteries throughout his kingdom and encouraged religious unity throughout his territories. Prosper of Northamberia, in the meanwhile, convened the Synod of Whursley in 2336, which decided matters of Darsian church doctrine and regimented the administration of Church properties and dioceses throughout Darsis. West Emmerina eventually converted to Almitism in 2325, followed by the last remaining pagan kingdom in the whole of the Mathianian Isles, South Dorsit, in 2321. These later conversions were managed by Theodore of Elana, a Grinae clergyman who became Archbishop of Umarina in 2332 and remained so until his death in 2310. In 2323, the supremacy of the Archbishop of Umarina throughout the Mathianian Isles was confirmed by the Synod of Georges, a decision which was ratified by the Pope.

Prosper died in 2330 and was succeeded to the throne of Northamberia by his son Laurence (2330-2315). Laurence was determined to restore Northamberia's strength and to contain the power of Choleria. This determination was fueled by the death of Homer in 2327, which was followed by three years of civil war in West Emmerina. During that time, Homer's wife, Aurelia, and his retainer of the guards, Claudius, competed with each other for authority in the kingdom. Lanatus sought to take advantage of the disunity of West Emmerina, and in 2326, he managed to annex the West Emerianian provinces of Sogur and Mathianian Osley. Laurence, fearful that Northamberia would be next, declared war against Lanatus in the summer of that year and marched a army across the Wetherian River, proceeding towards the Cholerian stronghold of Begirit. There, sometime in August or September 2326, the Northamberian King defeated the Cholerian King and forced him to sign the Treaty of Begirit, by which Choleria agreed to make no further territorial acquisitions at the expense of the other South Darsian Kingdoms. Lanatus also promised to pay Laurence tribute and to recognize him as his overlord. In order to guarantee this agreement, he seceded the province of Middlia to the Northamberian King. The following year, Lanatus died, and was succeeded to the throne of Choleria by Antigonus (2325-2296). Antigonus spent the first year of his reign reorganizing his military forces and seeking to recover Choleria's losses from the war against Northamberia. He did invade Collsett in 2324, however, and the king of Collsett, Phasel (2327-2315), was forced to pay tribute and to surrender captives to the Cholerian King. From 2325 to 2320, Theodore of Umarina also engaged in various church reforms in Choleria, dividing the country into six smaller dioceses. Antigonus himself was very benevolent towards the Church, and he made several grants for the establishment of monasteries, nunneries, and church hospices. In 2323, he issued a charter which confirmed the Church's exemption from taxation and extended the anathema to any who threatened the Church's privileges. In 2321, however, the King entered into war against Laurence, and at the Battle of Terendita, he destroyed the Northamberian Army. The Treaty of Terendita was then negotiated between Northamberia and Choleria with the meditation of Archbishop Theodore. By the terms of this Treaty, Choleria regained Middlia and was absolved of all conditions towards Northamberia on payment of a final tribute.

Throughout the first half of the 2310s, there was general peace among the Darsian kingdoms. West Emmerina, however, had emerged out of civil war and under the rule of King Stephanus (2325-2315), she reorganized her military forces and began to apply pressure on South Dorsit and Collsett. In 2315, Stephanus died and was succeeded by Lysimachus (2315-2311), under whose rule West Emmerina challenged Choleria for dominance of the south and south-east. Lysimachus invaded Collsett, deposed and killed her king Brutus in 2314, and installed his younger brother Matthias as King of Collsett. In 2314, he invaded and devastated South Dorsit, deposing its king Neuchrus and briefly annexing South Dorsit into West Emmerina. South Dorsit was divided into five provinces which were each placed under the rule of a West Emmerinian count. Lysimachus imposed his overlordship over Kathnysex, and King Demetrius (2317-2306) was forced to pay tribute and to acknowledge the suzerainty of the King of West Emmerina. The hostile actions of Lysimachus aroused the fear of Antigonus, who believed that Choleria's position was threatened. In 2313, the King of Choleria declared war against West Emmerina and advanced a army of 50,000 men across the banks of the Games River. Northamberia, East Emmerina, and the Mathianian kingdom of Seria, now dominant in the territories west of the Dyke, aligned themselves with Choleria.

In the early part of 2312, Antigonus and Lysimachus clashed in the Battle of the Gashie, which resulted in a decisive Cholerian victory. Lysimachus's corps were broken and forced to retreat, and the West Emmerinian King himself was mortally wounded, dying shortly after the battle. As a result of this victory, Antigonus revised the territorial settlements of the south. He deposed Matthias from the throne of Collsett and installed Pliny Surius (2311-2275) on the throne of that kingdom. Pliny Surius agreed to pay homage to Antigonus and to act in the interests of Choleria. In South Dorsit, Antigonus installed Mithridates (2311-2283) on the throne of that kingdom and forced him to sign a similar homage agreement. Finally, in West Emmerina, itself, the Cholerian King installed Lysimachus's younger brother, Julius (2311-2274) on the throne and forced him to sign the Treaty of Worther with Choleria, by which Choleria's position as "protector" of South Dorsit and Collsett was emphasized. Antigonus thereafter withdrew back to Choleria. There was no threat from Northamberia, under the rule of the saintly and peaceful Lucius (2315-2295). Lucius, in fact, signed a treaty of commerce with Antigonus in 2309 and maintained relatively positive relations with him. Julius of West Emmerina, in the meantime, spent his efforts recovering West Emmerina's losses, organizing the government bureaucracy, and compiling his famous law code, issued in 2306-2305. This code provided separate levels of fines and penalties for every class of the King's subjects, regulated the justice dispensed by his officials, and provided a clear and precise description of governmental finances, land grants, noble privileges, military precedence, town privileges, and other such concerns. The law code of Lucius served as a model for the other Darsian kingdoms, and similar compilations were published by Mithridates (2304); Antigonus (2303); Pliny Surius (2301); and Anastasius of Kathnysex (2300). Almitism also continued to consolidate its position, and by the end of the century, the last remnants of Paganism amongst the Darsians had disappeared. Isaac, Archbishop of Umarina (2308-2269) became known for his extensive correspondence, which he maintained with the various monarchs, with the Pope, and with his religious subordinates, such as the bishops, abbots, priests, and abbesses. During his long reign, the number of church monasteries in Darsis increased from 100 in 2308 to 600 in 2269, while the number of parish priests increased from 400 in 2308 to 1100 in 2269.

In 2296, Antigonus abdicated as King of Choleria and retired to become a monk at the Priory of St. Philip, and was succeeded to the throne of Choleria by his nephew Titus (2296-2291). Titus was as religious as his older brother, and he made numerous grants to various church properties. In 2295, Titus proclaimed that all his subjects should "abide by the laws of Almitis" in all that they did in their daily lives and that no crimes against Almitis should take place. Titus retained Cholerian overlordship over South Dorsit, Kathnysex, and Collsett, continued to dominate Julius of West Emmerina, and strengthened the Cholerian military fortifications in the Dyke, waging war with Seria from 2293-92. Lucius of Northamberia had died in 2295, and his successor, Horace (2295-2284), was only a small boy at the time of his ascension. Thus, the government was controlled by Bishop Valerius of Prourik until 2291. Northamberia did not pose any threat to Choleria, however, and Valerius negotiated the marriage of Lucius's daughter, Antigone, with Titus's sister Didymeia in 2292. In 2291, Titus felt secure enough to also abdicate the throne and retire to the Priory of St. Galen, being succeeded by Antigonus's only surviving son, Seleucus (2291-2284). Little is known about the reign of Seleucus or the 2280s in general, as the surviving historical records and chronicles of the years from 2291 to 2280 are vague. We possess only two of Seleucus's decrees, and none of his coinage or inscriptions. Indeed, the primary source of this time, from which much of the general information here has been taken, is The General Histories of the Darsian Kingdoms, written by the monk and scholar Solon (2327-2265) in about 2269 BH. Solon was primarily concerned about the history of the Darsian Church and cultural innovations, but he does provide some general detail about political and military events during this time period. In 2285, Seleucus and Julius aligned with each other and waged a war against Soria, gaining victory in the Battle of Ginsae. The following year, however, Seleucus died suddenly. He left no children, and there was, for a time, a dispute over the throne. At the end of 2284 or the beginning of 2283, however, a nobleman named Postumius ascended to the throne (2284/83-2243). During his long reign, Choleria was to become dominant in Darsis.

At the time that Postumius ascended to the throne, Julius and Pliny Surius continued to reign over West Emmerina and Collsett respectively, and during the reign of Seleucus, they had apparently loosened the ties bonding them to Choleria. Both Julius and Pliny Surius are believed to have expanded their military forces. In 2282, a "alliance of brotherhood" was signed between the two monarchs, our only knowledge of this alliance coming from a fragment of a treaty found on the Games River. Not even Solon mentions this alliance. For some years, it seems that Postumius was prevented from expanding Cholerian dominion south of the Games River. Postumius was forced to install garrisons at Winlord and Yureny on the northern shore of the Games River in order to maintain Choleria's position. He was able to conduct military exactions and operations at the expense of Kathnysex and East Emmerina. By 2280, the town of Uris and the outlet of the Games River had been seized by Choleria from King Volusus of Kathnysex (2291-2254). Soon, events elsewhere changed in the favor of Postumius. In 2275, Pliny Surius of Collsett died, removing a obstacle to Cholerian influence in Collsett. He was succeeded by his son Cato (2275-2252). The following year, Julius of West Emmerina abdicated and traveled to Ralispont for a piligrimage. He was succeeded by his son Minucius (2274-2260), who was not as formidable or effective as his father. Julius eventually would die in Ralispont in 2272.

With the two main challenges to his power removed, Postumius now acted in a much more ambitious fashion. By 2270, Volsus and Cato were both vassals of the Cholerian King, and in 2269, Postumius invaded and ravaged South Dorsit, Collsett, and parts of West Emmerina, compellng Minucius and King Fabius of South Dorsit (2283-2260) to pay him tribute. In 2267, he had to launch another expedition against West Emmerina, destroying the town of Gloria and forcing Minucius to again abide by the earlier terms of vasslage. In 2266, King Eddius of East Emmerina (2287-2251) was forced to pay tribute to Choleria and to concede the towns of Wiringy, Channeria, and Rhaesia. By the time of the chronicler Solon's death in 2265, Postumius dominated all of the Darsian kingdoms with the exception of Northamberia. Indeed, in 2264, Postumius issued a charter in which he was stiled "King of the South Darsians", the first person to take such a title. It was a symbolic gesture, but it was a indication. His overlordship remained unchallenged until 1660, whem, with the death of Minucius, Meneucius came to the throne of West Emmerina (2260-2244). Meneucius was not as content as his brother in accepting the overlordship of Choleria, and in 2259, he instigated a ferocious war against the Cholerian King. West Emmerina briefly restored her independence from Cholerian overlordship and conquered much of the districts along the course of the Games River, but was eventually defeated by Postumius in 2257.

In 2256, Postumius forced Meneucius to again acknowledge him as his master, and in the summer of that year, he forced West Emmerina to cooperate in Choleria's campaigns against Saria and Dithia. For the remainder of the decade, Postumius maintained Cholerian authority and also annexed borderland territories from Northamberia, forcing King Honorius of Northamberia (2263-2242) to pay tribute. In 2250, however, a rebellion against his authority in Urthriers, a western province of Choleria, gave the opportunity to Menueucius, who in 1648 renounced the overlordship of Choleria and declared West Emmerina's independence. He was soon joined by King Quinticus of Collsett (2252-2238), King Geganius of East Emmerina (2251-2242), and King Eurysmachus of Kathnysex (2256-2242). In 2247, the rebel coalition defeated Postumius in the Battle of Uris, and Postumius had to acknowledge the independence of West Emmerina, East Emmerina, Collsett, and Kathnysex, thus destroying Cholerian dominance. Only South Dorsit remained subject to Cholerian suzerainty. Meneucuius would die in 2244 and was succeeded briefly by Cassander (2244-2243), who was then succeeded by Theodosius (2243-2214). In the meantime, Postumius retreated to his dominions, and in January or February 2243, he was assassinated by "some rude fellows", according to the Cholerian Annals, although why he was assassinated remains a mystery even in the advanced Hyperdrive Era.

Postumius was briefly succeeded by Germanicus, who held power until March or May 2243, when he was deposed and assassinated by Antiochus (2243-2204), under whose rule Choleria was to recover from the losses at the Battle of Uris and was to once again dominate Darsis. Antiochus spent the first three years of his reign rebuilding the Cholerian military, expanding the treasury, and issuing a reformed coinage, which helped to stabilize the Cholerian economy. He also accomplished the first step towards restoring Cholerian ascendancy, when in 2242, upon the death of Eurysmachus of Kathnysex, he installed Eurymaschus's nephew, Boethius (2242-2202) on the throne of Kathnysex. Boethius recognized Cholerian overlordship, provided military detachments to the Cholerian Army, and granted Antiochus complete control of the foreign affairs, trade, and military of Kathnysex. Kathnysex remained a loyal vassal of Choleria for the remainder of Anticohus's reign. Antiochus also firmly consolidated control over Uris and established a garrison there.

In the early 2230s, Antiochus intervened into the affairs of Collsett, which after the death of Quinticus slipped into anarchy, as Quinticus's nephews Jordanes, Belisarius, and Narses competed with each other for the kingship. In 2236, Antiochus installed Heredotus (2236-2221) on the throne of Collsett and forced him to pay tribute. He gained similar privileges in Collsett as were possessed in Kathnysex. Antiochus maintained his position in Collsett by establishing a garrison at Umarina, collecting taxes from his interests in the kingdom, and approving all of Heredotus's official actions. Eventually, in 2224, Heredotus, who according to the Cholerian Annals was "incited by those in his court who despised the mastery of the great King", arose in rebellion against Antiochus, but this was crushed in the Battle of Ryuthaky. He was again forced into vassalage and was required to pay a immense tribute to the King of Choleria as a guarantee of this. In 2221, when Heredotus died, Antiochus installed his nephew Anthony (2221-2215) on the throne of Collsett. Anthony was a weak and ineffectual ruler, and in 2215, he was deposed by the Cholerian King, who thereafter proclaimed himself King of Collsett and annexed the territory into the Kingdom of Choleria. Collsett was to remain under the direct rule of Choleria until the death of Antiochus in 2204.

South Dorsit also gradually fell under the direct rule of Choleria during this time. In 2240, Antiochus installed Demetrius (2240-2228) on the throne of South Dorsit. Demetrius agreed to recognize the authority of the Cholerian King and to pay him tribute. Anticohus maintained a consul at the Dorsitan capital city of Hamgrthd, maintained military garrisons in the territory, and collected tribute. The people of South Dorsit simmered under the conditions of vassalage, which was made especially humiliating as in 2231, Demetrius was listed among a number of the vassals of Anticohus, and was referred to as merely "Earl of South Dorsit", rather than as King. Antiochus was already including South Dorsit in his titles of the lands he ruled as King. In 2229, Demetrius, who himself was fearful of his position, gained the assistance of Theodosius and rejected the authority of the Cholerian King. Antiochus marched south with a army of 40,000 men and quickly invaded South Dorsit, devastating the land and destroying the fortresses of Nicomedia, Stratonice, and Apameia. The following year, Demetrius himself was killed in the Battle of Antioch, and his successor, Alexander Balas (2228-2209), recognized the suzerainty of the Cholerian King. He also conceded Nicomedia, Stratonice, Apaemia, and the valley of Antioch to Choleria as a guarantee for his good faith. Antiochus thereafter made many grants of land in South Dorsit to his leading nobles, and in a charter of 2222, he referred to Alexander Balas as his "loyal vassal and duke". Eventually, upon the death of Alexander Balas in 2209, Antiochus formally proclaimed himself King of South Dorsit and annexed the territory to Choleria, giving control of the South Dorsitan provinces to his loyal earls and barons. South Dorsit remained under Cholerian rule for the remainder of his reign.

East Emmerina too, was not free from the authority and influence of Choleria. In 2242, a year after Antiochus ascended to the throne of Choleria, the East Emmerinian throne had been seized by the general Scripo Africanus (2242-2232). Scripo Africanus extensively reformed the currency of his dominions, and seeking to protect East Emmerina from Cholerian intrusions, he established a line of fortifications in the Harcourt Valley. He formulated a alliance with Theodosius of West Emmerina in 2235 and resisted diplomatic pressure which was applied upon him by Antiochus. Eventually, in 2233-32, Choleria and East Emmerina began a war against each other. Antiochus swiftly invaded East Emmerina and besieged the Harcourt Fortifications. He also repelled West Emmerinian attacks across the Games River. Eventually, sometime in the summer of 2232, Scripo Africanus died, although the cause of his death is unknown. He was succeeded by Cicero (2232-2221), who signed the Treaty of Verona with Antiochus in 2231 and agreed to recognize the King of Choleria as his overlord. He also dismantled the fortifications of the Harcourt Valley and promised to limit the size of his army. For the next decade, East Emmerina generally remained peaceful. In 2221 Cicero died and was succeeded by Antonius (2221-2206). Antonius simmered under the conditions of overlordship, and throughout the first half of the 2210s he continually plotted against the Cholerian King. In 2215, rebellion broke out in East Emmerina, as the Harcourt Valley was refortified and Antonius rejected the terms of the Treaty of Verona. Antonius received financial aid from the Mathianian kings west of the Cholerian Dyke. By 2213, however, the East Emmerinian rebellion had been crushed, and Antiochus punished Antonius by destroying his capital city of Esrth. Antonius managed to stagger on for several more years, but in 2207, he once again plotted against Antiochus, receiving aid this time from Zosimus of West Emmerina. Having enough of his vassal's behavior, Antiochus marched into the Palace of East Emmerina and in 2206, had Antonius beheaded. He proclaimed himself King of East Emmerina and annexed the territory to Choleria. Until Antiochus's death two years later, East Emmerina remained subject to Choleria.

Antiochus also waged wars against West Emmerina. He and Theodosius proved to be enemies for much of their reigns, until Theodosius died in 2214. In the late 2240s, Theodosius seized much of the course of the Games River and destroyed the Cholerian fortress of Didymeis. His attempts to progress northwards, however, were halted by the Cholerian King, who then contained the West Emmerinian forces to the line of the River. Theodosius's support for East Emmerina and South Dorsit against the domination of Choleria has already been noted. Eventually, in 2221, the Cholerian and West Emmerinian Kings clashed in the Battle of Clyde, which resulted in a decisive Cholerian victory. As a result of this confrontation, Antiochus recovered the districts of the southern Games River and conquered the province of Theynria. Theodosius was forced to sign the Treaty of Iconopolis in 2220, by which he agreed to no longer harry the interests of Choleria in the other Darsian kingdoms. During the first half of the 2210s, peaceful relations managed to subsist between the two kings, although Antiochus remained hostile towards Theodosius and opposed his policies diplomatically. In 2214, Theodosius died and a succession struggle emerged in West Emmerina. Antiochus intervened into West Emmerinian affairs and installed Zosimus (2214-2198), Theodosius' nephew, on the throne of that kingdom. In 2213, Zosimus recognized Cholerian overlordship by the Treaty of Wethergord. For the remainder of Antiochus's reign, West Emmerina was a vassal and ally of Choleria.

Antiochus also extended his influence and domination to Northamberia. When Antiochus ascended to the throne of Choleria, Northamberia was ruled by King Jerome (2262-2242). Jerome abdicated a year after Antiochus became King of Choleria and gave the throne to his eldest son, Tiberius, who ruled for just a year. In 2241, Tiberius was deposed and replaced by Luke (2241-2235). Luke and Antiochus exchanged ambassadors, and the two kings signed a treaty of commerce and free transport in 2237. In October 2235, Luke died and was replaced by Pontus (2235-2226). Pontus also maintained relatively positive relations with Antiochus and signed a treaty of non-aggression with him in 2231. He also reformed the coinage of Northamberia, taking inspiration from the monetary reforms of Antiochus. In 2226 Pontus died and was succeeded by his brother Dionysius (2226-2221 and 2210-2204). Dionysius however, was not a strong ruler, and he faced internal challenges from his kinsman, Ptolemy, who desired to rule Northamberia. In 2224, a major civil war broke out in Northamberia, in which 200,000 Northamberians are said to have been slain by the sword. Antiochus took advantage of the civil war to invade Northamberia in 2223-22, ravaging many of the southern regions and annexing the Northamberian province of Jeright. In 2221, Ptolemy finally won the civil war and drove Dionysius into exile in Saria, where he was sheltered by Queen Octavia. Ptolemy's reign lasted until 2212, during which conflict with Choleria took place. Two wars between Ptolemy and Antiochus were waged, one from 2219-18 and another from 2215-13, in both of which Ptolemy attempted to reacquire Jeright from Choleria. In both conflicts, he was defeated by Antiochus, who destroyed many Northamberian villages, wrecked the Isle of Serglio, and penetrated to the Northamberian capital city of Solser. Antiochus forced Ptolemy to sign the Treaty of the Wrtherie in 2213, by which he recognized Cholerian overlordship and seceded the Isle of Serglio to Choleria. Choleria also gained rights of military access throughout Northamberia. The following year, Ptolemy was deposed and assassinated by Joannes (2212-2210). Joannes was unpopular however, and in 2210, Dionysius returned from exile with the help of Antiochus, seizing Solser and establishing himself as King of Northamberia. Joannes was executed. Dionysius thereafter signed the Treaty of Resia with Antiochus in 2209, confirming the terms of the Treaty of the Wrtherie. In order to cement his loyalty to his new overlord, Dionysius married Antiochus's daughter, Cleopatra, in 2208, a ceremony which was attended by dignitaries of all the Darsian and Mathianian kingdoms. Until 2204, with the assistance of Cholerian military power, Dionysius ruled over Northamberia without few difficulties. In secret, however, tensions simmered against him, as the Northamberians despised his gluttony and corruption. Eventually, in April 2204, Dionysius was assassinated by his generals, and was succeeded by Antipater, who held the throne for only a month. In May 2204, Antipater himself was deposed and driven into exile by Neuchrus (2204-2194, 2192-2190). Neuchrus, like his four predecessors, acknowledged the suzerainty of Antiochus, who congratulated him on his ascension in June 2204.

Besides dominating the other Darsian kingdoms, Antiochus engaged in wars against Soria and the other Mathianian kingdoms west of the Cholerian Dyke. He waged three major campaigns against Soria, ruled in succession, by Octavia (2245-2217); Honoria (2217-2207); and then Placidia (2207-2190). These campaigns took place in 2222, 2216, and in 2204, the year of his death. As a result of these battles, Antiochus was acknowledged as overlord of the Mathianian kingdoms at two different times: in 2220 and in April 2204, just months before his death. In order to maintain oversight over the Mathianian kingdoms, and cement the position of Choleria in Mathies, as the Mathianian territory of the Dyke was becoming known, Antiochus extended and strengthened the fortifications of the Dyke, which had been erected by his predecessors since the time of Clodius Albinus. He established a series of military camps, trade posts, fortifications, and organized agricultural outposts, which were meant to monitor activity in the region. Antiochus began work on his expansions in 2227, and they were not completed until 2205, the year before his death. In order to finance this project, he conscripted laborers from East Emmerina, Kathnysex, Collsett, South Dorsit, and West Emmerina, raised taxes on the noble estates, and reformed the currency, increasing the amount of silver in circulation. As a result, the barrier was renamed the Antiochid Dyke in his honor.

Antiochus also, became known as a major supporter of the Almitian Church during his rule. In 2214, he persuaded Pope Adrian I to send two papal legates, Balbinus and Maximian, to Choleria, who then presided over the Council of Wrothen, which decided matters of church property and grants. Antiochus also persuaded the legates to agree to the creation of the Archbishopric of Ligornia, which was established by the Pope in 2213. Ligornia was meant to reduce the authority of the See of Umarina, and its jurisdiction extended over Northamberia, Choleria, and parts of East Emmerina. Ligornia did not long survive his death, however. Antiochus founded St. Elam's Abbey and the Priory of St. Olympias. In 2211, he granted the manor of Jesulim in Collsett to the See of Umarina, and in 2209, provided for a special grant to be paid to the Abbot of Iconopolis. Besides the Church, Antiochus maintained extensive relations with the continent. He conducted a correspondence with the Pope, Demetrius of Chilsia, the Neo-Brethalian Emperor, and even the Truite Grand Master. In 2211, Demetrius in fact proposed that his daughter, Scribonia, marry Antiochus's younger son Tiberius. Antiochus countered this with a proposal that Gaius, his eldest, marry one of Demetrius's daughters. Demetrius was enraged by this latter request, and temporarily severed diplomatic relations. Thanks to the meditation of Altherius, relations were restored in 2208. In 2206, Demetrius sought support from the Almitian Church of Darsis at the Council of Yuley, and the following year, he corresponded with Antiochus over a trade dispute. In January 2204, a series of remarkable letters were exchanged between the two kings, copies of which have been preserved in the Imperial Archives of Laurasia. In these letters, Demetrius called Antiochus "his brother" and expressed that his objectives were similar to those of the Cholerian King. In February, negotiations began on a military alliance between the two rulers, but the Treaty had not been signed when Antiochus died.

It is also notable to note about how Antiochus addressed himself in his charters and royal decrees. Mention has already been made of the subordinate appellations which were applied to the rulers of South Dorsit, West Emmerina, Northamberia, East Emmerina, and the other such kingdoms at various times in Cholerian charters. Postumius had already taken the title of "King of the South Darsians". Antiochus resumed this practice in the early years of his reign, as he restored Cholerian dominance of South Dorsit, Kathnysex, and Collsett. By 2220, he was calling himself "lord and master of the Darsian kingdoms", and in 2205, he used the title "King of the Darsians" for the first time. Although Northamberia and West Emmerina remained separate kingdoms, both were subject to Cholerian suzerainty, and neither was powerful enough to resist the power of the Cholerian King. In a decree of February 2204, Antiochus referred to Darsis as "my kingdom and my dominion" and stated that "all of the Darsians are in thrall to me". He was indeed the most powerful ruler in the Mathianian Isles at the time. His power however, paled in comparison to that of Demetrius, who by 2204 ruled a vast empire which stretched from the Mathianian Channel to the Great Courvanian Plain, and from the Varangian Sea in the north to the Great Haustian Sea in the south. Eventually, on 28 or 29 July 2204 BH, according to the Cholerian Annals, Antiochus "ended his earthly time" and died. He was succeeded to the throne of Choleria by his son Gaius. Gaius ruled only for five months, dying in the middle of December 2204, of the flu. He was succeeded by Marcus (2204-2179), who was the son of Antiochus's younger brother, Mardonius.

Upon ascending to the Cholerian throne, Marcus faced a revolt in Collsett, as the general Antigenes Borios, who claimed to be a relative of Alexander Balas, landed in Collsett in the early part of 2203 and proclaimed himself King of Collsett, establishing his court at Umarina. The Archbishop of Umarina, who had recovered his authority throughout the whole extent of the Mathianian Isles, supported Antigenes, angered at how Antiochus had sought to reduce his power. Marcus appealed directly to Pope Leo, asking for permission to proceed into Collsett without the threat of the intervention of the Archbishop. Leo did not grant this approval until 2202. Upon finally gaining a papal dispensation, Marcus invaded Collsett and quickly deposed Antigenes, who was captured and executed at the beginning of 2201. In 2200, Marcus installed his younger brother, Sulla, on the throne of Collsett. Until his death in 2193, Sulla ruled over Collsett and protected his brother's interests at Umarina. After Sulla died, Marcus proclaimed himself King of Collsett and again directly annexed that kingdom to Choleria. Marcus also retained Cholerian overlordship over Kathnysex. In 2202, King Boethius died and was succeeded by his son Pompey (2202-2175), who remained loyal to Marcus. In East Emmerina, however, Marcus faced a threat. In December 2204, taking advantage of the death of Gaius, East Emmerina erupted in revolt against its Cholerian overlords. Under the leadership of the rebel Decius (2204-2200), East Emmerina reestablished its independence as a separate kingdom. Decius reestablished control over the cities and villages of the Harcourt Valley, organized a army of 50,000 men, and issued his own coinage, proclaiming that East Emmerina was "as free as she had ever been before". Marcus, distracted by events in Collsett, did not act effectively until 2200. Decius died in the spring of 2200, and his ineffectual son, Artabanus (2200-2198), was unable to maintain his father's accomplishments. In 2199, Marcus invaded East Emmerina, and by January of the following year, had reconquered the territory and again annexed it to Choleria. Artabanus fled north to Northamberia, but was assassinated by a agent of the Cholerian King in November or December 2198. East Emmerina remained under Cholerian rule for the remainder of Marcus' rule.

Marcus now also contended with the Mathianian kingdoms west of the Antiochid Dyke. In 2204, it must be remembered, Antiochus had campaigned against Soria and forced that state to acknowledge his suzerainty. But with the great king of Choleria dead, Queen Placidia of Soria rejected Cholerian overlordship and rearmed her forces for the coming struggle. In 2203, she signed a treaty with King Daedalus of Anisia, and in 2202, began launching raids on the Antiochid Dyke, destroying outlying Cholerian military settlements and harrying Cholerian frontier positions. From 2202-2197, a vigorous war was then waged between Choleria and the Mathies kingdoms, but Marcus ultimately defeated Placidia and Daedalus in the Battle of Sorrs in the summer of 2197. In the early part of 2196, they were forced to acknowledge Cholerian dominance. Placidia and Daedalus simmered under the conditions however, and they secretly made plans to overthrow their Cholerian masters, hiring mercenaries from Richland. In the meantime, Marcus was distracted by conflict with Neuchrus of Northamberia, who held ambitions of restoring the power of his predecessors. Neuchrus was also angered by the support Marcus had given to various rebels against his rule, such as Martin and Leo of Sassow. Already, in 2199 the two kings had fought a battle at Jinclaire, in which Marcus was victorious. Raids and border operations had then taken place. In 2196-94, Neuchrus pushed into Cholerian territories, ravaging as far south as Ligornia and Schakies. Then in the summer of 2194, Neuchrus was deposed from the throne and driven into exile by his general Pausanius, who received support from Marcus. Pausanius recognized Cholerian overlordship in January 2193. Neuchrus however, went to the court of Demetrius at Constantinople, and the Chilsian Emperor provided him financial aid, mercenary units, and diplomatic assistance. He ignored Marcus's demands that the fugitive king be handed over. In 2192, Neuchrus returned to Northamberia and defeated Pausanius in the Battle of Chickies, regaining possession of the throne. During his second reign, which lasted for two years, Marcus attempted to reassert control, but rebellions in East Emmerina, South Dorsit, and West Choleria made this difficult. In 2190, Neuchrus died and was succeeded by his son Valerius Flaccus (2190-2159), who managed to retain Northamberian independence from Cholerian domination. Marcus eventually signed a treaty of peace with Valerius Flaccus in 2187.

The Cholerian King himself engaged in further campaigns against Soria, which after the death of Placidia in 2190 was ruled by her daughter Honoria (2190-2180). Honoria aligned herself with Daedalus and in 2187, instigated a renewed rebellion against Choleria. This rebellion dragged on for seven years, planting seeds for the eventual disintegration of Cholerian power after Marcus's death. Eventually, in 2181, Marcus finally subdued Honoria and Daedalus, and forced them to again submit to Cholerian dominance. He then returned to Choleria and spent the last two years of his reign in peace. Marcus then died in 2179 and was succeeded by his younger brother Cornelius (2179-2177). Cornelius maintained overlordship over East Emmerina, South Dorsit, Collsett, and Kathnysex, but a new threat to Cholerian preeminence was rising from the person of Seleucus of West Emmerina (2198-2161), who had until the death of Marcus remained a ally of Choleria. Seleucus however, had always been ambitious, and he was determined to have West Emmerina replace Choleria as the dominant Darsian kingdom. With Choleria now slipping away into weakness, he saw his opportunity. Seleucus began vastly expanding the West Emmerinian army and issuing coinage in his own name. This was a provocative action, for no independent coinage had been issued in West Emmerina since the reign of Theodosius. In 2177, Cornelius was deposed and replaced by general Philippus (2177-2175). Philippus was to prove a weak king, however, and his reign saw the complete collapse of Cholerian domination. In 2175, he attempted to launch a invasion of West Emmerina, but was decisively defeated by Seleucus in the Battle of Sargolia. As a result of this victory, Seleucus became the most powerful Darsian ruler. He advanced into Kathnysex, and King Pompey abdicated his throne in the spring of that year. Thus, the independence of Kathnysex was eliminated. Seleucus killed Uflius, who was the Cholerian governor of Collsett, and proclaimed himself King of Collsett, combining that kingdom with West Emmerina. South Dorsit also submitted to his authority and its Cholerian officials were expelled. East Emmerina, under the leadership of the rebel Athanasius, erupted in rebellion against Choleria in the summer of 2175 and expelled the Cholerian garrisons. Athanasius proclaimed himself King of East Emmerina. Philippus himself was then killed in September 2175 and succeeded to the throne of Choleria by Lepidus (2175-74). Lepidus attempted to regain control in East Emmerina, but was defeated and killed by Athanasius in the spring of 2174. He was succeeded in turn by Virgil (2174-2171 and 2170-2161). Virgil soon entered into conflict with Seleucus, who had consolidated his gains and cemented West Emmerina as a powerful kingdom. In 2171, he invaded Choleria and defeated Virgil in the Battle of Uris, deposing him from the Cholerian throne. Seleucus thereafter penetrated to Northamberia, whose King Valerius Flaccus signed a treaty of alliance with him. In 2170, however, Virgil managed to regain the throne of Choleria and asserted Cholerian independence from West Emmerinian overlordship. Seleucus however, kept control of his conquests south of the Games, and East Emmerina retained her independent position. Choleria never recovered from her loss of dominance. In 2161, both Virgil and Seleucus died, and were succeeded in their respective territories by Michael (2161-2148) and Antiochus (2161-2142).

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part VII: From the Rise of the Tardones to the Early Years of the Holy Mararian EmpireEdit

Having gone so much into the history of the Darsian kingdoms, it is now necessary to recount the conclusion of the reign of Demetrius and to note the events under his successor. Although the last years of Demetrius's reign were relatively stable, the old Emperor also encountered a force which would eventually contribute greatly to the disintegration of his Empire in the decades after his death. The conquest of Halxony, Dacia, and the Couvars, the subjugation of Wallachany, and the imposition of Chilsian overlordship over the peoples of the trans-Alpia and Hanube, brought the Chilsian Empire into direct contact with the paganist Tardones, who had originated from South Westar, having occupied the Varangian Peninsula in preceding decades. They had established a series of tribal kingdoms and states. It must also be remembered that Armenius, the Halxon Great King, had once fled into Austiana in order to escape the wrath of the Chilsian King. It was through relations with the Halxons, and commercial affairs conducted with the outlying ports and settlements of the Chilsian Empire, that the Tardones learned of the great power and wealth of Demetrius. The Tardones were also lured by the properties possessed by the Almitian Church in the Mathianian Isles, and the opportunities presented for plunder, rapine, and massacre. The first recorded Tardone raid against the Darsian kingdoms took place in 2207, as a band of Tardone plunder boats and vessels descended on the monastery of Sassow and destroyed the religious institution, slaughtering all of the monks and "splattering the blood of the priest of Almitis on the altar", according to a shocked Altherius of Northamberia. The following year, raids were launched in Hisigothia and at Saria, and both times large amounts of plunder were taken. By 2204, raiding parties were annually ravaging northern Mathiania, but Choleria, still ruled by Antiochus, repelled their parties south of Northamberia. During the late 2200s, raids were launched against Richland, and many monasteries, cells, and nunneries in the coastal regions of that western Mathianian Island were sacked. By the first half of the 2190s, the Tardones were harrying Halxony and parts of Neo-polonia, posing a threat to frontier Chilsian settlements and military posts. In 2192, the Tardone King Augarius launched a major operation against Afrisia, but Chilsian levies managed to halt his assaults. Two years later, Augarius was assassinated, and his successor Peter began construction of the Herslie Fortifications along the southern border of Austiana. Demetrius, who was now too old to contemplate leading any campaigns against the Tardones himself, opened negotiations with Peter, and in 2189, the Treaty of Rilos was signed, by which Peter returned all plunder. In return, Demetrius recognized Tardone rule of the Varangian Peninsula.

In the last years of his life, the Emperor's health declined considerably, and he now entered into a severe depression, angered that he could not reunite all of Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis. Indeed, the Chilsian Empire, although it was the most powerful state in Western Haustia, was relatively minuscule compared to the ancient Brethalian Empires whom Demetrius claimed he was the successor of. Nevertheless, Demetrius had done much. By 2187, his sons Peter and Laudraus had both died, and his only surviving male child was Antigonus, whom the Emperor had appointed as King of Galdornia in 2189. Thus in the fall of 2187, Demetrius summoned his son to his court at Constantinople, and in October or November, he crowned his sole surviving son his successor as King and Emperor of All Chilsia. After this, the old Emperor delegated many of his official duties to his son, and retreated into isolation in his private quarters. Here on 28 January 2186 the Emperor of Chilsia died, after having reigned for forty-seven years. He was succeeded to the throne by Antigonus, who became known as the Pious (2186-2160). The reign of Antigonus the Pious was to be consumed with civil war and dissent. Antigonus himself had three sons: Antiochus, Antigonus, and Dematraus, as well as a nephew, Tacitus. In 2185, Antiochus and Dematraus, the two eldest sons, were appointed to their father's council and given responsibilities for the military and royal household. Then in 2183, the Emperor crowned his son Antiochus as his co-emperor and joint ruler, giving him supremacy over his brothers. Dematraus became King of Galdornia and Antigonus became King of Dacia, while Tacitus became King of Cleothardy. All of them were to remain subordinate to their father and to Antiochus as their senior-rulers. If any of the subordinate kings died, his sons would succeed him. If he died childless, then Antiochus was to succeed him. These agreements, as might he detected, did not work, as the other brothers despised the fact on how their father had given one of them preeminence, instead of assigning equality to all. In 2182, Tacitus of Cleothardy revolted, but was defeated by Antigonus, who had him executed. Antigonus was to eventually repent of this action however and would regret executing his nephew for the remainder of his life. For the next several years, the Emperor was distracted by wars with the Tardones, Neo-Polosians, Florensians, Barlavs, Auguri, and other tribes on the eastern frontiers of the Empire, who had sought to take advantage of the death of Demetrius the Great. In 2181-79, much of Pannonia and Courvania was devastated, and by 2177, the Tardones had occupied parts of Afrisia. In 2176, the Barlav Kingdom, which was also a major threat to the Neo-Brethalian Empire, expelled outlying Chilsian garrisons in Lydia, Lycia, and Hanubia. Antigonus managed to stabilize the situation by 2174, but the dominion of the Empire in the east had been weakened. He also faced troubles in Mercutio, whose Cleothard dukes revolted against Chilsian authority in 2172-70 and briefly secured independence.

In 2178, Antigonus had married a second time, to the Chilsian Princess Judith of Neustria. The following year, she gave birth to a son, Carolus Magnus. The Emperor attempted to provide for this son, and in a revision of the earlier territorial settlements, conducted at Ralispont in 2171 in the presence of Pope Gregory VI (2173-2156), the Emperor granted Austrasia to his youngest son as his personal kingdom. This angered his co-emperor Antiochus, who had not been consulted on the decision and who believed that the grant of Austrasia infringed upon his rights. He claimed that Judith was a prostitute and that Carolus Magnus was not his father's actual child. Receiving support in these claims from various ecclesiastical officials, such as the Archbishop of Constantinople and the Bishop of Jarbonne, Anticohus rebelled against his father in 2170 and quickly marched from Galdornia with a army, linking up with Antigonus the Dacian, who had marched with his forces from the east. Emperor Antigonus hurried from Argorica, but was surrounded and captured by his son, while Judith was confined to a prison cell. Dematraus of Galdornia, who had accompanied his brother, personally took Judith into custody. When the brothers attempted to force themselves upon their father and to make rough demands concerning his wife, the bishops, appalled at the treatment of the sovereign, turned against them, and the Emperor was liberated. Eventually, by the early part of 2169, the Truce of Telino was agreed, and peace on the status quo ante bellum basis was briefly restored. In 2168, however, yet another revolt broke out against the Emperor, as Antiochus stormed out of his father's court. Antigonus the Dacian assembled a army against his father, who was forced to call together his units in Neustria and Galdornia. Emperor Antigonus then deposed his son Dematraus from the throne of Galdornia and gave that territory to Carolus Magnus, which angered the other brothers. Antiochus, Dematraus, and Antigonus the Dacian now formed a coalition against their father and received the support of the Pope, who thought the Emperor's actions to be unfair and irrational. In the spring of 2167, the Emperor was defeated, and his sons put him in chains at the Priory of Villars, where Antiochus now proclaimed himself Emperor and Lord of All Chilsia. Antigonus, reduced to the condition of a lowly prisoner, remained in confinement for about a year, but eventually, in March 2166, Adolphus of Jerskis, one of his retainers, liberated him from his cell and with his army, again proclaimed him Emperor. By the fall of 2166, Antigonus had recovered his position, and his sons were forced to make peace with him. In 2165, Antigonus executed fifty nobles and court officials who had supported the rebellion of his sons. In 2164, the Treaty of Constantinople confirmed Antigonus the Dacian in possession of Dacia, Halxony, Wallachia, trans-Alpia, and Heletia. Antiochus was left with just Cleothardy, while Dematraus again received Galdornia, to which was added Burgunthia, Septimania, and parts of Neustria and Argorica. By then, the raids of the Tardones had intensified. In 2163, they ravaged the coasts of Afrisia and Halxony, and in 2162, descended on West Emmerina, being defeated by Seleucus in the pitched Battle of Gornish. In 2161, Afrisia, Eastphalia, and parts of the Halxon Marsh were briefly conquered by them, but they eventually signed a armistice with Antigonus in the summer of 2161. In the meantime, in 2162, Dematraus had died, and Antigonus now crowned Carolus Magnus King of Galdornia and his successor as King of Western Chilsia, as Neustria, Western Austrasia, Burgunthia, Argorica, and Septimania were now collectively referred to as.

Antigonus the Dacian and Antiochus complained about their father's new arrangements, and their officials deliberately attacked the Emperor's representatives at Pavia, Hausling, Ralispont, Ravenna, Ostia, and Juliet. Nevertheless, by the Treaty of Ralispont, negotiated with the meditation of the Pope in the spring of 2161, they agreed to recognize Carolus Magnus as ruler of Galdornia and Western Chilsia, and to respect their father's provisions. The Emperor in turn, agreed to acknowledge his son's rights and to protect them against any intrusions by his officials. With a settlement, which Antigonus believed was final, concluded, the Emperor withdrew to Constantinople, tired and exhausted from the long contest. In May or June 2160, he fell severely ill, and was confined to his bed. His doctors, with the primitive medical knowledge of the time, could not detect the cause of his sickness, and they despaired of his life. On 20 or 21 June 2160, Antigonus the Pious died, and was succeeded as sole Emperor by Antiochus of Cleothardy, while Carolus Magnus became King of Western Chilsia and Galdornia in his own right (2160-2123). Antiochus, in the wake of his father's death, now sought to assert himself as the sole ruler of the whole Chilsian Empire. He also wished to eliminate his brothers. In the autumn of 2160, he declared war against Antigonus the Dacian and advanced across the Alps Mountains. Antigonus was soon joined by Carolus Magnus, who was fearful for his own position. In June or July 2159, Antiochus was handed a decisive defeat in the Battle of Fortania, and was forced to retreat back into Cleothardy. Pavia itself was besieged for most of 2158, and the Emperor of Cleothardy was driven to the lowest point in his fortunes. In November 2158, by the famous Oaths of Constantinople, Antigonus and Carolus Magnus confirmed their alliance. By the early part of 2157, Antiochus was forced to sue for peace negotiations, and by the Treaty of Varthun, signed in August 2157, the permanent division of the Chilsian Empire was ratified. Carolus Magnus received recognition of his rule over Western Chilsia, encompassing all of Neustria, parts of Austrasia, Argorica, Burgunthia, Septimania, and Galdornia. Antiochus's rule of Cleothardy, Benvolio, Mercutio, the Papal Exarchate, Corinia, Marina, Afrisia, and the districts of Anthoria, between Afrisia and Neustria, and parts of northern Austrasia was recognized. Finally, Antigonus the Dacian's dominion was defined as comprising of Halxony, Courvania, Dacia, Heletia, Trans-Alpia, parts of Pannonia and Courvania, Neo-Polosia, and Wallachany, with suzerainty over the peoples of the Florencian, Lydian, Barlav, and Hanubian plains. Antiochus was to be Emperor, but would not be greater than his brothers. Thus the great Empire of Demetrius the Great was dismembered.

After the Treaty of Varthun, peace was generally prevalent amongst the Chilsian states until the death of Antiochus I in 2145. This however, only concerned peace amongst the brothers themselves, as in 2154 Ralispont itself was sacked by Truite invaders, who had resumed the harrying of the coasts. Pope Leo (2145-2135) was forced to organize defenses against their attacks and to seek the assistance of Antiochus. In 2145, upon the death of Antiochus, his dominions were divided amongst his three sons. His eldest son, Antigonus, received the Imperial title and governance of Cleothardy, Benvolio, Mercutio, and the Papal Exarchate. The second son, Alexander, became King of Anthoria, while the third, Antiochus, became King of Austrasia. Antigonus was not pleased that his rule was restricted to just Cleothardy, and in 2143, he aligned himself with Antigonus the Dacian against his brothers and against Carolus Magnus, who was determined to insure the integrity of the settlements. Carolus Magnus and Antigonus thus terminated their alliance, and were from this point on enemies. In 2142, Antigonus invaded Western Chilsia and penetrated as far as Constantinople, having been invited by disgruntled nobles who opposed Carolus Magnus and his policies. Carolus Magnus fled to Galdornia and was able to gather a army, reasserting his position in 2141 and expelling Antigonus from his kingdom. In 2140, the Treaty of Helen was signed by Carolus Magnus, Antigonus the Dacian, Antigonus of Cleothardy, Alexander of Anthoria, and Antiochus of Austrasia. The status quo pro ante bellum was reimposed. Three years later, in 2137, Antiochus of Austrasia died and his territories were divided between Alexander and Antigonus of Cleothardy. For much of the decade, the various rulers were distracted by Tardone raids and operations from the north. In 2131, however, Alexander of Anthoria died, leaving no sons. Carolus Magnus now attempted to intervene and annex Anthoria into his dominions, but was resisted by Antigonus the Dacian. In 2130, the Treaty of Merthloria was signed, by which Anthoria was partitioned between Western Chilsia and Eastern Chilsia. Eastern Austrasia, parts of the Trans-Alps, and eastern Anthoria came into the possession of Antigonus, while Carolus Magnus annexed Western Austrasia, Western Anthoria, and the district of the Over-Alps. For the next five years, Carolus Magnus focused his efforts on fortifying his territories, while Antigonus the Dacian contended with his sons Pausanius, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy.

In 2125, however, Emperor Antigonus of Cleothardy died, and as a result, Carolus Magnus traveled to Ralispont, where Pope John VIII (2128-2118) crowned him Emperor and Lord of All Chilsia in September 2125. Antigonus the Dacian, however, refused to recognize his half-brother's imperial title, and in October launched a major invasion of Western Chilsia. Carolus Magnus managed to repel the invasion, but not without cost. Then in August 2124, Antigonus the Dacian died, and as a result Eastern Chilsia was partitioned among his sons. Pausanius became King of Dacia (2124-2121), Lysimachus King of Halxony (2124-2118), and Ptolemy King of Wallachany (2124-2112). Carolus Magnus attempted to invade East Chilsia, but his invasion was defeated in the latter part of 2124. Then in the summer of 2123, Carolus Magnus died, being succeeded by Eurysmachus (2123-2121), who died on campaign against the Tardones, who were ravaging the coast of Argorica and Western Galdornia. Eurysmachus's kingdom was divided between his two sons, Perdiccas (2121-2118) and Tiberius (2121-2116). In the meantime, farther to the east, Pausanius became King of Cleothardy in 2122, although he was unable to claim the imperial title. He remained peaceful with his two brothers, and few issues occurred during the next few years. In 2121, Pausanius was felled by a stroke, and he thus abdicated the Dacian and Cleothardian thrones. He gave Cleothardy to Ptolemy, while Lysimachus received Dacia. The following year, Pausanius died. In February 2119, Ptolemy traveled to Ralispont and was crowned by Pope John, who was grateful for the support the King had loaned him against rebels the preceding year. Fortune smiled upon him when Lysimachus died in February or March 2118. Ptolemy succeeded him as King of Halxony. Ptolemy progressed throughout his dominions and continued to exert influence on the Papacy. John VIII died in 2118 and was succeeded in turn by Marinus I (2118-2116); Adrian III (2116-2115); and Stephen V (2115-2109). All of these supported Ptolemy and endorsed his domestic policies. In 2116, Tiberius of Western Chilsia died without children, and as such, the nobles of that kingdom invited Ptolemy to take the throne. He was crowned King of West Chilsia in January 2115 by Pope Adrian III. Thus all of the Chilsian Empire was, and for the last time, unified under one ruler. Tensions however, festered against Ptolemy, and in January 2112, he was overthrown by his own officers Antipater, Seleucus, Amnytas, and Otho. These men divided the Empire amongst themselves. Antipater became King of Western Chilsia (2112-2102); Seleucus, King of Eastern Chilsia (2112-2101); Amnytas, King of Burgunthia (2112-2088); and Otho, King of Septimania and Jarbonne (2112-2082).

It will no longer be in my place to describe in detail the events transpiring, but I will give a brief outline. Antipater maintained stability in Western Chilsia, while Seleucus waged various wars against the Tardones, the Neo-Polosians, the Lycians, the Barlavs, and other peoples to the east of his territories. Amnytas and Otho competed with each other constantly for power. By 2104, Seleucus had become Emperor of Chilsia and asserted his dominance over his rivals. At the end of the 22nd century BH, however, a new and fearsome people, the Barshorians, who had migrated from Eastern Oceania over the preceding decades, began launching devastating raids and operations, which were to ravage much of Cleothardy, Dacia, Hanubia, Courvania, Wallachany, Halxony, and eventually, Chilsia and Chilsian Inoria. Seleucus managed to repel their initial raids, but after his death, they were to increase in force. Seleucus died in 2101, and was succeeded as King of Eastern Chilsia and King of Anthoria by his only legitimate son, Galba (2101-2089), who was only seven years old when his father died. Galba was dominated by his mother, Apama, for much of his reign. In the meantime, Antipater had died in 2102, and was succeeded by his son, Karanus (2102-2078), who became known as the "Simple" for his habits and mental state. Karanus had to deal with the continuing Tardone threat, as under their leader Craterus they constantly harassed Northria, a neighboring territory of Argorica. Constantinople itself was eventually threatened, and in 2089, Karanus negotiated the Treaty of the Diennes with Craterus, granting him Northria as a duchy "for all time to come". Craterus in turn, recognized Karanus as his overlord and promised to launch no further attacks in Chilsian territory. He also agreed to accept Almitism. That same year, Galba of Eastern Chilsia died, and after a struggle amongst the nobles of Eastern Chilsia, Koinos, the Duke of Salina, became King of Eastern Chilsia in November or December 2089. Koinos remained King of Eastern Chilsia until his death in 2082. His reign witnessed the loss of royal control in Eastern Chilsia, as Halxony, Dacia, Salina, and Wallachia established themselves as autonomous duchies. In 2087-86, Koinos waged war against Karanus for the possession of Afrisia, but was defeated.

In 2082, Koinos died and was succeeded to the throne by the Duke of Halxony, Alexander (2082-2064), who had himself at one time been threatened by Koinos. Alexander took the title "King of Wallachia", instead of that of Eastern Chilsia, which thus marked a new stage in the kingdom's development. He dominated the duchies, restoring royal control by reforming the currency, installing his counts at the towns, and regularizing trade. Alexander however, also found himself forced into conflict with the Barshorians. The Barshorians occupied Hanubia and eastern Pannonia in 2079-77, and launched major raids into Courvania, Dacia, and even Heletia. Alexander was forced to pay tribute to the Barshorian chieftain Valentinian in 2074. During the next four years, he strengthened his army and subdued the Neo-Polosians of the Varangian Sea, establishing a series of military outposts. In 2068, he refused to pay further tribute to the Barshorians. The following year, Valentinian and his hordes launched a major offensive into the territory of the Wallachian Kingdom. They were decisively defeated in the Battle of Rathia in 2067. The Barshorians were forced to retreat back to Barshoria, which they had renamed Hanubia, Pannonia, and Eastern Courvania. Alexander's territories remained at peace for the rest of his reign. In the meantime, in 2078, Karanus had been deposed by his general Eugenius (2078-2077), who was the younger brother of Antipater. Eugenius died in 2077, after only a year on the throne, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Theodosius (2077-2064). Theodosius struggled to check the ambitions of his nobles, as Western Chilsia had now disintegrated into the smaller duchies of Galdornia, Northria, Argorica, Burgunthia, Septimania, and several minor lordships, alongside the Duchy of Constantinople. He also waged war against Alexander of Wallachia from 2075-73, although he was not successful. Theodosius died in 2064, and the Dematran Dynasty was restored to the throne with the ascension of Anastasius (2064-2046). Anastasius however, was a weak ruler, and during his rule, the Duke of Constantinople, Lucius, was prominent.

Far more important events took place in Wallachia, as Alexander's son and successor, Caligula (2064-2027), significantly increased the power of Wallachia. From 2064-2060, and again from 2058-2056, he faced the uprising of the Dukes of Salina, Wallachia, and Heletia, but with severe brutality, crushed their outbursts. In order to forestall any further rebellion against his authority, Caligula installed his associates and family members as the Dukes, erected a series of garrisons and castles in their territories, and attached a count of representations to each duke, who reported on their actions to the King. While his father had regarded the kingdom as a confederation, but had nevertheless maintained his authority, Caligula believed that the kingdom had been given to him in divine right and that it was his to dominate. He maintained a powerful standing army and sought to check the ambitions of his nobles. Caligula experienced diplomatic issues with Anastasius and Duke Lucius of Constantinople, in particular over Anthoria and Afrisia. In the Synod of Jahelmare, held in 2055, Caligula proclaimed himself the true successor of Demetrius the Great. Anastasius of course, refused to acknowledge this claim, and the issue remained a major contention between the two kings for the remainder of Anastasius's reign. Caligula also maintained positive relations with Burgunthia, installing Telemachus on the throne of that kingdom in 2063. Telemachus remained King of Burgunthia until his death in 2008. A treaty of alliance was also signed with the Neo-Brethalian Empire in 2053, which had, since the time of Michael I, been under the rule of the following: Leo the Fleshian (2187-2180); Michael the Stammerer (2180-2171); Boniface (2171-2158); Michael the Drunkard (2158-2133); and then the rulers of the Hellespontine Dynasty, which were: Basil the Hellespontian (2133-2114); Leo the Wise (2114-2098); Alexander (2098-2097); and then Constantine the Aristocratic (2097-2039), who was one of the longest reigning monarchs of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Constantine governed for much of Caligula's reign, and it was with him that Caligula signed the treaty of alliance.

Caligula also waged wars against the Neo-Polosians, Barlavs, Vralts, and other tribes who inhabited the territories on the eastern end of the Varangian Sea. In a series of campaigns from 2055-50, these tribes were attacked and subjugated, being forced to acknowledge the King of Wallachia as their overlord, to pay tribute to his authorities, and to agree to the installation of Wallachian military garrisons in their territories. The King of Wallachia also repulsed Tardone raids on the northern coasts of Wallachia and constructed fortifications on the line of the Austrianian River, which were meant to provide a commanding view to his troops. Caligula also turned his attention to Cleothardy and Ravenna (as the northern parts of the Mararian peninsula were so designated), intent on gaining the throne of that kingdom and establishing direct contact with the Pope in Ralispont. In a series of expeditions against Basil (2060-2039), conducted in 2049-47, 2044-43, and 2041-39, Mararia was subdued and annexed into the Wallachian Kingdom. In 2039, Basil finally abdicated his throne and was allowed to enter a monastery as a friar, where he died in 2036.

After facing down and defeating a uprising of his own son, Antigonus, in 2048-2046, Caligula faced a far more serious threat, as the barbarian Barshorians, who had harried Wallachia during the reign of his father, now decided that the time was ripe for a even more intensive invasion of the Kingdom, which they even hoped might overthrow the Wallachian King. In 2046, Dacia, Heletia, Trans-Alpia, and the Sorlones March were harried and devastated by the hordes, who moved too fast for the fixed military garrisons to react. Caligula, hearing of the news of the raids at his capital city of Ulent, decided to assemble his forces and march to the east, determined to terminate once and for all the threat to his kingdom. The following year, in the spring of 2045, the Barshorians again penetrated the kingdom's frontiers. They destroyed the city of Medlthor and threatened Syracuse, which was a major Wallachian military fortress and agricultural collection outpost in Dacia. The King hurried with his army to Syracuse, and there, the Battle of Syracuse, fought in August 2045, decisively halted the Barshorian invasions. Most of the Barshorian marauders were captured or slaughtered, and the rest fled. The result of this battle was that Wallachia would never again be threatened by the barbarians. The Barshorians themselves eventually consolidated and signed the final Treaty of Argos with the Wallachian Kingdom in 2040. By the end of the century, under the first civilized king Polyperchon (2000-1963), Barshoria, as the Barshorian state became known, had established herself as a major kingdom in central Haustia. The Barshorians, who had relapsed into paganism since the retreat of Almitism from Eastern Oceania, again converted and became some of the most loyal followers of the Church. Caligula, in the meantime, increased his prestige after the victory over the Barshorians. The conquest of Cleothardy has already been noted. In January 2038, Caligula traveled to Ralispont, where he was crowned by Pope John XII (2045-2036) as the Holy Mararian Emperor of Wallachia. The Holy Mararian Empire, which lasted for the next nine hundred years, was thus established.

Caligula ruled until his death in 2027, and for the last several years of his reign, he fixed his residence in Ralispont, in order to keep a monitoring eye on the Papacy. After John XII died in 2036, the Holy Mararian Emperor was requested by the College of Cardinals to make his selection for the Papacy. He elevated Leo the Heletian (2036-2035) to the Papal See, but Leo was soon opposed by Benedict V (2036-2035), who established his headquarters at Ostia and refused to recognize one whom he believed had been imposed on the Church by someone acting out of his means. This dispute lasted for a year, until both Leo and Benedict V were deposed by Caligula in 2035, who then selected another, John XIII (2035-2028) to fill the Papal See. John XIII crowned Caligula's son, also named Caligula, as co-Emperor to his father in the winter of 2033. John XIII died in 2028, and was succeeded by Benedict VI (2028-2026), elevated just months before Caligula the Great's death. In May or June 2027, Caligula died and was succeeded to the throne of the Holy Mararian Empire by Caligula II the Young (2027-2017), who continued to consolidate the newly established Empire, annexed Benvolio-Mercutio, and waged war against the Fantasian Empire of Truism, which now ruled over Balay. Caligula II, however, faced a major uprising in the East by the Neo-Polosians against the trans-Ehlite garrisons of the Wallachian Empire, which consumed the last year of his reign. He died of fever in December 2017 and was succeeded to the throne of the Holy Mararian Empire by his three-year old son Caligula III (2017-1998), who was dominated by regents for the whole of his reign. Nevertheless, he too continued the tradition of controlling the Papacy. The Popes during this period were Benedict VII (2026-2017); John XIV (2017-2016); John XV (2016-2004); Gregory of Hanubia (2004-2001); and Sylvester II (2001-1997).

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part VIII: From Tardone Raids to the Serjanian AdvanceEdit

Mention has to be made now about what has happened in the Darsian kingdoms. In West Emmerina, Antiochus, who ruled until his death in 2142, maintained internal stability and economic prosperity in his kingdom. He continued to make grants to the Almitian Church, sponsored the establishment of a new commercial center at Jasdune, and established a treaty of alliance with Michael of Choleria, and after his death in 2148, with his son and successor Antiochus (2148-2126). His rule however, also witnessed drastically intensified Tardone raids. In 2160, Antiochus clashed with a Tardone force under chieftain Demetrius in the Battle of Thleies. Throughout the 2150s, Tardone raiding parties made occasional descents on the southern coast of West Emmerina, devastating and sacking many villages, killing thousands of peasants and commoners. Antiochus was forced to construct a series of coastal defenses and barriers in order to insure his kingdom against any penetrating offensives. In 2150, the Tardones overwintered in West Emmerinian territory for the first time, establishing their armed camp on the Island of Jules. Three years later, they threatened Umarina, but were defeated and destroyed by Antiochus in the Battle of Prioria. For the last several years of Antiochus's reign, constant battle was waged against the invaders. In 2146, Antiochus signed a treaty with his namesake, Antiochus of Choleria, and with King Polydorus of East Emmerina (2154-2145), in order to insure their kingdoms "against the aggressive heathen raiders". In 2143, however, Antiochus exterminated the Mathianian kingdom of Delores, finally giving West Emmerina control of the Western Joint. He died the following year, and was succeeded to the throne of West Emmerina by his eldest son Perdiccas (2142-2140). Perdiccas faced civil war with his younger brother, Cassander, who became governor of Collsett and South Dorsit in 2141.

The following year, Perdiccas died childless, and Cassander now became King of West Emmerina (2140-2135). During his five-year reign, Cassander eliminated the final vestiges of local independence in Collsett, South Dorsit, and Kathynsex, now subjected to the same form of local administration as existed in West Emmerina proper. In 2135, he died childless however, and was succeeded by the third of Antiochus's sons, his younger brother Cassiodorus (2135-2128). Cassiodorus was brought into direct conflict with the Tardones, whose raids and operations had devastated much of the coastal regions of Northamberia, Choleria, and East Emmerina. In the autumn of 2135, the largest Tardone force to ever appear in the Mathianian Isles landed in East Emmerina, and was to cause the extinction of Northamberia and East Emmerina as independent kingdoms. After Valerius Flaccus had died in 2159, Northamberia had been briefly ruled by Eusebius, who was then deposed in 2156 by his younger brother Lysimachus. Lysimachus was King for only a few months when he himself was assassinated and replaced by his own chamberlain, Seleucus (2156-2151). Seleucus died of the plague in 2151, and was succeeded to the throne of Northamberia by Homer (2151-2137). Homer was never a strong ruler, and during his reign Northamberia suffered raids at the hands of the Tardones. Homer was eventually poisoned by Perander in 2137, who then proclaimed himself King of Northamberia. Perander was challenged by Devraldus, who established his base at Eucnmenis. The condition was ripe for the Tardones, and in 2134, the Tardone Army invaded Northamberia. They quickly overran much of the kingdom. Perander and Devraldus now signed a alliance with each other against the invaders, but their efforts were in vain. In the fall of 2134, Eucnmenis was besieged by the invaders. It resisted ferociously and did not fall until the spring of 2133. Perander and Devraldus were both captured and executed, and the Tardones annexed much of southern Northamberia. They installed a puppet, Demetrius (2133-2128), on the throne of Northamberia. Demetrius ruled over only Eucnmenis, Jassow, and a few other coastal enclaves. East Emmerina suffered even more than Northamberia. From 2135 onwards, much of the kingdom had been pillaged by the Tardone Army, and King Gregory of East Emmerina (2145-2131), was forced to pay tribute in 2132. Eventually, in November or December 2131, Gregory was killed by the Tardones by the command of their leader Athanasius, and East Emmerina was effectively brought under Tardone rule. Following the extinction of East Emmerinian independence, the Tardones turned their attention to West Emmerina. In 2130, Kathnysex was devastated and the towns of Uris, Heliotrope, and Europa were sacked. Thousands of Darsians were slaughtered and large amounts of church property were destroyed. In January 2129, the Tardone hordes destroyed a West Emmerinian army in the Battle of Charybdis, and overran much of Collsett, threatening Umarina. A few weeks later, however, Cassiodorus managed to halt a Tardone crossing at the Games River, and he saved his capital city, Hera, from assault. Nevertheless, by March or April 2129, Kathnysex and parts of Collsett were under the rule of the barbarians, who also devastated South Dorsit. On 23 or 24 April 2129, Cassiodorus died and was succeeded to the throne of West Emmerina by his younger brother, and the youngest of Antiochus's sons, Julius Nepalius (2129-2101), one of the greatest Darsian kings. Julius Nepalius succeeded despite the fact that Cassiodorus had left two young sons, Augustulus and Maxentius.

Julius Nepalius was forced to pay tribute to the Tardones in order for them to withdraw from his kingdom. Over the next few years, the barbarian hordes turned their attention to Choleria, which had lost many of her eastern territories to the invaders. Antiochus of Choleria was unable to assemble a military force strong enough to resist the incursions and attacks of the barbarians, who were now progressing into central Choleria and seized the provinces of Inglinca, Jesuia Athoria, and Athura. Finally, in 2126, Choleria's capital city, Theulinda, was captured and sacked, and the royal treasury of Choleria was carried away by the hordes. Antiochus himself was forced to flee for his life and went to West Emmerina, where he took refugee at the court of Julius Nepalius. He died there in 2125. The Tardones installed Antiochus's former retainer, Odysseus (2125-2121) on the throne of Choleria. Odysseus was the last independent King of Choleria, although he was a vassal of the Tardones and ruled over only part of Choleria's former dominions. In the meantime, in 2124, the new King of the Mathianian Tardones, Gordian, launched a renewed offensive into the territories of West Emmerina, seizing Umarina itself and holding the Archbishop of Umarina at the time, Simon (2130-2112), hostage. Julius Nepalius was forced to pay a further tribute in order to secure the release of the Archbishop. Two years later, in 2122, Gordian assaulted the royal palatial stronghold of Nicaea, forcing the King and some of his attendants to flee. Virtually the entire kingdom except the southern coast was overrun, and it seemed that the Darsians would be extinguished and a new race dominant in Eastern Mathiania. Julius Nepalius, however, mustered the loyalty of his nobles and the local militias, and he conducted a effective guerrilla resistance against the Tardones. In May 2122, in the Battle of Orontes, Gordian and his army were decisively defeated. Gordian was forced to retreat, and West Emmerina regained control of Collsett and Southern Kathnysex. In 2121, the Treaty of Uris was signed between Tardonia, as the barbarian kingdom was now known, and West Emmerina. Choleria was divided between the two kingdoms, with Julius Nepalius acquiring the western portions, including Theulinda. Northern Kathnysex, East Emmerina, Eastern Choleria, and Northamberia were confirmed as the territories of Tardonia.

During the 2110s, there was general peace between West Emmerina and Tardonia, although raids and pillaging operations by other Tardone factions did not cease. In 2118, a Tardone fleet descended on the Isle of Galatia and devastated many villages. Julius Nepalius managed to gather together his local defense units and repulsed the invaders. He thereafter vastly expanded his kingdom's naval defense forces, constructed a series of naval harbors and forts on the southern coast of West Emmerina, and made preparations to face off further Tardone naval raids. In 2117, another Tardone raiding party attempted to enter the Games River, but Julius Nepalius destroyed this force. By 2114, the West Emmerinians had attacked the Tardone pirate bases in Afrisia, destroying them and recovering much plunder which had been taken in the Galatian Sack. In that year, Julius Nepalius confirmed the peace arrangements with Gordian and fortified Uris, which became a new military outpost and commercial center for West Emmerina along the northern end of the Games River. In order to insure his kingdom against any future Tardone raids, Julius Nepalius instigated extensive military reforms. He reorganized the kingdom's army, consolidating the local militias into a standing force and dividing the country into military districts, each with a consul of military affairs, a general of the garrisons, and a lord of the knights. A series of towns and fortified camps were established, which were designed to hamper the Tardone raiding parties and to communicate effectively with one another in order to insure safety. Each town had a charter of privileges, a military garrison, and a noble order, who pledged their lives to the safety and security of their region. In order to finance his reforms, Julius Nepalius reformed the coinage, increasing the amount of silver and establishing new mints in Uris, Umarina, and Heliotrope.

The King's military reforms and organizations proved to be effective, as in 2108-07, two Tardone forces, estimated to have a combined strength of 300 ships and 50,000 marauders, descended on Collsett and South Dorsit, ravaging the Games River and seeking to penetrate the kingdom's defenses. Until 2104, Julius Nepalius waged a bitter struggle against the invaders, but his system of military fortifications and his organized noble-army forces proved to be effective. The invaders were unable to progress into West Emmerina without severe losses, and they finally retreated from the kingdom in that year mentioned. Julius Nepalius had saved West Emmerina from the Tardones, and she was the only one of the Darsian kingdoms which survived their onslaught. In the last years of his reign, the King encouraged education and the church. He established a school for the nobility at his court, sent promising young students overseas to conduct their studies, and himself attempted to learn Brethalian. Julius Nepalius also granted goods and properties taken from the Tardones or the Cholerians to the Church. In 2102, he issued a charter which confirmed all of the grants and privilege bulls issued by his predecessors and declared that "All that is given to the Church is owned by the Church forever more."

On 28 or 29 October 2101, Julius Nepalius died, having earned the title "the Great" for his efforts, and was succeeded to the throne of West Emmerina, the only remaining independent Darsian kingdom, by his son Pausanius. Upon taking the throne, Pausanius assumed the title "King of the Darsians", which had remained in abeyance since the time of Marcus, nearly eighty years earlier. Pausanius however, was faced with a series of revolts instigated by his cousin Arasces, the son of Cassiodorus's eldest son Pompey, who believed that the throne was in his right to inherit. The revolt lasted for the next four years, until 2097. Arasces received support from the Tardone rulers of East Emmerina, who wanted to discomfit and weaken the "Kingdom of the Darsians". Nevertheless, Pausanius finally defeated his cousin in the Battle of Melora in the spring of 2097, and Arasces himself was slain in the field of battle. For the next several years, Pausanius focused his efforts on recovering from the effects of civil war, restoring military defenses along the Games River, and preparing for military campaigns against the East Emmerinian Tardones. Finally, in 2091, he advanced into Tardone territories, and hurled into Northamberia, by then under the complete dominion of the barbarians. Much of the land was devastated and the Darsian King brought much plunder back to Hera.

In 2090, the Northamberian Tardones, seeking revenge for this operation, launched their own invasion of West Emmerina, penetrating as far as Theulinda before being defeated by a army of West Emmerinian and Cholerian nobles commanded by Pausanius, in the Battle of Stratonice. Thereafter, Pausanius advanced forth into Northamberia and forced the Tardone rulers to terminate any further raids into Choleria. Over the next decade, the King expanded West Emmerinian power considerably. In 2089, he appointed his sister Eudoxia as Queen of Choleria, although she of course was subject to his authority and acquiesced in all of his military campaigns. Until her death in 2082, Eudoxia helped her brother in his campaigns against the Tardones. In 2089-88, the towns of Grith, Trebzond, Epirus, and Cornith in Kathnysex were annexed, while the fortifications at Uris were expanded. By 2084, all of Kathnysex and parts of East Emmerina, including the Harcourt Valley, had been subjugated. In 2082, the northern parts of East Emmerina and the lands of coastal Choleria, as far as Inspic, were brought under the rule of West Emmerina. That year, Eudoxia died, and Pausanius again incorporated Choleria directly into West Emmerina. By the time of Pausanius' death in 2076, the Northamberian Tardones, Sorians, and Hisigoths acknowledged his suzerainty, and a unified Kingdom of Darsis had been constituted. Pausanius was succeeded by Celebrus (2076-2061), under whose rule the Kingdom of Darsis was definitely consolidated. Celebrus first turned his attention to Northamberia, under the rule of the Tardone King Ovid. In 2074, a alliance was signed with Ovid, by which the two Kings promised not to violate one another's territories. This was merely a cover, in order to provide Celebrus time in order to consolidate his forces for a direct push into Northamberia. The following year, Ovid died, and Celebrus marched into Sassow, proclaiming himself King of Northamberia. In June or July 2073, King Constantine of Hisland (the Hisigoth kingdom north of Northamberia), King Demtraus of Sosia, Duke Eusebius of Western Northamberia, and King Demetrius of Mathianian Channelia, acknowledged the overlordship of Celebrus. At that same ceremony, Celebrus formally took the title "King of All Darsis", thus cementing the efforts of his predecessors. Celebrus thereafter traveled to the Dyke and consolidated the western boundary of Darsis.

Following this ceremony, peace lasted for many years, as Celebrus consolidated his conquest of Northamberia and asserted his rule. Coinage issued by him at this time hailed his achievements and proudly proclaimed the fact that "all the Darsians are now in behold of the rule of one monarch". Celebrus however, was now nursing new pretensions, and he believed that he was now strong enough to attempt to bring all of Mathiania under his rule. The Mathianian Isles had not been under a unified government for the past 430 years, since the time of the unified Hisigothic Kingdom of Mathiania. In 2066, Celebrus invaded Hisland, claiming that the death of Eusebius of Western Northamberia warranted his intervention. In his invasion, he was accompanied by Demtraus of Sosia, Apama of Anisia, Antigonus of Monhompala, and Demetria of Moria. Much of Hisland was devastated and Western Northamberia was annexed to Darsis. Constantine of Hisland was forced to pay a more extensive tribute to Celebrus and to send hostages to his court. Celebrus then returned to Hera and stayed there for the remainder of the year. He was far from his goal of ruling Mathiania, but he had weakened Hisland. Constantine now formulated a alliance with Demetrius of Mathianian Channelia and with King Jospehus of Tardonian Richland, who was determined to regain control of Northamberia for the Tardones. In 2063, the allied coalition invaded Darsis and advanced rapidly to Bradlieas, a major Northamberian city. They were encountered there by Celebrus however and handed a decisive defeat in the Battle of Bradlieas. All three allied kings were captured and reduced to the humiliating status of ealdormen, while Celebrus proclaimed himself "Ruler of the whole Island of Mathiania".

He died suddenly, however, in October 2061, and was succeeded to the throne by his son Craterius (2061-2054). Craterius immediately lost control over his father's gains. Constantine, Jospehus, and Demetrius again asserted their complete independence and rejected the authority of Darsis. In 2060, Josephus invaded Northamberia and conquered the whole province, reestablishing the Kingdom of Tardonia. The following year, Craterius was forced to sign the Treaty of Rhodes, by which he recognized the loss of Northamberia. In 2058, however, Josephus died, and was succeeded to the thrones of Northamberia and Richland by his son-in-law Eurysmachus. Craterius rejected the Treaty of Rhodes and began rearming his forces to regain the territories lost. In 2056, he reconquered most of Northamberia and reduced Eurysmachus to rule of just Sassow and the coastal regions. In 2055, Mathianian Channelia was conquered, but Craterius surrendered the territory to King Julius of Hisland (2057-2046), who had succeeded Constantine to the throne of that kingdom in 2057. In 2054, Craterius was assassinated by one of his nobles, and he was succeeded by Athanasius (2054-2045), his younger brother. During his 9-year reign, Athanasius contended with Eurysmachus of Northamberia-Richland once more, for Eurysmachus again reconquered most of northern Darsis in 2053. It was not until 2050 that Athanasius forced Eurysmachus to agree to the reduction of his dominions to the eastern coast.

When Eurysmachus died in 2046, Athansius finally seized Sassow and consolidated firmly the Darsian rule of Northamberia. He divided Northamberia into earldoms, installed garrisons along the coast, and forced all Tardones in Northamberia to pay a oath of homage to him as their king. The following year, he died without children, and was succeeded by his younger brother Eusebius (2045-2041). Eusebius contended with the Church, his nobles, and his own relatives during his reign, and much of Darsis was disturbed by internal dissent. Eusebius was ultimately forced to acknowledge the claims of his nephew, Thucydides, the son of Athanasius, which were ratified at Umarina in 2042. In October 2041, Eusebius died and Thucydides became King of Darsis (2041-2025). Thucydides's reign was relatively stable and peaceful, as Darsis did not engage in war and suffered little internal turbulence. Thucydides consolidated the achievements of his predecessors. In 2027, he received the submission of several monarchs, including the King of Hisland, the King of Mathianian Channelia (which had recovered its independence from Hisland in 2039), and the Kings of Mathies. These monarchs are said to have taken the role of his servants for a day and rowed him along the Games River. Thucydides also reformed the currency and divided Darsis into parishes, the core of the future administrative system. He died in July 2025, and was succeeded to the throne of the kingdom by his elder son Neuchrus. Neuchrus however, was soon challenged by nobles who favored the claim of his half-brother, Vespasian, who was only seven years old at the time of his father's death. For the entire reign of Neuchrus, Darsis was disturbed by the dispute over the throne.

Neuchrus was eventually assassinated by his own guards in 2022 and was succeeded to the throne by Vespasian (2022-1987, 1986-1984). For the first several years of Vespasian's reign, until he reached his majority in 2014, Darsis was governed by his councilors, especially Desiderius, Archbishop of Umarina (2041-2012). During these years, the Kingdom continued to enjoy peace. After 2014, however, problems intensified for Darsis. Small bands of Tardone pirates began to pillage the eastern coast of Darsis, making descents in East Emmerina, Kathnysex, and Lindsura. In 2013-12, descents were made at the Isle of Galatia, Dungur, and the towns of the Wayward Coast. Finally, in 2009, a large Tardone naval force instigated campaigns against Darsis. It penetrated through Collsett, devastating many towns and threatening Garnay Isle. They then crushed a Darsian army in the Battle of Maldthor, and slaughtered many Darsian knights. Umarina itself was soon threatened, and Vespasian now paid the first of several tributes to the Tardones, which encouraged them to withdraw. For a few years, there was peace, and in 2006, King Olearus of Targay (the Tardone kingdom of western Varangia), converted to Almitism, with Vespasian himself meditating the ceremony. Olearus himself never returned to Darsis, but in 2003, Tardone pillaging parties again began to harass Darsis. In that year, the Isle of Galatia, Dungur, and Wesley were harried by the barbarians. The following year, they devastated Sosia and South Dorsit. In 2001, Collsett was raided by them. The following year, 2000, the first year of the 20th century BH and the 2nd millennium BH, Vespasian persuaded the barbarians to withdraw, and they took with them a immense booty.

In 1999, however, the Tardone fleet returned again and descended in South Dorsit, devastating many towns and enslaving, slaughtering, or driving away thousands of Darsian peasants and townspeople. The Isle of Galatia was seized by them as a base and remained in their possession thereafter. Their attempts to land in Somerania and the western marshes of West Emmerina were successfully resisted, but their operations in South Dorsit left much of the countryside desolate. In the early part of 1998, Vespasian paid them another tribute, the highest yet paid to the Tardones, and was able to persuade them to withdraw to the Isle of Galatia. In November of that year, Vespasian ordered the slaughter of all men, women, and children of Tardone descent in Darsis. The Tardones, it must be remembered, had settled in East Emmerina, Northamberia, and Choleria, although these territories of course were under the unified Darsian Kingdom. Provoked by this massacre, King Gildas of Tardark launched a major invasion of Darsis in 1997, and for the next two years, his army devastated much of East Emmerina, Kathnysex, Collsett, Eastern Choleria, and Cheoria. In 1995, Vespasian was forced to pay them another tribute for their withdrawal, which was even higher than the last. Oppressive taxes had to be levied in order to raise the funds for the tribute, which caused many of the King's subjects to groan against him. In 1994, however, Gildas invaded Darsis again, and in 1993, Vespasian had to acknowledge Gildas as his overlord, recognize the Tardone right to raid Darsis "for all time to come", and pay financial compensation for each person slain in the massacre of 1998. In 1991, a massive force led by Thaddeus the Short landed in Darsis and remained until 1988, slaughtering, enslaving, or deporting nearly half of the Darsian population, at the time. Vespasian had to pay a crippling tribute in order for Thaddeus to leave, and his kingdom was left utterly desolate. Darsis had less then two million people in 1987, according to surviving historical records. Notation must also be made of the population of Laurasia in general. In 1987, the population of Laurasia was 270 million. This was a drastic decline from the height of 1.2 billion which had been achieved under the Brethalian Empire in 2886, nine centuries earlier. The Westar continents had the lowest populations, with just about 20 million people and Australasia, the Eastern Islands, Cirhon, and parts of Krayia had a combined total of approximately 50 million. Haustia itself had 50 million people, while the remainder of Cellini and Explosansis shared the rest (150 million).

1987 for Darsis was marked by the final invasion of Gildas, who was now determined to depose Vespasian from the throne and accomplish the objective which his Tardone ancestors had failed to accomplish: the complete subjugation of the Darsian land and people. Gildas encountered no resistance, as Darsis's military defenses had completely collapsed. By the end of 1987, the entire kingdom had been overrun and Gildas crowned himself King of Darsis in Uris. Darsis was now part of the Tardorian Empire, which ruled over Varangia and Tardork, the lands north of the Holy Mararian Empire of Wallachia, as well. In November or December 1987, Vespasian fled Darsis and went to Northria, whose rulers, themselves of Tardone descent, granted him official refuge status. In February 1986, however, Gildas died. Gildas' subordinates and Tardone generals acknowledged his son, Antigonus, as King of Darsis, but the leading Darsian magnates invited Vespasian to reclaim his throne. Antigonus decided to withdraw from Darsis, as his army was unprepared, and Vespasian again became King. Vespasian however faced troubles with his son, Antiochus, who erupted in rebellion against him. At the beginning of 1985, Antigonus launched a renewed invasion of Darsis and conquered the territories of the kingdom north of the Games River. Antiochus terminated his rebellion and joined his father to defend Uris. In May or June 1984, Vespasian died. Antiochus proclaimed himself King of Darsis, but his rule was restricted to West Emmerina, South Dorsit, Collsett, and parts of Kathnysex. He fought five further battles against Antigonus, but was unable to dislodge him. In September 1984, the two men agreed to divide Darsis between themselves.

Antiochus died in November, however and Antigonus became King of All Darsis (1984-1965). When his elder brother Demetrius died in 1982, Antigonus also became King of Tardork. He eventually seized the throne of Targay in 1972. During his nineteen-year reign in Darsis, peace and stability gradually returned to the Kingdom. The King realized that the Darsians and Tardones were different peoples, and as such, he governed over each people in a different fashion. In Darsis, he preserved the Darsian legal traditions and contributed to the strengthening of local government by dividing the kingdom into the large earldoms of Northamberia, Choleria, East Emmerina, Kathnysex, South Dorsit, Collsett, and West Emmerina, which were similar to the old Darsian kingdoms of those names. He reformed the currency and expanded the capital city of Uris. His rule over the lands from whom the Tardones originated meant the end of raids against Darsis, and the coastal regions recovered. Antigonus also reformed the Church structure, establishing the See of Sassow and reducing the See of Umarina's jurisdiction to the southern half of the kingdom. At the height of his power in 1967, Antigonus was calling himself "King of the Darsians and Tardones" in his charters. In January or February 1965, he died, and his dominions were divided among his three sons. His eldest son, also named Antigonus, received Tardork. The second, Lysimachus, received Darsis, and the third, Demetrius, received Targay. Civil war soon broke out among the brothers, as Antigonus II of Tardork wished to reunite his father's empire. In 1964, he allied himself with Lysimachus of Darsis and declared war against Demetrius of Targay. Over the next two years, bitter war was raged, and the eastern coast of Darsis was much ravaged by the naval attacks of Demetrius. Eventually, in 1962, Demetrius of Targay was defeated and Antigonus II became King of Targay. In 1960, Lysimachus died without children, and AntIgonus II succeeded to the throne of Darsis. The Empire of Antigonus I had been reunified.

Antigonus II, however, was assassinated in 1958, possibly by one of his retainers. Because he himself had left no children, the Tardonian Empire was partitioned. In Tardork and Targay, Antigonus II was succeeded by his cousin Arcadius (1958-1953), who had served as the governor of Tardork and Targay in his brother's absence. In Darsis, he was succeeded by the last surviving child of Vespasian, Artabanus (1958-1934), whom he had acknowledged as his successor in Darsis in 1959. With the ascension of Artabanus, native rule had been restored in Darsis. Artabanus proved to be a strong and effective king, as he consolidated the reforms of Antigonus and strengthened Darsian military power. In order to ensure that the country would never again be threatened by a invader, he erected a series of military defenses along the southern and eastern coasts from 1958-1955. In 1953, he established the Darsian Royal Navy and rehabilitated the Isle of Galatia, which was restored to Darsian rule when Antigonus I had become King of Darsis. In 1950, he signed a non-aggression pact with King Tacitus of Targay (1953-1934), who had succeeded Arcadius as King of Targay upon his death in 1953. Artabanus also strengthened the old Antiochid Dyke and installed garrisons along the border with Hisland, which had finally absorbed Mathianian Channelia in 1956. In the last years of his reign, however, Darsis was disturbed by internal unrest, as the Goldarcus Family sought to assert their claims to the Darsian throne. Artabanus, who was childless, ultimately ended the turmoil by acknowledging Earl Belisarius of West Emmerina as his heir apparent in 1935.

In January of the following year, Artabanus died. Belisarius became King of Darsis (1934-1911). Belisarius, in the first year of his rule, faced two challenges: one from Tacitus of Targay, who now sought to assert his claim to the Darsian throne, and from Duke Devraldus of Northria in Chilsia, who was the son of Artabanus's elder sister, Valentia. Tacitus invaded Darsis in September 1934, but his forces were hampered by the coastal garrisons, and at the beginning of October, he was decisively defeated by Belisarius in the Battle of Gora. Tacitus himself was slain in the battle. Belisarius then marched to the southern coast, where Devraldus, at the head of a army of mercenaries and Northrian knights, had landed in South Dorsit. In the decisive Battle of Harilina, fought in November 1934, Belisarius gained a decisive victory and destroyed the forces of Devraldus, who was forced to flee. Devraldus managed to escape back to Northria, but his invasion had been effectively ended. For his victories over two successive invaders, Belisarius gained the title "the Warrior". In 1932, he invaded Northria and destroyed the ducal stronghold of Grtemain, forcing Devraldus to surrender his claims to the Darsian throne. Belisarius defeated a further invasion attempt by King Mardonius of Targay (1934-1907) in 1927-25. In 1924, he invaded Sosia and devastated the country, annexing the borderland province of Trans-Dyke and forcing Sosia into vassalage. In 1923-21, he crushed rebellions in Collsett and South Dorsit, and in 1920, Belisarius annexed the Isle of Myur, which had been a Tardone base in the Richian Sea. The last decade of his reign was relatively peaceful. In 1915, he commissioned the compilation of the Great Darsian Survey, which was meant to tabulate and effectively organize the king's revenues and to provide a registry of all properties in Darsis. He also divided Darsis into shires, and increased the number of earldoms to fifteen, creating many smaller ones out of the large Cholerian and West Emmerinian Earldoms. After Belisarius died in 1911, he was succeeded by his son Narses (1911-1898), who defeated a invasion attempt by Duke Otho of Northria in 1906-05 and seized the Argorican Islands from him. Narses conquered Sosia in 1904-02 and forced the Mathies kingdom of Southlania into vassalage.

Touching back on affairs in Haustia, Caligula III of the Holy Mararian Empire established positive relations with Barshoria, Alohemia, and with Polosia, which under her first civilized duke Licinus (2040-2008), established rule of the regions to the north of the Hanube River and east of Dacia and Alohemia. Licinus's son and successor Demetrius (2008-1975), crowned himself King of Polosia in 1979 and established a consolidated royal state. Demetrius founded the city of Gulreunm, subdued the Neo-Florencian tribes of Coastarlia, and extended Polonian influence to the juncture of the Reman River. Yet farther to the east of Polosia, Northern Lycia, which had consolidated into a number of principalities by the 22nd century BH, organized herself under the Tardone Duke Athanasius, who established the city of Inulum in 2138. Athanasius ruled until his death in 2121. His successors Altherius (2121-2093); Olybrius (2093-2055); and Suetonius (2055-2028), extended the territory of Lycia to the Lydian River, conquered the wandering Varangian tribes of the upper Al-Volga, and established a alliance with the Neo-Brethalian Empire, sending its representatives to Elana. Suetonius in particular, became renowned as a energetic military campaigner, and under his rule, nearly one hundred Varangian, Lydian, Al-Volgan, and Centralitan tribes were subjugated to Lycian overlordship. After Suetonius died in 2028, his son and successor Thaddeus (2028-1985), restored Almitism in his dominions and converted to the faith in 2012. Thaddeus also conquered the wandering Australasian nomads of the Thathian Sea. He proclaimed himself Grand Prince and Lord of the Al-Volgan and Trans-Tethornes Lands in 2001. After Thaddeus died in 1985, a civil war erupted in Lycia between his two sons Philadelphus and Lysimachus, with Lysimachus ultimately achieving victory in 1981. His long reign (1981-1946), was a time of prosperity and external expansion. Lysimachus reorganized the Almitian bishoprics of his territory, sponsored missionary efforts to Eastern Oceania, promulgated a uniform legal code, and promoted trade ties with Polosia, Barshoria, Targay, Tardork, Barlavia, and the Neo-Brethalian Empire. He also waged vigorous military campaigns against the Truite Nomads of the Sophores Plateau, establishing a series of forts along the Al-Volgan River, destroying many Truite villages and towns, and insuring the safety of Lycian peasants, settlers, and soldiers in the region. The Nomads would finally be completely dispersed and annexed in 1964, and Lycian territories were extended to the Tethornes Mountains. Lysimachus recovered Lydia from the Polosians, established a naval port, Crystellys, at the foot of the Gulf of Eastern Varangia, and sponsored surveys of the Northern Ocean. He became a major patron of the arts and sciences, and was known was "the Wise" for his extensive knowledge of proverbs and the Almitian Bible. After Lysimachus died in 1946, however, the Lycian Grand Principality divided into the smaller principalities of Northern Lycia, Achlav, Crystellys, Al-Volga, Lydia, Southern Lycia, and Serith, with the ruler of Northern Lycia holding the title of "Grand Prince", although his rule over the other principalities was of ceremonial nature only.

Caligula III faced a rebellion against his authority in Ralispont in 1999, and was forced to withdraw to the north, back to Mendelevium, which had been established in 2002 as a new capital city for the Wallachian Empire. In 1998 he caught a fever and died at the very young age of 21. The throne immediately was disputed among various associates and noblemen of the diseased Emperor, who of course had left no children. Eventually, his cousin Aristole, achieved preeminence over his rivals. Aristole crowned himself King of Wallachia in the fall of 1998 and King of Mararia in the spring of 1996. Aristole thereafter spent the majority of his reign consumed in wars against Demetrius, attempting to extend the territories of the Wallachian Empire along the Tynes Mountains and to the Varana River. These campaigns were a disaster, and culminated in the devastating Battle of Cvellae in 1982, in which Aristole lost over half of his knights and archers to the enemy. In 1980, by the Treaty of Sarthae, the border between Polonia and Wallachia was established along the line of the River Gelbe. Aristole also spent his time engaged in expeditions in Mararia. He crushed rebellions in Cleothardy, consolidated the dominion of the Empire over Corinia, and attempted to seize Japles from the Neo-Brethalian Empire, which experienced a great revival in power under Basil the Great (2024-1975). Basil conquered the Barlav Khanate, reconquered Fleshiu, Karniya, Jurcuse, Assyria, and the trans-Catilina from the Truites, and consolidated Neo-Brethalian rule over the northern coast of the Euxine Sea. He also restored Neo-Brethalian dominion over parts of southern Mararia and Hanubia, waging wars against the Papacy and the Barshorian Kingdom for that purpose. Basil defeated Aristole's invasions of 1989-87 and 1980-77, and forced him to acknowledge the territories of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Aristole was weakened by these defeats against the Neo-Brethalians and Polosians, although in 1986 he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII (1988-1976). Aristole married Princess Katharina of Halxony, but their union produced no children.

His death in October 1976 brought an end to the Caligulan Dynasty. His successor, Demetrius (1976-1961), a nobleman of Heletia, waged war against Polosia and Barshoria, recovering territories lost under Aristole and forcing the son and successor of Demetrius of Polosia, Theodosius (1975-1966), to renounce his title of King and to become his vassal. In 1966, Burgunthia was annexed into the Empire, and Demetrius crowned himself King of Burgunthia. He was also crowned Emperor in 1969, cementing his rule of the Empire. After Demetrius died in 1961, he was succeeded by his son Marcian (1961-1944), during whose reign stability was largely maintained in the Empire. Marcian asserted firm control over his nobles, maintained the dominance of the Holy Mararian Empire in Cleothardy, and preserved Mararian rule of Anthoria. We should now note what has been happening in Western Chilsia. Anastasius died in September 2046 as the result of the injuries from a horse-fall. His son and successor, Demosthenes (2046-2014), was under the influence of Duke Lucius until his death in 2040, when he was succeeded in his positions by his son, also named Lucius, destined to become King of Western Chilsia. Demosthenes attempted to increase his influence in Anthoria, but was successfully hampered by Caligula. In 2026, Caligula's son and successor, Caligula II, launched a major invasion of Western Chilsia, penetrating to the coastal towns of Anates and Gauder before he was repulsed. Tensions continued to simmer, and in 2023, Caligula launched a renewed invasion of Western Chilsia. This invasion was, with extensive effort, halted by Lucius, and a more lasting peace was signed in 2020 between the two monarchs. In 2014, Demosthenes died, and his only surviving child, Achilles, ascended to the throne. The last ruler of the old Dematran Dynasty, he ruled for only a year, dying of the plague in April or May 2013. Thereafter, Lucius of Constantinople was unanimously elected King of Western Chilsia (2013-2004), becoming the first ruler of the Lucian Dynasty. The authority of Lucius, however, was restricted to just Constantinople, and the division of Chilsia into Argorica, Northria, Anthoria, Septimania, Galdornia, and the lordship of Assau and Jargurs was confirmed.

Lucius ruled until his death in November 2004. His son and successor, Coenus (2004-1969) spent the majority of his reign crushing conspiracies against his rule, seeking to expand the estates of the King, and engaging in disputes with the Church and his sons. Besides this, little worthy of mention can be made of his reign. Coenus died in the summer of 1969 and was succeeded to the throne of the kingdom, by now known simply as Chilsia, by his eldest son Perdiccas (1969-1940), who also spent the majority of his reign seeking to maintain control of Constantinople and to check the ambitions of his vassals. Perdicas's successor was his son Ptolemy (1940-1892), one of the longest-reigning kings of the Lucian Dynasty. Ptolemy managed to expand the royal dominion by annexing the town of Athors and parts of Galdornia in the 1930s. He supported his vassal Devraldus of Northria's failed invasion of Darsis, and as a result, King Belisarius of Darsis seized the Chilsian royal fleet of commercial vessels at Vilana in 1931. Besides this, we cannot note anything worthy of mention to his reign, and upon his death in 1892 he was succeeded by his son Cassander the Fat (1892-1863), who did much to strengthen the monarchy and expand the resources of the crown. He encouraged economic prosperity, supported the Church, made many grants to towns and estates in his territories, reformed the royal currency, and established a strong army. Cassander the Fat also expanded the territory of the Duchy of Constantinople (the personal dominions of the Crown) by seizing the Lordship of Jargurs in 1887, the town of Insisa in 1885, and the estate of Naths-over the River in 1883.

Having neglected the Truite Empire for for so long, we must now make extensive notation of what has transpired with that dominion. Ignatius, after his death in 2191, was succeeded briefly by his son Athanasius (2191-2187), who was soon challenged by his brother Desiderius. Desiderius eventually captured Soriana, which had been established by his father as the capital city of the Truite dominions, and executed his brother in 2187. He proclaimed himself the new Grand Master of the Truite Empire. Desiderius, who ruled for twenty years, sought to strengthen the Truite army, encourage trade, and sponsor the arts and sciences. It was during his reign that the great Truite Renaissance, a time of considerable learning and scholarship, occurred. The Truites reformed the old Harappan numeral system, simplifying its numbers and adding the concept of zero. They made a more accurate calculation of time, figuring out the exact approximation of the 365th day of the year. Truite scholars and historians compiled, translated, and annotated the works of the ancients, especially those of the Oslemites, Brethalians, Tatianians, Grinans, Mesians, and others. They were determined to pass on historical knowledge. They also made major contributions to astronomy, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and a variety of other fields. The Truites became known as the best physicians of their time, and they published extensive medical treatises, essays, and diagrams which remained authoritative until the time of the Haustian Renaissance. Truite doctors became known for their surgical expertise, their standards of cleanliness and professionalism, and their emphasis on observation and careful study of the human body. The Truites also became known as philosophers, and they produced many studies on Truite theology, mythology, and the works of earlier philosophers. Architecture was also influenced by them, and the Truites constructed some of the most beautiful buildings on Laurasia, including the famed Temple of Herkiorim in 2183-73.

Desiderius also instigated renewed war against the Neo-Brethalian Empire, determined to extend Truite territories yet further into Acolonia, to consolidate Truite rule of Balay, and to threaten Neo-Brethalian economic security. For the past several decades, extensive border raids, espionage operations, and border incidents had taken place between the Neo-Brethalian and Truite Empires, especially in the Assyrian Mountains and the outskirts of the Neo-Brethalian provinces of Catilina Majoria, Sardis, and Lugllis-on the Galys. As a result of these campaigns, hundreds of thousands of peasants, villagers, and townspeople were slaughtered, enslaved, or forced to flee by the Truites. The Neo-Brethalians, in turn, launched their own raids, and much of Fleshiu, Mesia, and Neo-Assyria became a marshland district. The Neo-Brethalian Emperors divided Acolonia and Doria into dioceses, each with a military coordinator, a financial treasury, and a complex series of defenses and military garrisons. Conscription and taxation were intensified and widened, and the government always kept the naval forces in readiness. The Truites, in turn, hired mercenaries, organized military garrisons, and maintained outposts to supply their raiding parties. In 2180, Michael the Stammerer ascended to the Neo-Brethalian throne. The new Emperor contended with the Barlavs on the Hanube, and as such, the Truites managed to seize the island of Ergae in 2176, a major loss to the Neo-Brethalian treasury and navy. In 2174, Michael launched a massive offensive to reclaim Ergae and to clear Truite pirates from their base at Jurcuse, but this failed miserably. In 2173, the Truites landed in Grinae and devastated the countryside, sacking Gentz and destroying the Brethalian naval base of Ankiorim. They soon retreated however, due to the outbreak of a rebellion in Balay. In 2171, Michael died and was succeeded by his son Boniface, who launched campaigns against the Truites with renewed vigor. In 2170, he organized a attack against Balay, but the Truite naval fleet stationed at Jurcuse destroyed the Brethalian attack squadron. That same year, the Truites launched a massive invasion of Brethalian Catilina and Doria. The Truites advanced as far as Gordium but were then halted by Boniface in the Battle of Fausta, in January 2169. Boniface thereafter cleared out Truite strongholds in the Assyrian Mountains. In 2168, his invasion of Karniya proved a humiliating failure, and much of the Acolonian coast was ravaged by Truite naval fleets.

In 2167, financial pressures forced both Desiderius and Boniface to begin negotiations, and in December of that year, the Truce of Schaffer was signed, restoring the status quo ante bellum between the two Empires. Just days after the Treaty was ratified, on December 30, Desiderius suddenly fell ill and died. He was succeeded to the Grand Mastership by his half-brother Zeus (2167-2158), whose reign witnessed the beginning of the disintegration of Truite authority. In Marthage, Letousia, Thathia, and Centralita, the independent dynasties of the Fantasians, Macedonians, Garsians, and Lasgranians were beginning to gain in influence, and they gradually assumed the governorships of those territories. By 2160, the Truite Grand Master's rule in those regions was of a weaker basis, although the secessions from his authority had not yet begun. In 2158, Zeus died and was succeeded by his cousin Poseidon (2158-2153), whose reign was of little significance. Poseidon maintained peaceful relations with the Neo-Brethalian Empire, ruled now by Michael the Drunkard, who as his title suggests, was a severe alcoholic. Poseidon died childless, and was succeeded by Apollo (2153-2139), who was to prove to be the last strong Truite Grand Master of the Abratian Dynasty. Apollo sponsored scholars, architects, poets, astronomers, mathematicians, and engineers at his court. Soriana was by this point the second-largest city on Laurasia, behind only Elana, the capital city of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. In 2139, however, Apollo was murdered by one of his bodyguards, which sent the Truite Empire into a spiral of civil war. Apollo's younger brother and successor, Mercury (2139-2138) was poisoned in 2138, and his brief reign was disturbed with internal dissent. Mercury's assassin and successor, his kinsman Pluto (2138-2134), experienced internal disputes and economic troubles, and found that his reign was all but secure. In 2135, he moved the capital to Herkiorim, which aroused the distaste of the nobles of Soriana. In 2134, the governor of Soriana, Ares, who was the son of Apollo's elder sister, captured Herkiorim and ordered the Grand Master's execution. Ares moved the capital back to Soriana and became Grand Master (2134-2131). Ares however, soon faced challenges from his own officers, who provoked uprisings in Gedrosia, Gasheria, Thathia, Western Krayia, Sophomora, and Jatheria against his authority.

In 2131, he was strangled to death in his personal chambers. His successor, the weak and young Phelarion, Ares' nephew, ruled for just a year before he in turn was butchered by his Centralitan bodyguards. Centralitan military officers had by then cemented influence in the capital city. Phelarion's successor, his cousin Crassus (2131-2108), proved to be a more durable ruler, although his reign saw the effective division of the Truite Empire into smaller kingdoms. By 2110, the Macedonians ruled over Exarlia, Hottentia, and the territories of central Explosansis, the Fantasians over Marthage, the Garsians over Amanda, Letousia, Joria, Gadravia, and parts of Akkadia and Sophomora, the Lasgranians over Assyria, Truite Catilina, Yurthria, Hugill, and Aganian, the Jeuruites over the Tethornes and Fleshiu, the Centralitans over Mesia, Gasheria, Gedrosia, Yusana, eastern Sophomora, and parts of Thathia and Lugilla, the Samantragnians over the remainder of Tatiana and Centralita, and the Truite Australasians over Western Krayia, Falloria, and parts of eastern Tatiana. Each of these dynasties of course, professed the Truite faith, and each continued to recognize the official suzerainty of the Grand Master and his authority in religious affairs. Crassus died in 2108 and was succeeded by his son Antigonus (2108-2098), who largely recognized the new situation that existed and confined the range of his activities to religious matters. His reign however, saw the resumption of war against the Neo-Brethalian Empire. A fierce war from 2103-2099 was waged, in which most of Trans-Catilina, parts of Doria, Gentz, and Western Grinae were briefly overrun by the Truites, although their efforts to breach the Brethalian defenses of the Acolonian Islands were hampered. In 2099, the Treaty of Polo was signed, by which the border in the Assyrian Mountains was revised in favor of the Truites. The Neo-Brethalian Emperor, at that time Leo the Wise, agreed to pay tribute to the Truite Grand Master, to demolish military forts at Nicomedia, Trebizond, Goridum, and Caffa, and to send hostages to the Grand Master, as insurance for the arrangements. The Treaty was negotiated by the Lasgranian and Fantasian Lords in the name of the Grand Master. Antigonus died in 2098 and his younger brother, Alexander Severus (2098-2092), ascended to the throne. During his reign, the decline of central control continued, and by 2092 BH, the Abratian Dynasty's direct rule extended only over Soriana. Under his successor Demetrius Severus (2092-2068), the decline continued. Demetrius Severus was a ineffective ruler, and died of plague in 2068. His successors Arcadius (2068-2066); Eugenius (2066-2060); Theopanes (2060-2056); Honorius (2056-2051); and Achilles (2051-2026) were equally ineffective and wielded little influence even in their own capital city. Little notation can be made of the remainder of the 21st century BH, as the territories of the Truite Empire were torn apart by constant competition amongst the various dynasties, each of whose leaders had taken the title of "Subordinate Master". The Fantasian Dynasty, in particular, increased in power, and by the end of the century, all of Marthage, Exarlia, Hottentia, the Horn of Explosansis, Letousia, Paujaica, Mixing, Jatheria, Akkadia, Sophomora, Joria, Gadravia, Hugill, Karniya, Balay, and Jurcuse were under their rule. In 2031, in fact, the Fantasian Subordinate Masters took the title of "Grand Master of Truism" for themselves, establishing a rival Grand Mastership to the Abratian Dynasty.

During the first half of the 20th century BH, a tentative balance in the Truite Empire was maintained. The Fantasians, Lasgranians, Centralitans, and Australasians now shared rule of the various portions of the Truite Empire, while the dynasty of Inoria had elevated itself to the rank of a Grand Mastership and maintained its independence. The Grand Master of the Abratian Dynasty was merely a symbolic figure under the control of the Centralitan Subordinate Masters. The Grand Masters of Truism during this time were Patroclus (2026-2009); Paris (2009-1969); and Ajax (1969-1926). During the reign of Ajax, however, a major change took place in the political affairs of the Truite Empire. In 1963, in the regions of Centralia and the Al-Volga, the tribal chieftain Menelaus (1963-1938) unified the Serjanian confederacy and proclaimed himself Subordinate Master of Centralita. He thus established the Serjanian Empire, which was to rise to a position of ascendancy in the Truite political world. From 1963-1960, Menelaus unified all of Centralita, Western Krayia, northern Tatiana, and the eastern regions of the Thathian Sea under his rule. By 1956, he had subjugated all of Thathia, Tatiana, Lugilla, and Yusana to his rule, extending his influence to the Tatianian Gulf. In 1955, he descended into Falloria, and by 1953, all of the provinces east of Gasheria and Mesia under the Truite yoke acknowledged his rule. By 1946, Fleshiu, the trans-Tethornes, and the southern parts of Lydia below the Lycian principalities had been annexed, and the Serjanian Empire was now in direct contact with Neo-Brethalian territories. After the death of Basil the Great in 1975, the Neo-Brethalian Empire had gradually declined in power and influence. Constantine VIII (1975-1972); Zoe (1972-1950); and Theodora (1950-1945) were not strong rulers, and under their rule the Neo-Brethalian military strength declined. In 1946, Menelaus launched a major invasion of Neo-Brethalian territories and devastated Doria, Catilina, and Trebizond. He exacted a heavy tribute before retreating. In 1945, the Subordinate Master invaded and conquered Gasheria, Gedrosia, and Mesia, seizing Soriana and moving his chief base of power there. Achilles remained Grand Master, but was a clear subordinate of the "Subordinate" Master. Menelaus faced a uprising by the garrison commander Seleucus in Soriana and also contended with a invasion by the Fantasian Empire, but by 1940, he had consolidated his conquests and established a strong military garrison in Soriana.

In 1937, Menelaus died and was eventually succeeded by his general Peter (1937-1928), who killed Menelaus' son and designated heir, Timothy, in a struggle for the throne. Peter became known for his tactical genius and ruthlessness. In 1936, he crushed a uprising in the Trans-Tethornes and deported thousand to Thathia and Lugilla. In 1935, western Fleshiu was pacified and harrying expeditions were sent into the Euxine Sea. In 1934, East Sophomora was subdued and the whole of the Tatianian Gulf was brought under the rule of the Serjanian Empire. In 1931, he launched a invasion of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. After Theodora died in 1945, she was succeeded by Romanus (1945-1928), who had been married to her daughter and was elevated to the Neo-Brethalian throne by the nobles, tired of female rule. Romanus wished to halt the renewed Truite advance, and his army moved into Assyria, which had been consolidated under Neo-Brethalian rule by Basil the Great. Peter harried much of Yurthria, Aganian, and Karniya, and in 1930, he engaged in a fierce confrontation with Romanus in the Battle of Cilicia. A stalemate resulted, but Romanus was compelled to abandon the stronghold of Thourim, which had been constructed by Basil the Great in 1982. In 1930, vigorous battles were waged in Trans-Catilina, Karniya, Mesia, Fleshiu, and Doria, as Romanus launched his own invasions and fiercely resisted the Serjanian marauders. The following year, however, in the decisive Battle of Manzkira, he was crushed by Peter, who scattered his forces and inflicted serve losses on the Neo-Brethalians. As a result of this victory, Assyria, Trans-Catilina, and Karniya were annexed by the Serjanian Empire. Peter released Romanus from captivity, however, and allowed him to return to Elana, where he was blinded and executed in January 1928. In 1928, however, Peter himself died when he was wounded by a duplicitous Lycian mercenary who had served with his army. His successor Judas (1928-1908) brought the Serjanians to their greatest extent of power. Judas conquered Aganian, Yurthria, Gadravia, and Hugill from the Fantasian Empire, annexed Doria and Trebizond from the Neo-Brethalian Empire, and extended Serjanian power into central Sophomora. The successors of Romanus to the Neo-Brethalian throne, Michael VII (1928-1922) and Nicephorus III (1922-1918) proved to be weaklings, and were unable to arrest the Serjanian advance.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part IX: From the Ascension of Alexius I Komenus to the Death of Antigonus the SaintEdit

In 1918, Alexius I Komenus (1918-1882), ascended to the Neo-Brethalian throne. He sought to expand the treasury, reorganize the army, strengthen the defenses of Elana, and revive the Empire from the ravages of civil war and Serjanian invasions. By 1910, he had regained Sardis and consolidated Neo-Brethalian territories in the Hanubian Balkans, accepting the loss of footholds north of the Hanube River to Barshoria and Lycia which had been gained by Basil the Great. Alexius I also had to deal with the Barlavs and with the Northrians, who, having failed in Darsis, had turned their attention to Southern Mararia and Balay. In the very same year that Romanus I had been defeated by Peter, the Northrian adventurer Athanasius had landed in Balay and within a decade, had conquered the entire island from the Fantasian Empire. In 1920, Athanasius turned his attention to Kalabria, the Neo-Brethalian foothold in Mararia. He captured the coastal town of Thalies and by the time of his death in 1915, had conquered all of Kalabria and southern Mararia, in spite of some reverses inflicted on him by Alexius. His son and successor Mars (1915-1882), consolidated his father's conquests and received the title "Duke and Count of Balay and Southern Mararia" from the Holy Mararian Emperor, Galerius (1944-1894). Alexius's attempts to conquer Jurcuse and Rembium in 1913-12 were defeated, and in 1911, he was forced to acknowledge the establishment of the Northrian Duchy of Balay. Galerius's reign over Wallachia was dominated by his struggles with the Papacy, in particular with Pope Gregory the Old (1927-1915). Gregory claimed that the Church had the right to appoint all bishops, a right also claimed by the Emperor. The Pope ultimately emerged victorious, and his assertion of the supreme Papal authority over Church appointments, estates, and administration severely weakened the Emperor's prestige. Galerius, besides his confrontation with the Church, also had to contend with constant civil uprisings against his rule, especially by his son Constans. In 1930, 1922, and 1916, the Emperor issued bulls of privilege to his primary retainers, trying to maintain their support against the Church and his rebellious nobles. These bulls granted each retainer estates confiscated from the Emperor's enemies, provided them with absolute authority over the individuals and properties of those estates, and gave them the sole privilege to engage in imperial trade and in navigational affairs. Serfdom, already a dominant social system on Laurasia (with nearly 60% of the Laurasian population in 1916 being held in bondage), was consolidated yet further.

Upon the death of the Serjanian Subordinate Master Judas in 1908, the Serjanian Empire disintegrated and collapsed as quickly as it had risen to prominence. Judas' successor to the Subordinate Mastership was his son Andrew (1908-1906). Andrew's authority, however, was not acknowledged beyond Soriana, Gasheria, and Gedrosia however. The Serjanian garrisons, governors, and religious officials in Doria, Fleshiu, and Trans-Catilina acknowledged the rule of Judas' general of operations against the Neo-Brethalian Empire, Helvetius (1908-1893). Helvetius proclaimed himself Subordinate Master of Doria and rejected the authority of the Serjanian Empire. A similar situation emerged in Hugill and Aganian, where the district keltoi (governor of lands), Telemachus (1908-1905), became Subordinate Master of Hugill. Telemachus was unable to retain Serjanian rule over Jatheria however, which was regained by the Fantasian Dynasty in 1906. Nevertheless, Gadravia, Hugill, Yurthria, Aganian, and parts of Assyria formed his dominions. His death in 1905, however, led to the establishment of the competing Kingdoms of Theoranscius and Hereppo. The Serjanian territories in the Thathian Plateau and farther eastwards remained under the formal suzerainty of the Serjanian Subordinate Master, but were effectively divided amongst the Principalities of Agad, Minos, and Europa. The decline and disintegration of the Serjanian authority, and the relative weakness of the Fantasian Empire, provided the first major opportunity to the Haustian nations for a vigorous counter-offensive against the forces of Truism. They were also to be prompted by vigorous appeals from Alexius I, whose forces were being strained to the breaking point by constant Serjanian raids and operations in Doria, Bithynia, and Hellespontia. Alexius I dispatched his ambassadors to Galerius in 1906 and in 1905, sent emissaries to Darsis, Targay, Polonia, Lycia, and Chilsian Inoria, which had now consolidated into a independent kingdom under the rule of Adolphus (1938-1891), formerly Count of Benoventum, who had proclaimed himself King of Inoria in 1935. Adolphus's territories extended as far south as Tolonia, and the Truite Grand Mastership of Inoria was now confined to the southern portions of the peninsula.

In 1905, the emissaries of the Neo-Brethalian Emperor arrived at the court of Pope Urban II (1912-1901), one of the most important Popes in the history of the Almitian Church. The Pope, who was sympathetic to the Emperor and who also saw that this was the opportunity to increase his prestige and status, gathered a formal Papal Assembly in the Palace of Ostia in November 1905. In the famous Assembly of Ostia, attended by thousands of nobles, officials, and ambassadors from throughout Haustia, as well as by Emperor Galerius and Duke Mars of Balay, the Pope preached the necessity of waging war against the heretics, recovering the "Holy Land of Paul and Eusebius" (Jatheria, Hugill, Gadravia, and Joria), from the Truites, and saving the Neo-Brethalian Empire, "the cradle of civilization", from the Truite unbelievers. His call was received with acclaim. Nearly one hundred prominent nobles from Chilsia, Inoria, Darsis, Wallachia, Barshoria, Polosia, Anthoria, and Tardork took the Cross and pledged themselves to liberate the lands of the East from the heretics. The Pope was ultimately able to recruit or conscript a army of nearly a million crusaders, drawn from all parts of Haustia. By then, Westar and the eastern parts of Cellini had been forgotten, and there is indeed, virtually no information about what transpired in those regions during this period. By the summer of 1904, the crusaders were ready to depart. A religious fervor engrossed the continent and a driving determination to destroy the Heretic was implanted in the minds of the Haustian kingdoms of Almitism.

In August 1904, the crusaders, divided into four different armies, left the assembly base of Jgath in southern Barshoria and marched across the territories of Barlavia, Neo-Brethalia, and into Acolonia, crossing the Hellespont in November. They soon arrived at Sardis, being received by Emperor Alexius. Although the Emperor refused to join the crusaders himself, he attached his powerful army to their force and provided them provisions, guides, and safe passage tickets to all Brethalian ports for their journey. The crusaders thereafter proceeded to the East, reaching Gordium, where they were joined by Duke Peter of Argorica, who had left with his army of knights for Neo-Brethalia alongside them but had arrived at Sardis earlier. In the first half of 1903, Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Goris were besieged and captured by the crusaders from the Truites. The crusaders handed these towns back to the Emperor and then proceeded into the Trans-Catilina and the Assyrian Mountains, besieging and capturing numerous Serjanian forts, battling Serjanian armies and raiding parties, and consolidating their gains. In 1902, the County of Dorkoria, the first of the Almitian Crusader States, was established in Assyria and Yurthria. Hereppo and Jansoch were then besieged by the crusaders, being major cities which required their attention. The Serjanian garrisons of those cities resisted ferociously, but were ultimately outflanked. By the beginning of 1901, Prince Seleucus of Hereppo had been executed by the Crusaders, and Boethius of Agores, one of the crusader generals, became Prince of Hereppo, restoring Almitian rule to the region for the first time in over four centuries. The crusaders proceeded to the south, and most of Gadravia and Western Hugill was occupied by them without resistance. Finally, in June 1901, the crusaders reached Herkorim, the holy city of Paul, Eusebius, and the old Jatherian Kings. The crusaders' first assaults against Herkorim were repulsed by the Fantasian garrison. They reorganized their forces and used barricades to cut off support to the besieged city. Finally, after over a month of resistance, the city fell on 15 July 1901. The Crusader leaders entered in victorious procession into Herkiorim, and the city was under Almitian rule for the first time in 461 years. The Crusaders massacred most of the city's Truite inhabitants, and demolished all of their temples and worship sites to Matthew. The Great Temple of Herkorim was spared, however, and was instead rehabilitated as a Almitian cathedral, the Cathedral of the Great Paul. In July 1900, Livy of Galdornia became the first Almitian King of Jatheria. In that year, the first of the 19th century BH, the crusaders destroyed the Fantasian army in the Battle of Asthael and consolidated their conquest of Jatheria.

The rule of Livy I of Jatheria witnessed the consolidation of the Almitian Crusader States and their further territorial expansion at the expense of the Truite Fantasians. In 1899, reinforcements arrived in Jatheria from Haustia, allowing Livy to reorganize his army, fortify Herkiorim, and establish a Jatherian naval squadron. Livy is considered to be one of the most effective of the Almitian rulers in Jatheria, as he did much to strengthen and expand the kingdom. In order to maintain Almitian rule, Livy repopulated Herkiorim with Chilsians and Almitians, reestablished the Archbishopric of Herkiorim, and rehabilitated the holy treasures of the city. He now directed his attention to vigorous military campaigns in order to maintain Jatheria's safety and to advance into Akkadia, Eastern Letousia, and Sophomora. In 1896, the port of Athlere, which had been established by the Truites two centuries earlier for easier commerce in the Great Haustian Sea, was captured and fortified by the Jatherian King, who established a major naval headquarters there and instigated commerce with the other islands of Haustia. The Gadravian ports of Berath (1890) and Sorthria (1889) were captured by the Jatherian King as well, consolidating the conquests of the Crusaders in Gadravia. Livy maintained his suzerainty over Hereppo, Dorkoria, and Tranath, which he captured in 1891 and bestowed upon one of his relatives, Leo the Bald. Livy also advanced into Joria, raiding Asthael and repelling constant Fantasian invasions of his kingdom. He attacked Theoranscius and forced that state to sign a non-aggression pact with Jatheria. He died in 1882 while leading a campaign against the Fantasians in Akkadia, and was succeeded by his cousin, who became Livy II. Livy II was also a formidable ruler, who campaigned against Theoranscius, the Fantasians, the Akkadians, and the Serjanian principalities of Sophomora. He gained a major victory at the Battle of Abo in 1875 and destroyed the army of the Theoranscian general Aetius. Under his rule, Hereppo, Dorkoria, and Tranath were briefly annexed directly into Jatheria. Livy II issued the earliest compilation of the kingdom's laws, signed treaties with the Neo-Brethalian Empire, the Pope, and Chilsian Inoria, and organized the Knights Templar and Knights of Holies, the earliest Almitian military orders. In 1868, Livy II died, leaving a daughter, Messalina (1868-1847). Messalina was married to the nobleman Josephus of Chilsia, who became King jure uxoris (that is, in right of his wife) in 1868 and remained so until his death in 1857. The northern duchies gained independence from Jatheria, but Josephus managed to maintain suzerainty over them. He crushed a uprising by Livy, the Earl of Berath, halted Fantasian raids against the towns of the Jatherian Plateau, and plundered Akkadia. In 1862-60, he allied with Theoranscius and halted the efforts of the new Truite Master of Mesia, Zeno, to advance into Hugill and Aganian. Josephus maintained positive relations with John II of Neo-Brethalia (1882-1857), who was a vigorous ruler and restored Neo-Brethalian territories, which under his rule approached the size of the Empire of Basil the Great.

Both John II and Josephus died in 1857, which severely weakened the Almitian Crusader States. Josephus's young son, Josephus II (1857-1837) ascended to the throne of Jatheria, but as he was but ten years of age his mother, Queen Messalina, became his regent. She retained this position for another decade. Zeno, witnessing his opportunity, decided to take advantage of the situation. He organized his army and in 1856, proceeded into the territories of Dorkoria, the first of the Almitian Crusader States. The forces of the County were not able to resist his advance, and in December of that year, the city of Dorkoria, which had been established by the Crusaders in 1880, was captured and sacked by the Truite forces, imposing a severe blow upon the Almitian Crusader States. News of the fall of Dorkoria quickly spread into Haustia, and aroused fears that the Heretics were again gaining in strength. Queen Messalina appointed her personal constable of the household, Priam, as the new commander of the Jatherian army, but Jatheria was unable to recapture Dorkoria by its own power. Thus, the Queen sent a appeal for aid to the Pope, at that time Eugenius III (1855-1847). Eugenius believed that it was his duty to insure that Jatheria remained in Almitian possession, and he now published a papal bull on 25 December, promising to absolve the sins of all those who took the Cross. His call was answered by the King of Chilsia, Antigonus the Weak (1863-1820), who had succeeded his father Cassander the Fat in 1863. In the same year that he became King, Antigonus married Duchess Hoderina of Galdornia, the wealthiest heiress in Haustia at that time. He was dominated by his wife, who was possessed of a domineering and strong character, and by his chief minister, the Abbot of Denaria, Orostes. Antigonus, who was a fervent believer in Almitism, took the cross in 1853 and swore to bring his army to the East in order to liberate Dorkoria from the heretics. The Pope also persuaded the Emperor of Mararia, Pausanius, founder of the Holerian Dynasty (1862-1848), to take the Cross and to join with the King of Chilsia. By the beginning of 1852, the crusader army, after having endured severe hardships, managed to reach Schaffer in Karniya, where Emperor Manuel I of Neo-Brethalia (1857-1820), met with the King of Chilsia and the Holy Mararian Emperor, promising his support in the endeavor. The crusader army then landed in Assyria and proceeded across the Assyrian Mountains, being harried by Truite armies and raiding parties during their trip. In June, they reached Athlere and met with Queen Messalina, Josephus II, and the Archbishop of Herkiorim. The Holy Mararian Emperor, the Queen of Jatheria, and the King of Chilsia agreed to attack Theoranscius, which was, ironically, the only friendly Truite state in the region. The three monarchs foolishly believed that Theoranscius would reinforce their position. The siege of the city, conducted during the summer of 1852, proved to be a complete failure and the crusader army was repulsed with heavy losses. Theoranscius then submitted to Zeno's son and successor, Balbinus, who had consolidated his rule of Aganian, Hugill, Yurthria, Assyria, and the trans-Catilina. By 1850, both Emperor Pausanius and King Antigonus had returned to Haustia, and the Second Crusade of Almitism had failed.

The failure of the Second Crusade was followed by civil war in Jatheria, as Josephus II, who was now of age, blamed his mother for the failure of the offensives and sought to assert his rightful position as King of Jatheria. For three years, the armies of son and mother waged vigorous war against each other, devastating the countryside, weakening the kingdom's defenses, and damaging the Jatherian economy. In 1847, Josephus II finally gained possession of Herkiorim and asserted himself as sole King of Jatheria. He forced his mother to abdicate as Queen Mother and to resign from political affairs. The following year, however, Josephus, in need of sound political advice, recalled his mother from exile and appointed her as his chief minister and guardian of his resources. Messalina, although she was no longer as powerful as in the past, held some political influence and retained her new position until her death in 1840. Josephus established a alliance with Manuel of Neo-Brethalia, subdued Joria in 1845-44, and launched repeated invasions of Letousia, inflicting severe damage on the Fantasian positions. Fantasia itself was ravaged by the rule of several successive teenage Grand Masters, who were incompetent and did not have the abilities necessary to maintain the Fantasian state. Josephus also remained opposed to Balbinus, who continued to harry Hereppo and waged constant war against Jatheria, Neo-Brethalia, and his Truite rivals in Gedrosia. Josephus died in 1838, and having no children, was succeeded by his cousin, who became Livy III of Jatheria. Livy intervened into the domestic troubles of the Fantasian Dynasty and began to support the rise of one Demetrius, who eventually deposed and executed the last Fantasian ruler of Letousia, Demtraus, in 1831, establishing the Demethatid Dynasty. Demetrius took the title of Master-King of Letousia, indicating a union of the Grand Mastership of Fantasia with the royal position of Letousia.

With information having been provided on what has transpired with the Almitian Crusader States, we may now turn attention to what has transpired in Darsis. Narses died suddenly from plague in 1898, and was succeeded to the throne of Darsis by his eldest son Philip Arriadeus (1898-1865). Philip Arriadeus proved to be a powerful and effective ruler. Determined to maintain the authority of the monarch, he instigated a extensive reformation of the Darsian legal system. The kingdom was divided into judicial circuits, each with a system of King's courts and courts of arbitration, finances, and appeals. The King codified his legal systems in the charters of 1896, 1893, and 1889, which formed the core of the common law system of Darsis. Philip Arriadeus constantly proclaimed that he was the "disciple of the laws and customs of my ancestors" and he enforced the legal rights of the Darsian kings, issuing the Charter of the King's Rights in 1890. Philip Arriadeus also sought to strengthen and expand the financial system of the government. To this end, he intensified taxation, reformed the currency, and established a uniform Treasury in order to collect taxes, tabulate the King's revenues, and maintain accounts of government expenses. Philip Arriadeus ordered the compilation of the Survey of Noble Estates in 1881, in order to apportion among his nobles the appropriate levels of tax rates, dues, and customs rights. Philip Arriadeus also reorganized the kingdom's parishes, making tax collection more effective by extending the enumeration jurisdiction of his officials to the villages, the rural regions, and the estates of the commoners. With more tax revenue in his hands, the King was able to expand the army, and he constructed castles, military fortresses, and defenses throughout his Kingdom in order to quell local uprisings and maintain local defense. Embarking on vigorous campaigns, Philip Arriadeus conquered the majority of eastern and central Mathies (1876-72), establishing a series of baronies and marsh lordships in order to subsume the Mathianians of those regions into his kingdom. He also waged wars against Hisland, acquiring parts of Mathianian Channelia. The last years of the reign of Philip Arriadeus were dominated by his struggle to have his daughter, Pulceria, confirmed as his successor by his nobles. Philip Arriadeus's sons had all drowned in a major accident in the Mathianian Channel in 1880. Only Pulceria was left of his children, but no woman had ever ruled Darsis before, and the idea was not appeasing to the nobles, who despised "the dominion of women". In order to make Pulceria more of a acceptable choice, he had her marry Duke Geraldus of Arghties, in Chilsia, in 1868. In 1867, Pulceria and Geraldus were proclaimed his joint heirs. That year, their son, also named Philip Arriadeus, in honor of his grandfather, was born.

In December 1865, Philip Arriadeus I of Darsis died. His nobles, rejecting their oaths, elevated the King's nephew, Julius (1865-1846), to the throne of Darsis. Pulcheria, still in Arghties with her husband, then determined to assert her rights to the Darsian throne and launched a major invasion of Darsis in 1863. For the next seventeen years, a vigorous civil war was waged, with much of Darsis being devastated in the conflicts. In 1858, Julius was briefly deposed from the throne of Darsis and Pulcheria assumed control of Uris, but she was soon driven out by the Darsian nobles. A stalemate eventually ensued, and although each side briefly took control of Uris at times, neither could gain the advantage. Geraldus, who stayed out of the conflict, consolidated his position in Chilsia and strengthened his authority by seizing Northria, driving the great-grandson of Devraldus, Anthony, into exile in 1856. In 1848, Geraldus crowned his son, the younger Philip Arriadeus, his successor as Duke of Northria and Arghties, and bid him to secure the throne of Darsis. He died shortly thereafter, and Philip Arriadeus took over the struggle from his mother, who retired to a monastery in Argorica in defeat. In 1847, he finally defeated Julius and forced the King of Darsis to acknowledge him as his heir and successor. In January of the following year, he married Hodernia of Galdornia, who had divorced King Antigonus of Chilsia in 1849. In October, Julius died and Philip Arriadeus became King of Darsis (1846-1811). During his 35-year reign, Philip Arriadeus greatly increased the power of Darsis. In 1843, Argorica was invaded and annexed to his continental dominions, and by 1840, all of the territories of Chilsia west of the Duchy of Constantinople were subject to the rule or the overlordship of King Philip. Philip Arriadeus engaged in a vigorous dispute with the Archbishop of Umarina, Thomasius (1836-1830), throughout the 1830s, but ultimately managed to secure a legal declaration in 1230 that the rights of the King to protect himself against the Church were vital to the security of the state. Philip Arriadeus restored his kingdom's prosperity from the ravages of war, instigating a reformation of the currency and a vast expansion of the Treasury. With this, he engaged in further military campaigns in the Mathianian Isles. In 1842-40, the districts of western Mathies were subdued and reduced to vassalage. In 1828, Darsis invaded Richland, which had since the destruction of the Tardone Kingdom of Richland in 1986 had fallen into anarchy, having divided into numerous competing states. By 1825, most of eastern Richland had been subdued and occupied by the Darsians. From 1827-26, however, and again from 1823-20, the King faced the uprising of his eldest son, Philip Solarius, who wished to become co-ruler of the kingdom. These rebellions were crushed, but the King's position had been weakened.

After Antigonus of Chilsia died in 1820, he was succeeded by his far more energetic and vigorous son Philip Augustus (1820-1777), who was determined to expand Chilsian territories and restore the authority of the Duchy of Constantinople. Formally, Galdornia, Argorica, and Northria, although under the rule of Philip Arriadeus, were still dependencies of the Chilsian King, and in 1818, Philip Augustus demanded that Philip Arriadeus pay him homage as his overlord. Philip Arriadeus refused, and Philip Augustus responded by invading Northria in 1817, attacking the strongholds of Rotuhalid, Casons, and Londinium. His campaigns proved relatively successful, and in 1816, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed by the two monarchs, by which Philip Arriadeus agreed to pay homage for his territories in Chilsia. Philip Arriadeus simmered under these conditions, however, and in 1813, he launched a renewed war against Philip Augustus. His son Claudius, however, who had become governor of Galdornia in his father's name in 1814, revolted and joined with Philip Augustus, paying homage to him in January 1812. Philip Arriadeus was defeated at Maldor in April 1811, and by the Treaty of Maldor, was forced to recognize Claudius as his heir, to pay homage to Philip Augustus, to demobilize his army, and to pay tribute. On 6 or 7 July 1811, Philip Arriadeus, having become depressed as a result of his defeat, died, and Claudius became King of Darsis and Lord of Darsian Lands in Chilsia and Richland (1811-1801). Claudius was determined to renew the Almitian advance, and indeed, to preserve the Almitian position in the East, for disastrous events in the Crusader States had taken place. In 1826, Livy III of Jatheria died, and was succeeded by his son, who became Livy IV (1826-1815). Livy IV had to contend with the astounding rise in strength of Demetrius, who between 1828 and 1815 conquered all of the Truite states of Yurthria, Aganian, Hugill, Akkadia, Sophomora, Mesia, Assyria, and the trans-Catilina. By the time he died in 1815, Jatheria, Hereppo, and Tranath held on to dear life against the Truite revival. He was succeeded briefly by his nine-year old nephew, Livy V, who died in 1814 after only a year on the throne. His mother, Anastasia, became Queen of Jatheria (1814-1810). With a woman on the Jatherian throne, Demetrius of Letousia witnessed his opportunity. In 1813, he launched a major invasion of the kingdom and destroyed the Jatherian army in the Horns of Melania. By October, he was besieging Herkorim. The Jatherian capital held out for two months, with Anastasia herself leading the defense. In December, however, the Truite forces finally breached the walls of the city, and after having been held by Almitians for 88 years, Herkorim was again in Truite hands. All Almitians in the city were slaughtered, while the Cathederal of the Great Paul again became the Truite Great Temple. The fall of Herkorim caused a wave of terror and dismay throughout Haustia, with the efforts of the Almitian Crusaders having been undone. Over the next three years, all of Jatheria except Tranath, Hereppo, Athlere, Berath, and Sorthria, was conquered by Demetrius. Queen Anastasia was allowed by the Master-King to retreat to Athlere, where she died in 1810. Pope Gregory the Venerable, who ruled for most of 1813, issued a papal bull weeks before his death calling on the Holy Mararian Emperor, by then Varus (1848-1810), King Philip Augustus of Chilsia, and King Philip Arriadeus of Darsis to lead a new crusade in order to recapture Herkorim from the Heretic.

In May 1810, the three monarchs, at the head of a army of over a million crusaders, departed from their base in the southern borderlands of Barshoria, and proceeded across Barlavia, Neo-Brethalia, and again into Doria, using largely the same route taken by the First Crusade over ninety years earlier. On 10 June 1810, however, Emperor Varus drowned in the River Halys while leading his army in a crossing of the river, and his son and successor, Gothicus (1810-1803), decided to withdraw with his units back to Wallachia, so that he could consolidate his position as King and Emperor and maintain his father's conquest of Balay and Kalabria. The withdrawal of the Wallachians from the Crusade severely weakened the Crusader Army, but Philip Augustus and Claudius (who had of course succeeded his father before the departure of the crusade forces) decided to proceed forth with their objectives. Claudius in fact, recaptured Karniya from the Truites in July 1810 and proclaimed himself King of Karniya, a action, which however, irritated his ally, who believed that Claudius had taken a unfair advantage. Tensions flared between the two allies, who bickered with each other over military strategies. Nevertheless, upon arriving in Jatheria, Claudius secured the coastal ports and gained many victories against Demetrius, earning the respect of his rival. Although the Master-King of Letousia and the King of Darsis never met, the two monarchs respected and honored each other, even while remaining enemies. By the spring of 1809, Philip Augustus' relationship with Claudius had reached a low point, and the Chilsian King now departed from Jatheria, a blow to the allied coalition. Claudius was now forced to acknowledge that he could never recapture Herkorim. After another year of raids and operations against Truite forces, he signed the Treaty of Arthuria with Demetrius in September 1808, by which the Kingdom of Jatheria retained control of the coastal regions. Claudius also gained the right for Almitian pilgrims and merchants to travel to Herkorim, as long as they were unarmed and respected Truite customs.

Claudius now started to travel back to Darsis, but was captured by Duke Leonidas of Heloria in December of that year. Claudius' mother, Queen Hodernia, was forced to raise a immense ransom in order to have her son freed by Emperor Gothicus. Claudius finally returned to Darsis in 1806. He spent the remainder of his reign engaged in military conflict with Philip Augustus and with his nobles in Galdornia, Septimania, and the Galdornes Marshes. Upon his death in 1801, he was succeeded by his younger brother John (1801-1784). John proved to be a weak and ineffective ruler. Philip Augustus invaded the Darsian territories of Chilsia in 1799. By 1796, all of Northria, Argorica, Septimania, Arghties, Banjou, and most of Galdornia had been overrun by his forces, and the power of Darsis was severely weakened. John faced trouble with his nobles and with the formidable Pope Innocent III (1802-1784), who excommunicated the Darsian King in 1791. In 1786, John was forced to sign the Great Charter, by which he recognized that the king was not above the law and that the nobles possessed the right to defend their honor. The King was forbidden to arrest any man, confiscate any property, impose any unfair tax, or pass any new law without the approval of the nobles and clergy as expressed through a great council of state. John however, violated these terms, and he was assassinated in 1784. His son Antigonus (1784-1728), was only six years old when his father died, and as such, the state was controlled by regents. In 1783, Darsis was invaded by Philip Augustus's son, Antigonus, who was invited by the nobles to take the Darsian throne. Antigonus conquered most of West Emmerina, Collsett, South Dorsit, and Kathnysex, but his attempts to cross the Games River were defeated by the Great Marshal of Darsis, Pontus of Harcourt, who led a major resistance against the Chilsian invaders. In 1777, upon the death of Philip Augustus, Antigonus became King of Chilsia. In order to consolidate his position, he withdrew to the continent, and in 1776, Southern Darsis was finally reconquered by Pontus, who had Antigonus of Darsis formally crowned in Umarina that year.

In the meantime, further events to the East had been taking place. Most Haustians were not satisfied with Claudius's gains in Jatheria, believing that he should have made a effort to recapture Herkorim. As such, Pope Innocent III, upon ascending to the Papacy in 1802, immediately instigated plans for a new crusade. In 1801, he issued a papal declaration which stated that "the recapture of Herkorim is important to the safety and blessed security of all Almitians here on Laurasia". In October 1798, the Crusader army, primarily comprised of units from Chilsia, Wallachia, Vanathia, northern Mararia, and Barshoria, set out on their journey. It must be noted that by then northern Mararia, although still under the formal authority of the Holy Mararian Empire, had disintegrated into more or less independent city-states. Originally, the Crusaders were to land in Letousia. Circumstances however, diverted their attention to Neo-Brethalia. Since 1805, that declining Empire had been ruled by Alexius III (1805-1797). Alexius III was not a strong ruler, and he faced a challenge to his authority from Alexius IV, the son of his successor, the deposed Issac II. Alexius IV offered to provide military supplies to the Crusaders and to pay them a immense tribute if they would help him depose his usurping uncle. The Crusaders were persuaded thus to change their course, and in June 1797, they appeared before the harbor of Elana, demanding that Alexius III step down in favor of his nephew. Alexius III attempted to bribe the crusaders, but his efforts failed. In July, the city's defenses were breached, and Elana was overrun by the Crusader Army. Alexius III, taking refuge in a church, was brought out and beheaded by crusader knights. Alexius IV, who had established his base in Josia, arrived in Elana in August and was proclaimed Emperor of Neo-Brethalia by the Crusader Army. His reign however, lasted only until January of the following year. The crusaders, angry that Alexius had not paid them what he had promised, assassinated the Emperor and destroyed much of Elana, taking thousands of Elanans as captives. They installed Alexius V on the throne of Neo-Brethalia. He ruled for only four months, however. In April, the Crusader Army, lured by the prospect of the partition of the Neo-Brethalian Empire, launched a renewed siege of Elana. Alexius V, alarmed by the intentions of the crusaders, had organized a army and signed a alliance with King Oepdius of Barlavia. His efforts were in vain however, for the Neo-Brethalians were in no position to resist the invaders. On April 16, 1796 BH, the city of Elana was besieged and sacked by the Crusaders for the third time. This time, however, they inflicted far more damage on the city. The valuable Library of Elana was pillaged, leading to the loss of texts on the Akkadians, Susanians, Assyrians, Harappans, and other early ancient civilizations. The city's inhabitants were deported, enslaved, or slaughtered, and the capital of the Neo-Brethalian Empire was left in ruins. Not even churches and the holy treasuries were safe from the Crusaders. Alexius V managed to flee to the Hellespont, but he died there in December 1795, being slain by agents sent by the Crusaders.

After the sack of Elana, the core of the Neo-Brethalian Empire were partitioned amongst the Crusaders. The Treaty of Rembium, signed in October 1796, disposed of Neo-Brethalian territories according to arrangements which the Crusader Army had already drafted at Vanathia. Josia and the Islands of Western Grinae went to the Republic of Vanathia, which had participated in the Siege of Elana. The Neo-Brethalian territories in eastern Grinae, the Hellespont, and northern Doria, as far south as Sardis and to the coast of the Euxine Sea, came into the possession of the Crusader Empire of Giorgia, which was to also wield suzerainty over the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Principality of Achaea, the Duchy of Gentz, the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the lordships of Nicaea, Philadelphia, and Sardis. However, not all of the Neo-Brethalian Empire fell under the rule of the Crusaders, for rival states at Gordium, Illyria, and Trebizond, which were determined to recover Elana and expel the Crusaders from Neo-Brethalian territories, were established. Odysseus, Emperor of Giorgia (1794-1784) waged wars against Gordium, conquering Bithynia and parts of Eastern Doria by 1793 and forcing Theodore of Nicaea, the first Emperor of that successor-state, established on Gordium's territory and that of the lordship of Nicaea, to recognize his gains. In 1790, however, Theodore resumed war against Giorgia, determined to capture Sardis. His forces, however, were halted in the Battle of Magnesia, and in 1786, the further Treaty of Polyether recognized the territories of the Gigorian Empire. In 1784, Odysseus died while on campaign against Illyria, which threatened the Giorgian vassals in Grinae, the Hellespont, and Brethalia. Three years of civil war ensued before in 1781, his nephew Croesus (1781-1772) was acknowledged as Emperor of Giorgia. Croesus was dominated by his officials during his reign, and Illyria, under her vigorous Prince Theodosius (1785-1770), conquered Thessalonica in 1776 and then the Hellespont in 1775-74. Soon, Illyrian armies penetrated into the Acolonian Islands and threatened Elana. In 1772, however, the year Croesus died, the Illyrian naval transport armada was destroyed in a storm off Chios, and the Giorgian Empire was saved. Philadelphia however, had been seized by Nicaea by this time. Croesus was succeeded by Minos (1772-1763), whose reign was dominated by constant conflict with Epirus, Nicaea, and Trebizond, who constantly threatened the Empire's security.

While the Crusader States of Neo-Brethalia were thus bickering amongst themselves, further events took place in Jatheria. In 1785, Pope Innocent III summoned the Council of Latheria, and at this assembly, he commissioned the Fifth Almitian Crusade, determined to resume his earlier objectives and recover Jatheria from the Heretics. After his death in 1784, his successor Honorius III (1784-1773) issued a papal bull formally authorizing the expedition and ordered for King Andrew of Barshoria (1795-1765); Emperor Varus II of the Holy Mararian Empire (1788-1750); and King Philip Augustus of Chilsia to either participate or send forces to be part of the Crusader Army. Soon, conscripts and recruits were raised in Chilsia, Wallachia, Anthoria, Barshoria, Polosia, Mararia, the Papal Exarchate, and Almitian Inoria. In the summer of 1783, the Crusader Army, commanded by Varus II and Andrew, arrived in Karniya and soon descended in Jatheria, launching a assault on Herkorim from Althere and Hereppo. The assault, however, proved a humiliating failure, as many Crusader knights were slain by Truite warriors. The following year, however, they formed a alliance with the Serjanian Mastership of Catilina, which launched a offensive against Letousian territories in Hugill and Aganian. The Crusaders hoped that this distraction would allow them to advance more effectively. In July 1781, the city of Dalthia, a major port in Letousia, was conquered by the Crusaders, a major victory for them. The Crusader Army consolidated this gain and now prepared for further advances in Letousia, to outflank Truite forces in Joria, Jatheria, and Akkadia. In April 1778, they launched a major offensive on Marsielles, the Truite capital city of Letousia. Their offensive was defeated by Master-King Sophocoles of Letousia (1782-1762). Sophocoles eventually signed the Truce of Dalthia with Varus II in July 1778, by which a eight-year truce was arranged. Herkorim remained in Truite possession, but Dalthia was to be retained by the Crusaders until the conclusion of final arrangements or the resumption of war. In 1772, however, war again broke out, as Varus II returned with his forces, occupying Karniya and descending in force on the coast of Joria. Sophocoles, whose army had been severely weakened by internal disputes and economic strife, offered little effective resistance, and in January 1771, Herkorim was recaptured by the Almitians for the second time. In May 1771, the Treaty of Herkorim was signed, by which Varus became King of Jatheria and received recognition of his rule of Herkorim, although the Truites were allowed to profess their religion in Jatheria without hindrance. This arrangement held for the next fifteen years. Eventually however, in 1756, the Truites terminated the Treaty of Herkorim. Varus, who had returned to distant Wallachia, was unable to halt their advance from his location, and by September of that year, Herkorim was again in Truite hands. Varus however, continued to claim the title "King of Jatheria" until his death.

In 1763, Minos was assassinated, and his successor Livy (1763-1739), inherited the title to a weakened and pitiful Empire. Just over thirty years after the Almitian Crusaders had captured Elana and dismembered the Neo-Brethalian Empire, Neo-Brethalian Nicaea was reunifying the territories of the Empire. Nicaea's Emperor John III (1779-1746), indeed was a strong and effective ruler who was determined to expel the Crusaders and recapture Elana. By 1755, all the territories of Giorgia southeast of the Hellespont had been reconquered, and Gigorian financial revenues had declined considerably. Nicaean fleets harassed the Acolonian Islands and posed a constant threat to Achaea, Gentz, and the Duchy of the Islands, the final remaining vassals of the Giorgian Empire. Soon, Nicaean forces crossed into Gentz itself, and by 1753, Elana had been effectively surrounded, with only the city's strong walls preventing the Nicaeans from recapturing the Neo-Brethalian capital. In 1746, John III died and was succeeded by his son Michael VIII (1746-1718), who concluded the destruction of the Giorgian Empire. On 25 July 1739, fifty-seven years after the city had been captured and sacked by the Crusaders, the Nicaeans destroyed the Crusader Empire of Giorgia and reclaimed Elana for Nicaea. Michael VIII proclaimed the restoration of the Neo-Brethalian Empire and moved his capital city back to Elana. Livy attempted to flee the fall of his capital city, but was intercepted and captured by Nicaean soldiers, and was brought before the Emperor, who had him executed on either 31 July or 1 August, if the chronicles of the time can be trusted. Neo-Brethalia, however, was never to recover from the sack of Elana and the Fourth Crusade, and the Empire was to collapse completely within the next two centuries.

In 1774, upon the death of Antigonus of Chilsia, he was succeeded by his twelve-year old son, also named Antigonus, who became known as the Saint (1774-1730). Antigonus was known for his pious nature, his loyalty and generosity to the Almitian Church, and his determination to save Jatheria from the Heretics. For the first six years of his reign, however, Chilsia was governed by his mother, Queen Dowager Demetria, who proved herself to be of a wise and strong character. Demetria maintained positive relations with Darsis, which remained under the domination of Pontus of Harcourt, whose influence over the kingdom was considerable and stayed so until his death in 1770. After Antigonus assumed absolute authority in 1768 upon attaining his majority, more attention was paid to the matter of Jatheria. The King expressed his wish and his hope that the Lord Almitis would bless him and his followers with victory against the Heretics and that they would thus be able to liberate Jatheria from the Truite yoke. Thus, he greeted the fall of Herkorim to the Truites in 1756 with the utmost horror. In 1752, Antigonus suggested to the Pope, Innocent IV (1757-1746), that he lead a new crusade against the Truites in Letousia. The Pope granted his permission and in November 1752, issued a papal bull which gave the Chilsian King the Papal blessing and permission to raise crusader, Mother of Almitis, and army of Almitis taxes. Antigonus immediately exploited his papal mandate, and he ruthlessly exploited his subjects for revenues in order to finance his crusading army. Antigonus recruited mercenaries from Anthoria, Tardork, Targay, Darsis, Richland, Hisland, Inoria, Mararia, Barlavia, the Lycian Principalities, and other territories in order to supplement his army. He intensified conscription in his own kingdom and mandated that every noble had to provide peasants to the King's levy. Finally, in 1751, the King and his army departed from Jarbonne for Letousia. Landing in Letousia in the spring of 1750, the King and his army at first gained some successes, ravaging the Danite Delta and briefly conquering most of Paujaica. Soon however, the tide turned against them, and in January or February 1749, they suffered a disastrous defeat in the Battle of Riata. On 25 March, another defeat took place in the Battle of Patha, and the entire Crusader army was annihilated in the field of battle. The King attempted to flee, but was captured by Truite forces and taken to Marsielles, being held hostage. The news of his capture sent Haustia into a wave of terror. It was not until January 1748 that the Chilsian government and the King's mother, Queen Demetria, managed to raise his ransom money. Antigonus returned to Althere, which was still in the possession of the Almitian forces. He remained there until November, when the death of his mother from breast cancer convinced him that his presence in Jatheria had no further purpose. Nevertheless, in 1747, he attempted to launch further campaigns in Truite Jatheria, but his paltry forces, primarily consisting of the garrisons of the coastal towns, were repulsed by the Truites with little difficulty. In 1746, Antigonus finally set sail for Chilsia, and the Seventh Crusade had thus ended with utter defeat for the Almitians.

Antigonus spent the next fifteen years engaged in efforts to strengthen the royal bureaucracy, expand the economy, maintain the authority of the Crown, and recover from his humiliating losses in Letousia and Jatheria. Darsis was dominated by civil turmoil and political unrest during these eventful decades. In the 1740s, Antigonus of Darsis was faced with the threat of the nobleman Laudratus of Verona, who had served in the armies of Chilsia, Darsis, Hisland, and Targay. Laudratus firmly believed that the nobles needed to be protected against the King and that their rights should be insured. Antigonus, on the other hand, wished to maintain the authority of the Crown and to keep the nobles in check. He was raised by his advisers in the belief that the monarch was the absolute lord of all on the surface of Laurasia within his boundaries, and that none in his kingdom should challenge his authority. This belief was ultimately, in the 2nd millennium AH, to be adopted by the Laurasian monarchs of the Third Laurasian and Imperial Periods, although in expanded and modified form, as the basis for their autocratic authority over the Laurasian state and government. In Darsis however, the nobles and prominent magnates disagreed with their King's belief. After a series of uprisings and urban riots, the King was forced to ratify the Provisions of Cathium in 1742, by which the rights of the nobles were confirmed and a Great Council was given authority over legislation, taxes, and legal disputes. The King was no longer authorized to act without the approval of the Council as expressed by Law. Antigonus simmered under these conditions, and in 1738, he secured a papal bull which absolved him from his obligations and stated that "his authority is absolute, as ordained by Almitis". The nobles, led by Laudratus, began to mobilize their forces, while the King did the same, hiring mercenaries from Argorica, Northria, Galdornia, Inoria, and Mararia to assist him in his efforts to assert his authority. In 1737, civil war erupted in the kingdom. Laudratus and his forces advanced rapidly, conquering most of West Emmerina, South Dorsit, and Collsett by the winter of that year. On 18 May 1736, Antigonus of Darsis was defeated and taken a prisoner by his nobles in the Battle of Olios. Laudratus now convened the first modern parliamentary assembly in Laurasian history, comprised of representatives from not only the nobility and clergy, but also from the burghers, the peasants, the landowners, and the knights. In a series of legal decrees, issued in 1736-35, the authority of the Darsian Parliament was defined and the King's powers were limited. Antigonus himself was forced to affix his seal to these orders. His son Altherius, however, had managed to escape capture in the Battle of Olios, and he now traveled to Mathies, raising a army in order to free his father from captivity and defeat Laudratus. On 17 May 1735, in the Battle of Geror, the Darsian Prince gained a major victory and crushed the forces of the upstart noble and his followers. As a result, King Antigonus was restored to his freedom, the terms of the Decrees of Uris were declared invalid, and Laudratus was declared a outlaw. He was eventually captured and executed in September 1735. For the remainder of Antigonus's reign, there was no further challenge to his authority. Prince Altherius gained much fame for his victories and served as his father's chief minister for the remainder of the reign.

Antigonus the Saint of Chilsia, in the meantime, became determined to launch another expedition against the Truites, determined to recover from his defeats in the Seventh Crusade and to pursue the Almitian goal of maintaining Jatheria, recapturing Herkorim, and containing Letousia. By then, major changes had taken place in northern Explosansis, Cellini, and in Eastern Haustia. For many years, the Master-Kings of Letousia had relied upon their slave soldiers, known as Letousian janissaries, for the core of their military forces. Letousian janissaries consisted of slaves who had enrolled in the military service and served their masters in such a capacity. Over time, however, the janissaries had increased in status and prestige, until their legal condition was rendered to be that they were superior to all free soldiers of the military and that the Prophet Matthew had blessed them to be his enforcers on Laurasia. One janissary officer, Simonides, in particular gained status and prestige with his forces, and the respect of his masters. He served in the campaigns against Antigonus of Chilsia during the Seventh Crusade, assisted in the suppression of uprisings in Mixing, Hottentia, and the Horn of Explosansis, and was responsible for the reinforcement of garrisons across Northern Explosansis. By 1750, his ambitions had widened, and with the encouragement of his officers and subordinates, Simonides led a uprising against the last ruler of the dynasty of Demetrius, Ajax (1751-1750). He quickly seized the Palace of the Master-King and executed his master, who offered no resistance to his forces. Simonides proclaimed himself King of Letousia and Grand Master of the Janissary Order, establishing the Janissary Dynasty of Letousia. Ruling until his death in 1743, Simonides consolidated the Janissary Dynasty and enforced his rule over all the territories of Demetrian Letousia. Simonides' successor, Heredotus (1743-1741), faced domestic challenges, however, and was assassinated after only two years on the throne. Heredotus' assassin and successor, the janissary officer Craterus (1741-1740), was poisoned by his chamberlain and chief janissary, the longer-lived Cicero (1740-1723). Cicero was to have to deal with a new and severe threat to the security of the Janissary Dynasty.

To the east of Gedrosia and Mesia, in 1810, the Empire of Kathagania had been established by Agamemnon (1810-1800), who defeated and killed the last Subordinate Master of the Serjanian Empire, Solon, in 1806 and cemented the rule of his Truite dynasty over Thathia, Lugilla, Yusana, parts of Gasheria, Centralita, Western Krayia, Tatiana, and the territories to the juncture of the Chandragupta Pass. In eastern Centralita and the outskirts of Western Oceania, a series of Truite tribal confederations and states, in particular the Karian Confederacy and the Helio Mastership, had emerged. In Krayia and Cirhon, in the meantime, the Xthanian and Nerstralsian Dynasties had consolidated during the 19th and 18th centuries BH, finally returning organized rule to those regions, which had remained in anarchy since the 25th and 24th centuries BH. In Eastern Oceania, the Australasian tribes of the region were organized and unified, however, by the lord of Lake Rana, Tisamenos, who proclaimed himself Great King of Oceania in 1794. Tisamenos then embarked on a series of major campaigns against the Xthanians, Nerstralasians, Cirhonese, Karians, Helioans, and the Kathaganians. By the time of his death in 1773, the massive Oceanian Empire, the largest empire to appear on the surface of Laurasia since the time of the Brethalian Empire, had been constituted. It extended from the Thathian Sea to the Eastern Ocean. Under his successors, his son Olybrius (1774-1758) and then in turn, his grandsons Labotas (1754-1752) and Archelaus (1748-1741), the Oceanian Empire extended its rule to the remainder of Cirhon, the Northern Islands of the Eastern Ocean, northern Falloria, and into Lycia, the trans-Tethornes, Mesia, Gedrosia, Fleshiu, and briefly, into Barshoria and Polosia. The Lycian principalities became vassals of the Oceanian Empire, while Polosia and Barshoria were ravaged in 1760-58 and forced to pay tribute. It was only the sudden death of Olybrius that had spared the remainder of the Haustian continent from attack. In 1742, the last Abratian Grand Master of Soriana, Dion (1757-1742), had been executed and Soriana itself was completely destroyed by the Oceanian forces. Soon, the Janissary Dynasty would have to face the threat of the Oceanians. In 1740, the very year that Cicero became King and Grand Master of Letousia, the Oceanian forces of Mesia launched a major invasion of Hugill, Aganian, Gadravia, Joria, and Jatheria. They conquered Theoranscius and Herkorim, harried Assyria, subdued most of Hugill, and launched major raids into Akkadia, Sophomora, and the Jibines Peninsula. In September or October, Cicero encountered the Oceanian hordes in the Battle of Jashuf, and employing the superior Letousian knowledge of the landscape, as well as the relative weakness in infantry of the Oceanians, the King-Master handed them a decisive defeat. The Oceanians were forced to retreat back to Gedrosia, and never again did they threaten seriously the Janissary Dynasty.

For the next decade after the defeat and retreat of the Oceanian army, Cicero had been distracted by internal concerns and disturbances within his dominions. One of his officers, Suetonius, a fellow janissary who had once served alongside the King-Master in the ranks, formulated a conspiracy to depose his former friend and comrade-at-arms. The Suetonian Uprising of 1739-37 disturbed the state and resulted, it is said, in the deaths of some 100,000 people. Most of Upper Letousia, Mixing, and the Horn of Explosansis were briefly seized by the rebel and his forces, who thus posed a serious threat to the safety and security of the Janissary Dynasty. In December 1737, however, Suetonius was betrayed by his own lieutenants, who strangled him to death. They then fought amongst themselves for control of the rebel movement. This allowed Cicero to regain the advantage, and by the spring of 1736, Letousia was again under his control. Then two calamities, one after the other, engulfed the state and weakened the stability of the Letousian economy and society. In 1735, the first recorded outburst of bubonic plague in Laurasian history, believed to have been transmitted by rats on commerce ships traveling from South Explosansis and Falloria, occurred in Letousia. Marsielles was ravaged by the plague, which struck down 50,000 in the city's districts within the span of a week. Nearly half of Letousia's population, estimated to have been about fifteen million at the time, was struck down by the plague. Only the onset of cold weather halted the progress of the plague and prevented it from crossing over into Haustia, although it was to eventually reach that continent. On 9-12 May 1734, however, a devastating fire swept through the Letousian capital city, destroying nearly 40% of the city's structures and killing a further 40,000 people. Cicero's position was weakened by these disasters, and economic dislocation ensued in parts of the country.

It was this situation that Antigonus the Saint sought to take advantage of. Believing that the disasters which befell the Janissary Dynasty were "the work of Almitis", and that Providence now called upon him to complete his mission, the King announced his intention in September 1731 to instigate a Eighth Crusade against Letousia, its goals being to land in North Exlosansis, destroy the Janissary Dynasty, and secure the final liberation of Herkorim, Joria, and Jatheria from the heretics. Antigonus began to assemble his military forces, issuing a decree in January 1730 calling upon all of the Chilsian nobles, magnates, and merchants, to supply military equipment to his army, to collect taxes from their estates and businesses in order to finance his ventures, and to "support the work of His Majesty" by praying for his wellbeing and the wellbeing of the expedition in all the churches of the Land. On 2 February, Pope Gregory the Blessed (1730-1724) issued a papal bull which confirmed the grant of Crusading, Mother of Almitis, and injunction taxes to the King of Chilsia and blessed his mission. Antigonus took all the benefits which he could acquire from this bull, ruthlessly exploiting the commoners of the kingdom and extracting the dues as he was entitled to by the Papacy.

Finally, in June 1730, the King of Chilsia, with a army of nearly 700,000 crusaders and a fleet of 500 galleys, 200 sloops, and 100 war-boats, departed from Jarbonne and sailed across the Great Haustian Sea. His force was joined at Jurcuse by mercenaries and units from Vanathia, the Kingdom of Balay, Inoria, the Holy Mararian Empire, Barshoria, and the remnants of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. All total, he had 800,000 crusaders and a fleet of nearly 1,200 warships of all kinds. This crusade was better organized, better provisioned, and more effectively commanded then the first undertaken by the Chilsian King. After a perilous journey, the result of Truite piracy and espionage raids, the Crusaders reached the city of Yunis, located near the old city of Marthage, which had by this time fallen into ruins. They scored victories against the Truite coastal garrisons, occupied Yunis on 29 July 1730, and then encamped in the remains of Marthage. King Antigonus however, had been struck with a bout of dysentery, which festered in the northern deserts of Explosansis. His life was despaired of by his doctors, and on 25 August 1730, the King died.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part X: From the Death of Antigonus the Saint to the Rise of the Osrianian EmpireEdit

News of the death of Antigonus the Saint did not reach Chilsia, Mararia, and Inoria until 2 September 1730, according to contemporary chronicles, primarily because of the slow transportation and inadequacy of the communications system at that time. On 3 September, his son Philip III (1730- 1715) was proclaimed King of Chilsia. Philip III was not as ambitious as his father, and he realized that the Crusades against the Janissary Dynasty would have little benefit for Chilsia directly. His subjects were constantly complaining about the heavy taxation which was levied upon them in order to finance the Crusade. As such, he sent orders to the army in North Explosansis, calling for a truce with the Janissaries. The Janissaries launched a attack on the military camp of Marthage, but were unable to dislodge the forces of the Chilsian Crusaders. As such, they signed a truce with the Crusaders in October. Months of arduous negotiations followed with the Janissaries, and the Treaty of Marthage was not signed until Almitist Day (December 25) 1730. By the terms of this treaty, Chilsia was allowed to retain its footholds on the Northern Explosansian coast, in exchange for the payment of a subsidy to the Janissary King-Master. Herkorim remained in Truite possession, but the right for Almitian pilgrims and merchants to travel to the Holy City of Paul was confirmed. After the signing of this Treaty, Chilsia engaged no more in ventures to the East. Philip III spent the remainder of his reign consolidating the royal dominions, although he was compelled to acknowledge the reoccupation of Galdornia and Septimania by King Antigonus of Darsis in 1729. He did however, enter into war with Peter III of Beneventhia (1724-1715), who in 1718 invaded and conquered Balay, which had been ravaged by the Jurcuse Uprisings of that year. In 1716, Peter was excommunicated by the Pope, and with the Papal blessing, Philip III crossed the Galdornes Mountains in April of the following year. His attempts to seize Jurcuse failed however, and on 29 September, the King was struck down by malaria. The Chilsian army retreated from Beneventhia. In November, Peter III himself died, but the new Chilsian King, Philip IV (1715-1686), signed a peace treaty with Beneventhia in the spring of 1714. Philip grew disinterested in the Chilsian footholds of North Explosansis, as they imposed a severe burden on his treasury. To the condemnation of the Pope and his fellow monarchs, the King returned the territories to the Janissary Dynasty in 1710. In return, the Janissaries insured freedom of navigation on the shores of Explosansis, compensated the King for the territories, and granted his representatives special privileges, including the right to administer Almitian properties in Herkorim.

In the meantime, Prince Altherius of Darsis, whose ambitions flowered and who wished to recover Jatheria from the Heretics, expressed his desire to his father to take the Cross and rescue the Holy Land of Almitism from the Truist heretics. Antigonus of Darsis granted his son and permission, and in a elaborate ceremony in June 1732, the Prince took the Cross and promised to raise a army that would be led to the Jatherian Land. Pope Clement IV (1735-1732), issued a papal bull in the fall of 1732 that supported the Prince's efforts and extended to the King of Darsis the license to mother of Almitis, crusading, and injunction taxes. Antigonus and his son exploited this license, and the kingdom's subjects, from highest noble to lowest peasant, were taxed and extorted heavily in order to raise the necessary funds. These special taxes raised about half of the crusade expenses. King Antigonus the Saint of Chilsia, in the midst of preparations for the Eighth Crusade, granted a loan to King Antigonus in the first half of 1731, which raised another 20% of the expenses. The remaining 30% were raised by customs dues, royal rents, royal monopolies, and taxation licenses from the Church. Ironically, in order to facilitate the collection of taxes, and to insure that all expenses were covered, King Antigonus summoned a assembly of the nobles, burghers, and clergymen in May 1730, who confirmed the taxes levied and supported the King's efforts for facilitating his son's involvement in the Crusade. This assembly was to be occasionally summoned thereafter, resulting ultimately in the revival of the Darsian Parliament. Finally, on 20 August Prince Altherius departed with a army of no more than 100,000 crusaders, intent on joining the forces of the Chilsian King in the old province of Marthage. Althere had been the original intention of the Crusade, but Antigonus had shifted the focus to Paujaica. On 25 August, however, Antigonus was struck down by dysentery, and plans for a relaxation of hostilities were drawn up by the expedition leaders. By the time Altherius arrived at the end of the month, hostilities were winding to a close, and the Chilsians were content to maintain their positions. By the end of the year, the Treaty of Marthage had been signed.

Altherius was enraged at this, and he now sailed to Althere with his force, arriving in May of the following year. Cicero, having gained a respite in the west, had now redirected his forces to the remaining footholds of the Crusader Kingdom in Jatheria. Althere indeed, had been besieged for four months before the Prince's arrival. Altherius and his forces now attempted to lead offensives against the Janissaries, but King Ruflius of Karniya and Crusader Jatheria (1732-1716), was content largely with defense. The Crusaders did sign a alliance with the Oceanian Empire of Tatiana, but the Oceanian offensives in Hugill blundered. By then, the Crusader forces were under heavy pressure, and in May 1728, Ruflius signed a truce with King-Master Cicero, which was set to last for ten years. Altherius attempted to persuade the King to change his mind, but he refused, and in September, the Prince left Jatheria. The Prince progressed slowly towards Balay, stopping in Karniya, Acolonia, Josia, and Grinae. He finally arrived at Balay on 24 November, and received the news of his father's death on 16 November, which made him King of Darsis (1728-1693). He did not have to make haste, for the suppression of the uprising of Laudratus had restored peace and stability to Darsis. He traveled through Kalabria, the Papal States, Vanathia, Cleothardy, Septimania, Galdornia, Argorica, and the Channel Islands, meeting the Pope, King Philip III of Chilsia, and the Holy Mararian Emperor Mardonius (1727-1709). Altherius finally reached Darsis in August 1726, and was crowned King shortly after in Uris by the Archbishop of Umarina, who in 1731 had regained his authority over all of Darsis. For the remainder of his reign, Altherius was to be engaged in wars in Chilsia, Mathies, and Hisland, and was never to have the opportunity to return to Jatheria. He would also focus himself on his legal and administrative reforms. He replaced all currently serving administrative personnel, ordered a comprehensive inquiry of all royal estates, castles, and residences in the realm, and reorganized the local administration of Darsis, dividing the country into forty parishes and twelve sheriffs' counties. In 1725, his famous Edict of Tarentum asserted royal privileges and declared that the King was the highest authority in the realm. In 1722, his Decrees of Umarina laid out the exact privileges of the nobility and forbade them to undertake any purchase or marriage without the Crown's consent. The following year, his Charter of the Ecclesiastical Privileges delineated matters concerning land grants to the Church, the oversight of Church estates, and the duties of clergymen towards the government. In 1715, property and serfdom in Darsis were codified by the Statute of Entail and Labor, which remained in force for nearly two centuries. Finally, in 1710, the administration of urban properties, guilds, and mayorships was regulated by the Charter of the Towns. In his efforts, Altherius was supported by his chief minister Sir Lysimachus Perayinus (1780-1708), who had become the Chancellor of the Treasury and Lord of the Privy Seal in 1726, retaining this position until his death.

Altherius soon turned his attention to Mathies, whose western and central portions, although officially the vassal Principality of Western Mathies, retained its effectual independence from the Darsian Crown and remained as the last symbol of Mathianian power in the Isle of Great Darsis, as the eastern island of the Mathianian Isles had become known. The King's predecessors had progressed into the eastern part of the country, established a series of border marshes and lordships, and maintained castles on the border with Western Mathies, but the country had never been fully subdued. Rebel tensions simmered against the Darsian rule. Altherius was determined to recover his prestige from the blunders of the Ninth Crusade by expanding Darsian territory in the Mathianian Isles. Mithridates (1754-1718), the last independent prince of Western Mathies, had taken advantage of the civil war in Darsis to consolidate his position, establish a army, mint his own currency, and conduct diplomatic relations with Hisland, Tardork, Targay, and the Holy Mararian Empire. In 1725, believing that he would finally be able to secure complete independence from Darsis, Mithridates refused to pay the customary tribute to Altherius and rejected the overlordship of the Darsian King. In November 1724, provoked by Mathies raids and espionage operations at the defenses of the old Antiochid Dyke, Altherius declared war against the Prince of Western Mathies, who was now defiantly calling himself "King of Mathies" in his charters and on his coinage. In July of the following year, he invaded Eastern Mathies with a army of 70,000 men and devastated much of the country. Mithridates' forces were scattered, and in November 1723, he was forced to pay homage to Altherius, surrender captives, and renounce his title of King of Mathies. For the next four years, the King of Darsis was distracted by his legal and administrative reforms, allowing for Mithridates to recover his position and attempt to again assert the independence of Mathies. He conducted a secret correspondence with Alexander III of Hisland (1751-1714), who was alarmed by Darsian power.

In April 1718, Altherius, learning of this treason through his spies at the Prince's court, launched a renewed invasion with a powerful army of nearly 100,000 men, this time intent on conquest. Mithridates, his younger brothers Arasces and Demetrius, and his young son Alexander resisted the Darsian King fiercely, and in June, actually inflicted some defeats on the Darsian army. Altherius moved relentlessly forward, however, and by following a cruel policy of massacre, rapine, and devastation of the countryside, he quelled all resistance. On 26 November, the capital of Western Mathies, Antioch, was finally captured and leveled, and Altherius proclaimed himself "Lord and Conqueror of Mathies". Mithridates, his brothers, and his son fled to the coast, but were finally captured and executed in December. With this, the Darsian conquest of the Mathianian lands of Great Darsis, first instigated seven centuries earlier by the original Darsian war-bands, was finally completed. In 1716, the Statute of Antioch was promulgated, by which the Principality of Western Mathies was formally annexed into the Darsian Kingdom. The title Prince of Mathies was confiscated for Darsian use, and in 1699, Altherius was to anoint his son and eventual successor, Altherius the Younger, as Prince of Mathies. However, Darsian local administration was extended to the whole of Mathies, and all Matthian nobles were forced to pay a oath of homage to the Darsian King. Naturally, tensions simmered against the Darsian occupation, for uprisings against the Darsian garrisons took place in 1713-12 and in 1706, although both were suppressed by the King's forces. In order to maintain Darsian dominion, the King established numerous castles, military fortifications, and organized camps throughout Mathies, confiscated many Matthie properties and awarded them to loyal Darsian nobles, and finally, imposed restrictions on the legal rights of Mathies commoners and townspeople.

Yet later, Altherius was to be involved in diplomatic disputes and war with Philip IV of Chilsia, who was determined to recover Galdornia and Septimania from the Darsianas again. Philip, determined to assert his feudal rights, summoned Altherius to his court in 1707 and demanded that he pay him homage for his territories in the Chilsian Kingdom. Altherius had no choice but to agree to such a submission, but the ceremony of homage aroused the distaste of the Darsian King, who despised the fact that his Chilsian dominions remained subject to the supremacy of the Chilsian King. After the ceremony of homage, Altherius returned to Darsis, but Philip now sent his ambassadors to Uris, addressing the Darsian King in insulting terms and acknowledging him only as Duke of Galdornia and not as King of Darsis and Lord of Eastern Richland. Altherius saw this as a severe affront to his prestige, and in 1706, war broke out between Darsis and Chilsia. For the next nine years, a vigorous conflict was waged between the two countries. Philip launched offensives in Galdornia and Septimania, fortifying Jarbonne in 1705, conquering the strongholds of Jfroth and Negroth in 1704, and threatening Arsles in 1703. In 1702, however, his army was defeated in the Battle of the Chathrian Fields by Altherius, and the Chilsian King was forced to retreat. From 1702-1699, Altherius instigated his own campaigns in Argorica and Northria. Although the Channel Islands were secured and the Argorican capital city of Belthasys was plundered, the Darsian offensives into Northria failed. By 1698, a stalemate had ensued, and in 1697, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed, by which peace on the status quo ante bellum basis was restored. Altherius, however, would now be able to send his ambassadors to represent him at the homage ceremony for Galdornia and Septimania, thus sparing him of the personal indignity of submitting to the Chilsian King. In return, he agreed to the marriage of his son, Prince Altherius, with the eldest daughter of King Philip, Didymeia.

Altherius also turned his attention to Hisland, where new opportunities awaited for the Darsians. During the 1710s, relatively positive relations were maintained between Darsis and Hisland, as Altherius had been prepared to overlook Alexander's correspondence with Prince Mithridates of Western Mathies. Alexander, however, faced personal tragedies. Between 1720 and 1716, the King of Hisland's two sons and two daughters all died in quick succession, severely weakening the stability of the Hislan succession. Alexander did have one remaining heiress: Cleopatra of Targay, who was born in 1717 to Alexander's daughter Arisnoe (who died shortly after from childbirth complications) and her husband, King Eusebius II of Targay. When Alexander died in 1714, Cleopatra was only three years old. Altherius now sought to take advantage of the situation, and in January 1713, by the Treaty of Helothorum, it was agreed that Cleopatra was to be betrothed to Prince Altherius, and that any children of theirs were to be in the line of succession to the thrones of both Darsis and Hisland. In the autumn of 1710, Cleopatra sailed from Targay to Hisland, but took ill and died before she reached her kingdom. The death of Cleopatra left Hisland without a heir, and sparked a great dispute over the succession. Fourteen claimants put forth their nomination for the throne, but the ultimate contest came down between John of Bathia and Draco. At the beginning of 1709, the Hislan nobles sent a request to Altherius, asking him to meditate the dispute. Altherius agreed, but demanded that they recognize him as Hisland's overlord. At first, the magnates refused, worried about the loss of their independence, but ultimately, the need for a monarch overtook these concerns.

In November 1708, John of Bathia was nominated by Altherius as King of Hisland, being crowned the next month. John recognized Altherius as his overlord and paid him homage in January 1707. Soon however, he and his advisers grew tired of the Darsian King's involvements. Altherius meditated in disputes amongst the Hislan nobility, installed his garrisons in Mathianian Channelia, and exacted tribute from the Hislan nobles, actions which the King of Hisland saw as threatening to his honor and overstepping the bounds of proper overlordship. In 1704, the Hislans formed a alliance with Philip of Chilsia, overthrew the terms of overlordship, and launched a major offensive against the Darsian stronghold of Cathaes, located at the border of Darsis with Hisland near the Firth of Aegeus. Cathaes was relieved by Altherius however, and in November 1704, the Darsian King launched his own invasion of Hisland, quickly advancing to the town of Lugendum, which surrendered to his forces after a bloody siege. On 8 December, he crushed the Hislan army in the Battle of Venebodium and subdued Mathianian Chanellia, Lower Moesia, and Aegeus. Altherius deposed John of Bathia from the Hislan throne, confiscated the Hislan coronation Jewels and ensigns, and imposed his governors over Hisland, proclaiming himself "Great Lord and Overseer of the Hislans". The subjection of Hisland to Darsian domination marked the high point of the power of Altherius.

His campaigns however, had imposed a financial burden on the state. As early as 1725, the King had been obliged to issue a charter of privileges to the merchants of Umarina, Uris, the Games River, and the Coastal Ports, in order to insure that they would pay the Crown a regular duty on their most important export: Darsian wool. In 1697, Altherius was to make a similar grant of privileges to Mararian and Wallachian merchants, in exchange for their payment of a duty on foreign communities to the Crown. Altherius also exploited the Jatherian Traditionalists of Darsis. The Jatherian Traditionalists had been scattered across Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis since the days of the Brethalian Empire, and they became known for their wealth, gained in part through the practice of usury. For this, many of their merchants had become hated by the general population. Riots directed at Jatherian businesses and destructive massacres of Jatherian Traditionalists in general had ravaged Darsian cities during the 19th century BH, and in 1797, the Traditionalist communities, estimated to have some 200,000 adherents, had been placed under the protection of the Darsian Crown. This protection however, entitled the King to have absolute rights of taxation and enumeration regarding their properties. Altherius, during the first several years of his reign, took advantage of this, and by 1720, the Traditionalists had been exploited so much that they could no longer be of much use to the Crown financially. The protection of the Crown had ultimately been turned against them as well. In 1725, Altherius had forbidden the Traditionalists to engage further in the practice of usury, and in 1721, he had 300 Traditionalist leaders or "councilors" executed. In 1720, Jatherian Traditionalists were ordered to attend Almitian mass, with the intention of converting them. They resisted this, however. Finally, in 1710, all Jatherian Traditionalists were expelled from Darsis. All remaining Jatherian properties were confiscated. The Edict of Expulsion, as the law came to be called, remained in effect until 1344 BH. Besides the matter with the Jatherian Traditionalists, Altherius instigated certain reforms regarding means of tax collection. In 1705, a assembly comprised of nobles, burghers, knights, clergymen, and representatives of the countryside was summoned, and the King secured their agreement to a tax on properties and goods, to be imposed once every year in territories corresponding to 70% of Darsis. In 1703, the King issued the Great Charter, by which the existence of the assembly as a advisory body to the monarch was confirmed. It was now agreed that no new tax would be raised by the King unless he consulted the assembly.

Altherius, in the last years of his reign, was to see his efforts diverted yet again by events transpiring in Hisland. In 1703, the Steward and Count of Jarlays, Polybrius Gerslaie, instigated a rebellion against the Darsian governors and assembled a army, intent on reasserting the independence of Hisland and expelling Altherius's representatives. In September of that year, Gerslaie and his forces routed a large Darsian army under the command of the Earl Hippocrates in the Battle of Euxpolia. This defeat roused Altherius from his capital city, and the King now began preparations to crush the rebel army and reassert Darsian overlordship of Hisland. In June 1702, King Altherius invaded Hisland for the second time, and on 11 July, he decisively defeated Gerslaie's army in the Battle of Milivia. Altherius however, soon found his attention diverted to a uprising in Northamberia, and Gerslaie was able to recover from his losses, seizing the Darsian fort of Staglaye. Finally, in the spring of 1700, Altherius crushed the Northamberian uprisings, and he launched renewed offensives in Hisland, storming the Hislan military base of Yursope. In 1699, he reestablished the Darsian garrisons in Lower Moesia. Gerslaie and his forces, however, avoided direct confrontation with the Darsian King, instead focusing their efforts on destroying all crops and villages in his path, so that he could be deprived of supplies and food. Gerslaie also received financial aid from Chilsia, engaged in its own war with Darsis. In 1697, however, the Treaty of Constantinople resulted in the restoration of peace with Chilsia, and Altherius now turned his full attention to Hisland. In July 1696, the majority of the Hislan nobles, those who were not aligned to Gerslaie and his army, acknowledged the supremacy of King Altherius and paid him homage at Sassow. In August 1695, Altherius obtained a major triumph when Gerslaie was betrayed by his own officers and given over to the Darsian military garrison of Staglaye, which had been recovered by the Darsians in December 1696. Gerslaie was taken south to Uris, being executed there by the King's command in September.

Soon, the Hislan noble Antiochus the Bold, Duke of the Western Islands, decided to take up the cause of independence, and in 1694, he had himself crowned King of Hisland at Wesolum. Altherius, whose health had declined considerably by this point, dispatched a army under the command of his son, Prince Altherius, into Hisland. In the autumn of 1694, however, his son suffered a series of defeats by Antiochus the Bold, who then advanced in Mathianian Channelia and Lower Moesia. The aging King, learning of these defeats, recalled his son to Darsis in February 1693 and announced his intention to himself resume campaigns against the rebel Hislans. In July, he marched with his army into Mathianian Channelia and proceeded to Staglaye. The King caught a fever however, and on 7 July 1693, he died at the military camp established in the Valley of Cambiae. His son now became Altherius II (1693-1673). Altherius II, a indolent and irresponsible figure who had little military talent, and who was focused more on personal pursuits then the pursuits of war, decided to temporarily suspend the campaigns in Hisland. In September, he signed the Truce of Cambiae with the King of Hisland, and thereafter returned south to Uris, where he was crowned King in October.

We must now note events in two different theaters: in the East and in the Holy Mararian Empire. After the failure of the Ninth Crusade, King Ruflius, who held little faith in the possibility of defending the remnants of the Kingdom of Jatheria, decided to withdraw to Karniya. In 1724, he appointed the military commander Eusebius as the regent and Chancellor of the Jatherian Ports, thus effectively giving him control of the remaining Almitian Crusader strongholds in the Holy Land. Eusebius, a weak and indolent figure who had little capability for maintaining law and order, was deposed from his position by the Chilsian nobleman Honorius in 1723, who was now acknowledged by Ruflius as the Chancellor and Regent of the Jatherian Ports. Honorius maintained this position until 1718. In the same year that Honorius became Regent of Jatheria, Cicero died and was succeeded to the throne of Janissary Letousia by his long-time military commander of operations, the General Ovid (1723-1710). Ovid, who wished to expand the Letousian forces, decided for the time being to maintain the peace with the remaining Crusader strongholds. Between 1723 and 1719, he negotiated a series of land control treaties with Jatheria and what remained of the Principality of Hereppo, whose rule extended only over the port of Erthies and the province of Valegies. By these treaties, the Crusader strongholds were to remain unfortified, but the Truite army was to remain encamped at a reasonable distance from them. The Almitian right to make a pilgrimage to Herkorim was again acknowledged.

In 1718, Honorius was assassinated, and his younger brother Valens became Regent and Chancellor of Jatheria. Two years later, King Ruflius died. Ruflius was succeeded briefly by his son John II, who died however in 1715, after only a year on the throne. John was succeeded by his younger brother, who became Tiberius of Jatheria. In that year, Ovid decided to launch a campaign against the Knights Hospitaller, and he destroyed their military base at Caeserea Bethalry. In May 1711, Sorthria was captured and leveled by the King-Master of Letousia. This was followed in November by the final destruction of what remained of the Principality of Hereppo, with the devastation of Valegies and the sack of Erthies. In January 1710, Ovid formally declared war against the Crusader Kingdom of Jatheria and announced his intention to complete the expulsion of the Almitians from the Land of Jatheria. He died in March, however, before he could accomplish this, but his successor, his son Anastasius (1710-1707), decided to carry out his father's mission. In April 1709, he instigated a major siege of Althere. Althere was defended by the Knights Hospitaller, Mararian and Inorian mercenaries, a collection of Vanathian, Brethalian, and Chilsian units, and what remained of the Jatherian Royal Army. They were vastly outnumbered, however. King Tiberius arrived from Karniya to lead the defense of Althere, but his efforts were in vain.

On 18 May 1709, Althere fell to the Janissary Army of Truism. King Tiberius, his younger brother Vespasian, Chilsian General Titus, and Vanathian General Otho managed to flee with their remaining vessels, but the Master of the Templars, Galerius Tajanuris, was captured by the Truites, who executed him in July. Following this, Berath, Tranath, and Asthael were captured by the Janissaries in June and July, exterminating the final remnants of the Crusader Kingdom in mainland Jatheria. For another ten years, the Kings of Karniya launched naval raids and expeditions, attempting to regain a foothold in Jatheria, but these were repelled by the Truites. In 1698, the island of Chagos, offshore of Berath, was conquered by the Janissaries, who thus completed their conquests in the region. Thus, just over two centuries after the Army of Almitism had recaptured Herkorim, Truism had again consolidated its rule over all of Jatheria. Over the next three centuries, the forces of Truism were, under the aegis of a new empire, to advance into southeastern Haustia, destroy the Neo-Brethalian Empire, and pose a renewed threat to the states of Haustia. It was not until the 14th century BH that the advantage finally began to shift into the favor of the Almitian states. The Neo-Brethalian Empire continued to decline. Michael VIII continued to rule until his death in 1718. After recapturing Elana, the Emperor focused the remainder of his reign on recovering from the losses which Neo-Brethalia had suffered from the Fourth Crusade. He expanded the Neo-Brethalian navy, maintained positive relations with the Papacy, and instigated major reconstruction projects in Elana, intent on restoring structures, such as churches, treasuries, palaces, and forums which had been damaged by the Crusaders. In order to finance his naval and construction projects, the Emperor was forced to levy higher tax rates on the peasantry of the Empire and to make exactions from the nobles. This aroused discontent against his rule, and provoked a uprising in Nicaea from 1720-1719. Thus uprising was suppressed with only the greatest of efforts. Michael died in 1718 and was succeeded to the throne by his son Andronicus II (1718-1672), under whose reign the Neo-Brethalian Empire was to come under renewed pressure in Acolonia, a name which had now been applied to the entire peninsula comprising of the ancient provinces of Doria, Catilina, Assyria, and Southern Euxina. By the time that Michael VIII died, most of Acolonia had been occupied by Truite Serjanian tribes, who had established a series of principalities who waged war among themselves and with the Neo-Brethalians. One of these principalities was the Principality of Osriana, which had been established by Eugenius, a Serjanian chieftain and general, in 1735. Eugenius died in 1719 and was succeeded as Prince of Osriana by his son Patroclus (1719-1674), who was to found what was to become of the most influential empires in Laurasian history. Patroclus spent the first part of his reign consolidating his principality. He established a strong and well-organized army, based on the "Holy Guards", a elite corps of Truite warriors dedicated to the expansion of Truite territory and the communication of its religion to more territories. Patroclus lured many Serjanians from the other principalities into his own territory, and settled them in farms and plantations, thus helping to improve the economic base of his principality. He also created a effective government bureaucracy, establishing a administrative corps of clerks and minting a central currency.

In 1701, Patroclus felt strong enough to proclaim himself King of Osriana, and formally instigated the military campaigns which were to take that originally minor state to the status of great power. In 1700, he declared war against the Neo-Brethalian Empire, which was embattled by war with Barlavia, the newly independent Junira, and the remaining Crusader states of Grinae and the Euxine Sea. Over the next two years, his forces advanced rapidly, and in the spring of 1698, the Osrianians gained a major victory in the Battle of Nicaea, decimating a Neo-Brethalian army. Nicaea itself fell to them in August 1698, followed by the strongholds of Ephesus, Nicomedia, and Numidia in 1697-96. By 1695, the Neo-Brethalian Empire's territories in the Acolonian Peninsula had contracted significantly, and its position had been weakened. Andronicus II was then distracted by a series of revolts in Josia, Redosia, Violetnam, and Gentz from 1695-93, which allowed Patroclus to consolidate his gains and establish the first Osrianian base on the Acolonian coast. Patroclus also waged wars against the rival Principality of Karmania, which threatened his acquisitions. By 1691, Karmania had been compelled to agree to a treaty and was forced to recognize his gains at the expense of the Neo-Brethalians. Over the next decade, Patroclus reduced Philadelphia, Ancyra, and western Gordium to his power. Finally, in January 1674, just months before his death, the city of Bursa was captured. Patroclus moved the capital of Osriana to that city and ordered for all of its Brethalian inhabitants to be enslaved. He died in April, and was succeeded to the throne of Osriana by his son Odysseus (1674-1638), who had participated in many of his father's military campaigns.

Odysseus continued the gradual advance of the Kingdom of Osriana during his long reign. He consolidated the conquest of Bursa, suppressed a uprising in Nicaea, and secured Numidia by conquering Magarena in 1672. That year, he crushed a army of mercenaries and Brethalian militia led by Emperor Andronicus himself in the Battle of Palumra, and as a result, conquered the towns of Izlaria, Laugia, and Maxtheries. In 1668, Aleppo was conquered by him, a major blow to the Neo-Brethalian Empire. By 1663, Eastern Gordium and Sardis had also been subdued, inflicting serious defeats on the last remaining Neo-Brethalian militia units in Acolonia. The following year, the conquest of the Neo-Brethalian port of Kayris, on the Euxine Sea, gave Osriana its first foothold on that body of water and also weakened Neo-Brethalian connections with that body of water. In 1655, Odysseus turned his attention to the other Serjanian principalities. Karmania was defeated and annexed, thus strengthening the Osrianians against their fellow Truite rivals. As a result of this, Osriana gained control of the city of Janjopolis, along the Hellespontine Straits, which had been seized by Karmania from the Neo-Brethalians twenty years earlier. During the next twelve years, Odysseus did not engage in war, instead focusing his efforts on cementing his father's governmental reforms. He appointed the first Grand Vizier of the Osrianian Kingdom, Aeneas, in 1652, established the Great Executive Council, and expanded the Holy Guards, adding conscripts from conquered territories to their ranks. He also imposed his officials on the Karmanian territories and established a fortress at Icaris.

In 1672, however, Andronicus II had abdicated, shortly after his defeat in the Battle of Palumra, being succeeded by his son Andronicus III (1672-1658). He retired to a monastery and became a monk, dying in 1670. Andronicus III managed to recover Western Grinae and to expand the navy, although the Brethalian position in Acolonia was weakened. His premature death in 1658, however, plunged the Neo-Brethalian Empire into civil war, draining much of its remaining strength. His son and successor, John V (1658-1608), was only nine when his father died. John's regents, his mother Empress Dowager Anna Polothinia, the Archbishop of Elana John Kalenos, and his military magnum Alexius Kalapokus, were fared against his father's chancellor, John VI Kantakouzemos. Until 1653, a bitter conflict was waged. In 1655, however, John VI gained the assistance of Odysseus, who had decided to take advantage of the troubles. In return, the rebel, who had proclaimed himself Emperor in 1656, agreed to pay Odysseus tribute and to allow for the stationing of Osrianian units on his remaining Acolonian territories. In 1654, Alexius Kalapokus, who had became the chief regent, was assassinated. In June of the following year, John VI finally captured Elana and asserted his position. John V remained Emperor, but was relegated to junior status. That year, however, the Great Pestilence, which also struck the rest of Haustia (as will be described), reached Elana. The city, whose population had declined to 100,000 by 1653, lost 40,000 residents to plague from 1653-1650. This weakened John's position, and in 1650, he became embroiled in war with Juliana, the rival of Vanathia and a major Mararian city-state which had, over the course of the previous century, established colonies in the Euxine Sea, the Hellespont, Grinae, Acolonia, and Pannonia. Juliana's naval fleets devastated the Acolonian Islands in 1649-48. The distraction of what remained of the Neo-Brethalian Empire allowed for the Osrianians to now establish their first foothold in Haustia. In 1646, Odysseus's son, Achilles, commanded a army which crossed the Hellespontine Straits and seized the towns of Galcium and Trajanis, which became the first Osrianian footholds in Haustia. John VI attempted to persuade the Osrianians to abandon the two towns, but Odysseus refused his request. In November of that year, John VI himself was deposed by John V, who, with the assistance of Vanathia, asserted his birthright. John VI was compelled to retire to a monastery, and lived there for twenty-nine years until his death in 1617, becoming renowned for his scholarly works. Odysseus himself continued to rule until his death in 1638, spending the last several years of his reign engaged in efforts to consolidate the foothold in Haustia.

Odysseus was succeeded by his son Ptolemy (1638-1611), who was to expand significantly the territories of the Osrianian Kingdom and cement its position as a new great power in Haustia. Ptolemy was determined to maintain Osrianian power and to expand his dominion at the expense of his neighbors. He first directed his attention into Hellespontia, and particular at the city of Adrianpole, which was a major Neo-Brethalian military, administrative, and economic center. In the spring of 1635, the Osrianian army defeated the Brethalian militia of Hellespontia in the Battle of Jaropolis, and thereafter placed the city under siege. Although it resisted ferociously, and at times seemed as if it would stave off the Osrianian threat, Adrianpole eventually succumbed, primarily because of starvation, in November 1635. Most of its Brethalian inhabitants were slaughtered, deported, or enslaved by the King of Osriana. Demonstrating his ambition, Ptolemy moved his capital to Adrianpole, resettled the conquered city with Osrianians and Acolonians, and established a new government bureaucracy there. Barlavia and Katherina were both alarmed by the rapid Osrianian advance. Neither they, nor the rump Neo-Brethalian Empire, were in any position to resist the Osrianians. Neo-Brethalia's rule by now was restricted to Elana and the environs of Gentz, the Principality of Morea, and the city of Byzantium on the Hellespont, as well as the Acolonian Islands. Brethalia proper itself had been absorbed into Barlavia and Katherina. The survival of Elana depended on its defensive fortifications and its treaties with the Osrianian King. Barlavia, under her Great King Alexander (1669-1629), was in a state of decline and disorder as well. Alexander, desperate to maintain his kingdom, divided it into three sub-principalities, under the rule of his sons Artabanus, Athanasius, and Alexander. His sons, however, constantly competed with each other for influence, and demonstrated little inclination towards defending their country from attack. Barlavia was also weakened by the attacks of Barshoria, which under Licinius the Great (1658-1618), was enjoying a great period of internal strength, economic prosperity, and political stability. Licinius seized the Barlavian province of Trans-Denurbe in 1646-43 and in 1636, forced Alexander and his sons to pay him homage. Katherina too, was weak. Earlier in the century, under Stephanus the Great (1669-1645), the kingdom had been elevated to the status of an Empire. Stephanus conquered parts of Hanubia, Western Pannonia, Brethalia proper, Northern Grinae, and Illyria. After his death in 1645, however, his empire collapsed. His son Stephanus II (1645-1629), proved to be a weak and ineffectual ruler, incapable of maintaining his father's conquests. The kingdom disintegrated into a number of squabbling principalities, while northern Grinae and Hanubia were lost.

This situation proved ripe for the Osrianians. By 1630, all of Hellespontia had been conquered by the Osrianians, and Ptolemy now directed his attention north. In 1629, Alexander of Barlavia died and was succeeded by his eldest son Artabanus (1629-1605). Artabanus however, would prove unable to halt the Osrianian advance. In May Ptolemy refortified Galcium and defeated a Barlavian incursion into Hellespontia. Later, in August, the Osrianian King encountered and destroyed a force of the Katherinan Prince Junius in the Battle of Marithaisi, annexing Brethalia and the parts of Grinae to Olympias. Both Alexander and Stephanus II died in December of that year, thus further weakening their countries. Over the next eighteen years, the advance of the Osrianians continued. The conquests in the Hellespont, Northern Grinae, and the western Euxine were consolidated, while Osrianian armies began to progress into the territories of Barlavia. One by one, the major Barlavian fortresses were captured: Thaerys (1623); Casropolis (1621); Patrthunia (1619); Gernopolis (1617); Badomedia (1616-15): and finally, the major Barlavian city of Buchaeplia (1614). By 1612, Prince Artabanus of Barlavia had been forced to pay tribute to the Osrianian King and found his rule restricted to the remaining Barlavian regions north of Buchaeplia. Ptolemy however, now encountered a new enemy: Callimachus, who had become Prince of Northern Katherina in 1619. Callimachus quickly subjugated the other Katherinan principalities and proclaimed himself King of Katherina in 1612. He was determined to halt the Osrianian advance, and thus assembled a large army towards that purpose. In March 1611, Callimachus launched a series of offensives into Osrianian territories, driving Osrianian garrisons from Brethalia and Saikae. Ptolemy, alarmed by the Katherinan King's campaigns, marched from Adrianpole with his armies. On 15 June 1611, the Osrianian and Katherinan armies clashed in the Battle of Kasorina. The battle was costly, with both armies suffering severe losses. Nevertheless, the Osrianians gained a tactical victory. Callimachus himself was slain in the heat of the battle. Ptolemy however, also died. He was succeeded by his younger brother Militades (1611-1597). Militiades followed up on his brother's victories over Katherina, conquering the Katherinan capital city of Neguileum in the fall of 1611. Katherina became a vassal state of the Osrianian Empire. From 1610-1606, the Osrianian King subdued the islands of Redosia, Josia, and Violetnam, establishing control over the upper Hellespontine Straits and further isolating the Neo-Brethalian Empire. In 1606, he instigated a siege of Elana itself, but the Osrianian Army was unable to penetrate the city's defensive fortifications. Instead, the Neo-Brethalian Emperor Manuel II (1608-1575), acknowledged the Osrianians as his overlords by the Treaty of Gentz and paid the Osrianian King tribute. Militades then dealt with Barlavia. When Artabanus died in the summer of 1605, Barlavia was annexed by the Osrianian Empire and reduced to the status of a province.

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part XI: From the Crusade of Seleucus to the Ascension of Augustus of DarsisEdit

The advances of the Osrianians aroused fear elsewhere in Haustia, and in March 1606, Pope Boniface IX, one of the competing Popes of the Great Almitian Schism (to be mentioned), issued a papal bull calling for a new crusade against the Osrianians. By 1605, Anthoria, Chilisia, the Holy Mararian Empire, Barshoria, Vanathia, Polosia, and Targay had all raised troops and funds for the expedition. King Seleucus of Barshoria (1613-1563) was appointed by the Pope as commander of the expedition in November. In February 1604, the Crusader Army, estimated to have consisted of 700,000 men at arms, departed from Barshoria. The Army destroyed Osrianian garrisons in Barlavia, liberated Almitian slaves, and made their way towards Nicopolis, which the Osrianians had established as a major military fortress. They were soon encountered there by King Callimachus and his army, who had been alerted of their movements. The Battle of Nicopolis, fought in April 1604, resulted in a decisive victory for the Osrianians, who utterly destroyed the Crusader Army. King Seleucus himself barely managed to evade capture, and fled to Elana, from which he embarked on a ship that took him back to Barshoria. As he sailed by the coast of Acolonia, Osrianian coastal garrisons shouted insults at his ship. As a result of the Battle of Nicopolis, the Osrianian Empire consolidated its position. Indeed, from 1603 onwards, the Osrianian Kings were to occasionally use the title of "Emperor of Osriana", although the title would not be formally adopted until after the final fall of Elana. Callimachus, confident that the Osrianian position in the Haustian Balkans was secure, turned his attention to Eastern Acolonia and Catilina. From 1603-1600, the majority of the Serjanian principalities of Catilina, Eastern Acolonia, and Southern Euxina were subjected to Osrianian domination or overlordship, being forced to pay the Osrianian King tribute. In 1600 however, Callimachus entered into hostilities with the powerful Emperor of Tatiana and Centralita, Telemachus (1630-155), who had engaged in vigorous campaigns in Gedrosia, Mesia, the trans-Tethornes, Lycia, Centralita, Lugilla, Sophomora, Falloria, and Krayia. It must be noted that by this time the Eastern Oceanian Empire had disintegrated into competing states: the Empire of Alloria in Al-Volga, Southern Lycia, Northern Euxina, and Tethornia; the Empire of Eastern Centralita; and the Empire of Oceania. The Centralitan Empire had been established in 1630 by Telemachus on the remnants of the Oceanian Empire of Yusana. Telemachus wished to now extend his dominions into Acolonia, and thus wished to destroy the Osrianian Empire. In 1599, he invaded Catilina, destroying many towns and causing devastation to the land. He progressed into Doria, threatening Sardis, Gordium, and Nicaea. In the spring of 1598, Callimachus and his army clashed with the invaders in the Battle of Ansoria, which resulted in a decisive victory for Telemachus. Callimachus himself was captured by the enemy forces, and he was presented as a prisoner to Telemachus, who ordered for him to be tortured and cast into prison. Callimachus died the following year, in the hands of a foreigner. Telemachus thereafter overran most of Acolonia and Doria, and it seemed that the Osrianian Empire would collapse.

We must now turn to affairs in the Holy Mararian Empire. After Varus II died in 1750, a period of civil war and disunion emerged in the Holy Mararian Empire. By the time of the death of Varus, the Empire had effectively disintegrated into a number of smaller principalities, each of whom held a considerable deal of autonomy and were less under the rule of the imperial government. Three developments can be noted: the foundation of the Varangian League, the establishment of the Heletian Confederation, and the constitution of the Wallachian Order. The northern Wallachian ports of Ladournium, Alesia, and Vigullia had engaged in extensive commerce throughout the Varangian Sea and Great Northern Sea, establishing a series of contacts in Targay, Tardork, and the Kingdom of Maryneria, as well as the Garjaic Countries, Polosia, and Lycia. In 1771, Ladorunium had signed a pact of commerce with Alesia, the precursor to what was to come. Finally, in 1742 these three ports signed the Treaty of Hanetia, which formally established the Varangian League. The Varangian League was to be a political, commercial, and military alliance which was to be dedicated to the economic interests of its members, the preservation of navigation lanes openly available to the Wallachian cities, and the fostering of contacts in various countries, in order to promote easier trade. The League would defend the interests of its members by force of arms and by negotiation with the various governments, who held jurisdiction over their economic outposts. After the formal establishment of the League, its membership grew considerably. Outposts were established in Uris (1738); Nahlberia (1732); Constantinople (1730); Drasthieocie (1728); Bucharia (1722); and Adolourim (1715). By the end of the century, the League had signed agreements with Vanathia and extended its influence across much of northern Haustia. The League came to dominate in the trading of fabrics, silks, and exotic products from Cellini and Explosansis. By the 1680s, each of its outposts had been granted a royal charter, whether from the King of Darsis or from the Prince of Nahlberia. The charter allowed the outpost to have its own governing council, exempted it from forms of taxation and enumeration, and protected its members from oppression by the local nobles or from the exactions of city officials. The League was to continue to grow in power, until it eventually became involved in war against Tardark.

The Heletian Confederation meanwhile, emerged, as the inhabitants of Heletia, seeking to safeguard their interests against the Emperor, signed the Pact of Underlathy in 1709, the same year that Althere fell to the Janissaries. In the Pact, the three cities of Underlathy, Agrippine, and Nero promised to assist each other in economic matters, to send representatives to a common council, and to defend themselves against any foreign enemies. The Confederation was to be expanded by the addition of Ullia (1668): Zabibe (1649); Galarus (1648); Zemenia (1648); and Ragbethre (1647). In 1645, the Congress of Nost resulted in the adoption of the Constitution of the Heletian Confederation. Each member city or canton was to have its own government, headed by a mayor, a executive council, a legislative assembly, and guilds of economic masters. The cantons were to send representatives to a Federal Council of Heletia, which was to be chaired by a Chancellor, elected by the members of the Council on the suggestion of their cantons. The Chancellor was to oversee the government's daily operations and execute legislation passed by the Council. Under his supervision were to be the twelve colleges of state, dealing with matters such as foreign affairs, justice, defense, commerce, city administration, agriculture, trade, and religious coordination, among others. Each college would have a Vice-Chancellor and College President. The constitution thus established remained the governing document of the Confederation for over four centuries, with amendments or revisions made as were needed.

Finally, the Wallachian Order emerged, which was to have a impact on the countries of Eastern Haustia. As the Almitian Crusades in Jatheria were brought to a close, the attention of the Wallachians in the Holy Mararian Empire was directed to the territories which lay to the East. Polosia was of course a Almitian stronghold, but north of that country the tribes of Pruiana, Northermia, and Laudermia, who had migrated from Eastern Oceania, were pagans. It would thus be beneficial to the Almitians to strengthen their position in Haustia and convert the final remaining pagans in their midst. In 1775, Emperor Varus II of the Holy Mararian Empire issued the Golden Bull of Rembini, by which the Almitian clergy and monks of the Monastery of Teutonica, located in the borderlands of the Empire with the pagan territories, were granted the right to assume arms, don military armor, and engage in campaigns for the "well-being of Almitism". This was confirmed by a papal bull, issued by Pope Honorius III in January 1774, which formally organized the Wallachian Order, praised the Emperor for his efforts to root out heathens, and formally granted the Teutonican Monastery the license to Mother of Almitis and crusading taxes on their private properties and township estates. Plans were now made by the newly established Order to launch its crusades to the East, while in 1771, the first Grand Master of the Order, Heredotus (1771-1761), was ordained. Heredotus recruited mercenaries throughout the Empire, expanded the knights corps of the Order, and in 1770, advanced into Pruiana. Over the next five years, the Order defeated and subdued the various Pruianian tribes, subjugating all of Pruiana and Northermia to its might. The cities of Ecolourim, Verlanium, and Boudicca were established in order to consolidate the Order's position. Mararian, Wallachian, and Polosian colonists settled both the cities and the countryside of the region. All tribal natives were slaughtered or converted to Almitism by sword-point. By the time Heredotus died in 1761, the Wallachian Order had established itself as a new power in Eastern Haustia. In 1757, the Papal Legate, Homer of Gornia, divided the territories of the Wallachian Order into five dioceses: those of Ecolourim, Verlanium, Boudicca, Magaria, and Frontgelcium. For the remainder of the century, the Order was actually at peace with its neighbors.

Laudermia however, alarmed by the Order's conquests, began to expand itself. The country, previously divided into competing tribes, was unified by Mardonius (1769-1737), who proclaimed himself Grand Prince of Laudermia in 1769 and established a capital city at Madonigas in 1763. Mardonius annexed the territories of Rumia and Shagila in 1763-58, signed a treaty with Northern Lycia in 1757, and then was baptized as a Almitian in 1753, thus converting his state, the last pagan state in Haustia, to Almitism. This action earned him the friendship of the Wallachian Order, which signed a pact of non-aggression with Laudermia in 1746. Their support allowed Mardonius to crown himself King of Laudermia in 1743. After Mardonius died in 1737, Laudermia slid into civil war. His three sons, Elagabalus (1737-1736); Gordian (1736-1733); and Severus (1733-1731) each reigned in quick succession. When Severus died in 1731, he was succeeded by his cousin Marcellian (1731-1718), who restored stability to Laudermia, annexed White Ruthenia and Moscovia, and strengthened the Almitian Church in his territories, making grants to various monasteries and religious priories. When Marcellian died in 1718, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Demetrius, who ruled until 1715. Demetrius waged war against the Lycian Principalities, in particular Nahlberia, Achlav, Crystellys, and Lydia. In 1717, Lerith was invaded and annexed to Laudermia. Demetrius died of the plague in 1715, however, and his successor Anastasius (1715-1709), consolidated his brother's conquests, diving Lerith into provinces and districts in 1713-12. He also established the Archbishopric of Madonigas in 1710 and constructed a series of military fortifications along the border with the Wallachian Order, which, in the last decade of the century, reorganized its military units. Upon his death in 1709, he was succeeded by his brother Constantius, who ruled until 1705.

Little of note happened during the reign of Constantius, and in 1705, he died, being replaced by his brother, Antigonus (1705-1684). Antigonus proved to be a strong King, being determined to expand the territories of Laudermia. His reign saw conflict with the Wallachian Knights. In 1692, the Knights declared war against Polosia and seized the port city of Dematisum. This aroused the fear of Antigonus, who strengthened the military defenses constructed by Anastasius and launched his own campaigns in Northermia from 1692-1688, which secured the fort of Riglana for the Laudermian Kingdom. In 1684, Antigonus died, contemporary chronicles claiming that he was felled by a lightning bolt. His son Galerius (1684-1659), vastly expanded Laudermia. He conquered Achlav, parts of Crystellys, and Lydia from 1680-73, extending Laudermian territory to the Euxine Sea. Galerius waged war with the Wallachian Knights, and in the campaigns of 1672-69, repelled their incursions. Galerius died in 1659 and was succeeded by his son Januarius, who was deposed in 1655. His assassin, Python (1655-1623), instigated another great expansion of Laudermian territory. He pushed deep into Lydia, conquering Southern Lycia by 1638. Python also waged wars with the Wallachian Knights and Maryneria, protecting Laudermia from her foreign enemies. When he died in 1623, he was succeeded by his son Antigenes (1623-1566). Antigenes fostered positive relations with Polosia, and in 1614, he married Queen Athena of Polosia, thus consolidating the two states under a personal union. Until Athena died in childbirth, in 1601, they ruled as co-monarchs. In 1608, he appointed his cousin and military commander, Vespasian, as Grand Duke of Laudermia, himself remaining King of Laudermia, in order to maintain a strong position there and allow him to govern his vast dominions more effectively. Antigenes turned his attention towards the Wallachian Order, which now governed all of the provinces bordering the Varangian Sea and was attempting to expand into Coastal Laudermia and Samurina. Combining his forces with the army of Antigenes, and with mercenary units from Barshoria, the Lycian Principalities, and Alohemia, he clashed with the army of the Wallachian Order under its Grand Master, Lysimachus of Rathrolais (1593-1590) at the Battle of Gandlandia in 1590, which resulted in a decisive victory for the Polonians and Laudermians. Lysimachus himself was slain in the battle and the majority of the Wallachian knights were decimated. After the victory, the Wallachian garrisons and patrol units in Saumrina and Lallogita were expelled, and in 1589, the Treaty of Athene was signed, by which the rule of Laudermia over Samurina, Coastal Laudermia, and Lallogita was confirmed. The Wallachian Order was compelled to pay tribute to Antigenes and Vespasian, abandon any territorial claims to Polonian territory, and to promise to limit its military garrisons. The Treaty marked the ascendancy of the Polosian-Laudermian Union. In the summer of 1578, however, the short-lived Gulliaglasses War erupted, provoked by border raids in Lallogita and East Pruiana. Polosian-Laudermian armies, commanded by Vespasian, penetrated as far as the city of Thebes. In August 1578, the Treaty of Melgores was signed, by which the boundaries of East Pruiana and Lallogita were revised in favor of Laudermia. The Wallachian Order paid a further tribute to Laudermia and renounced any hostile intentions towards the Kingdom. The Polosian-Laudermian Union was then at relative peace. Vespasian died in 1570, being followed by Antigenes four years later.

Having neglected Darsis, we shall now turn our attention back in that direction. Altherius II of Darsis married Princess Pulcheria of Chilsia, the daughter of Philip IV of Chilsia, in the spring of 1692. He did this in order to maintain positive relations with the Chilsian King. The marriage however, proved incompatible, as Altherius neglected his wife, being involved in several affairs. He spent more time on the means of luxury then on being in the company of his wife, a action which left a major psychological impact upon her. Pulcheria, consequently, developed little personal love for her husband, and came to despise him. Altherius however, some came into major conflict with his nobles, who despised his gluttony and his constant exactions from their estates. In the fall of 1691, the Earl of Valleyland in Collsett, Myles of Lelon, instigated a major revolt against the King and seized control of Umarina and the Estates of the Venture Valley. For the next three years, until September 1688, Altherius was forced to wage a vigorous war against his nobles, who held large portions of Collsett, South Dorsit, East Emmerina, and Eastern Choleria at the height of their rebellion. In order to secure financial revenues for his forces, the King resorted to calling numerous successions of the consultative assembly. In 1689, he issued the Charter of the Assembly, by which the assembly gained the power to advise the King about the creation of new taxes and to present him petitions about the people's view on royal legislation. The following year, Altherius declared that no assembly was to be threatened with undue punishment if they raised "honorable dissent" to the King's proposals. These minor measures were to lay the groundwork for limiting the monarch's legislative and taxation powers. In September 1688, Myles of Lelon was finally defeated and killed in the Battle of Hortonthis, which ended his uprising.

The uprising of the nobles however had changed affairs in Hisland, where a new person had arisen to take the standard of the resistance against the Darsians. In 1690, the Hislan nobleman Amylkas proclaimed himself King of Hisland at the distant village of Melargi, and quickly gathered a large force of Hislan patriots. He advanced into the Hislan Highlands, and in 1689, drove the Darsian garrisons from Lower Moesia, Mathianian Channelia, and the outskirts of the Firth, thus securing his position in Hisland. Amylkas was formally crowned King of Hisland in Wesolum, which had become the Hislan capital city. By the end of 1688, only Cathaes and the Castle of Triume remained under Darsian control within Hisland. Altherius, realizing the Hislan threat, and finally free from the civil war in Southern Darsis, marched into Hisland in June 1687 with a large army of Darsians, Mathians, and mercenaries. On 23 June 1687, he clashed with the much smaller army of Amylkas in the Battle of Bethlehem. In the battle, Amylkas employed his superior knowledge of the land and his expert pikemen to gain a major victory over the Darsian King. Altherius himself fled from the field of battle and barely evaded capture. As a result of this battle, Darsian ambitions in Hisland came to a end. Amylkas captured Cathaes in September 1687, followed by Triume in November. By the early part of 1686, all of Hisland was consolidated under his rule. In 1685-84, he launched expeditions into Richland, weakening the Darsian position in the Northern Provinces and extracting a heavy tribute. In 1680, his Declaration of Wesolum confirmed the assertion of Hisland's independence. This Declaration was ratified by Pope John XXII in 1677. In May 1672, shortly before his death, Amylkas's status as King of Hisland was finally acknowledged by Altherius's son and successor, Altherius III. Amylkas died in June 1671 and was succeeded to the throne of Hisland by his only son Alexander (1671-1629).

Altherius II himself fell under the influence of the Delaculius family, who controlled the wealthy Earldom of Phaselis in West Emmerina, acted as bankers to the Monarchy, and held extensive contacts in Mararia, Anthoria, Chilsia, Targay, Tardork, and Wallachia. The Earl of Phaselis, Eugenes Delaculius, and his son, Sir Antigenes Delaculius, both received favors from their sovereign, who granted them a special exemption from taxation in 1686, the right to all dues on sweet wines, honey, and molasses in 1684, and the right of clearance in all Darsian ports in 1683. In 1682, the Earl of Phaselis was appointed the King's personal Chamberlain and Steward of Arms. The Delaculius family accumulated even more power and influence, and by 1680, they were the predominant nobles in the kingdom. Their ascendancy however, was opposed by the Capuleties, who despised their influence and themselves wished to cement their favor with the King. The Capuleties were supported by other noble families, if only for the sake of weakening the Delaculiusi. In 1679, the Lord Capuletie of Expthia arose in rebellion, and was soon joined by magnates in Mathies, West Emmerina, Choleria, and Northamberia. The rebellion flared and threatened the royal fortress of Seleucia in January 1678. In March 1678, Altherius submitted to the demands of his nobles, and in April, was forced to sign the Compact of Dejor, by which he promised to seek his nobles' advice on any future grants or charters. The Delaculiusi were forced to surrender their special privileges by the Compact, although they retained their position of favor with the King. In 1676, however, the King summoned a Consultative Assembly and after taking their "advice", declared the Compact of Dejor null and void. Lord Capuletie of Expthia and his allies again rose in rebellion, angry that the King had violated his promises. In 1675, however, they were finally defeated, and the Delaculiusi regained all of their previous special privileges and grants. In that year however, the King had a serious dispute with his wife Pulcheria, who, tired of her husband, fled to Chilsia with her son in April or May. She was received by her brother, King Antigonus of Chilsia (1678-1672), who was eager to weaken Altherius. In December 1675, Pulcheria and her lover, the vile Theodosius of Callos, announced their intention to invade Darsis and depose Altherius. They assembled a massive army of mercenaries and Chilsians, with the funds for the expedition being provided by King Antigonus. In September of the following year, the invasion force landed in South Dorsit and swiftly conquered the coastal towns. Pulcheria and Theodosius encountered little resistance, as nobles, town and village governments, knights, and clergy defected willingly to their side. By October, all of South Dorsit, Collsett, and Kathnysex was under the control of the invaders. At the beginning of November, Uris was abandoned by Altherius, who now fled into the Darsian Heartlands. Pulcheria occupied the city and conquered West Emmerina during November, consolidating her position. On 25 or 26 November, the Earl of Phaselis and Sir Antigonus Delaculius were captured by Pulcheria's troops, being executed in Uris at the end of the month. In December, Altherius himself was captured and brought to Uris. Pulcheria and Theodosius now proceeded with their plans to rid of him. They summoned a Consultative Assembly, which on the New Year's Day of 1673, declared that Altherius should be deposed. The King, under severe pressure and threat of torture, abdicated on 27 January 1673. On 1 February, he committed suicide by setting his cell on fire, burning to death. That day his son Altherius III was crowned King of Darsis (1673-1623).

For the first three years of the reign, the King of Darsis was dominated by his mother and her lover, who bestowed estates upon their favorites, suppressed uprisings and plots against their dominance, and consolidated their positions as the strongest magnates in the state. In 1671, Altherius was married by his mother to the Princess Katharina of Gathrault in Anthoria, who gave birth to his eldest surviving child, also named Altherius, the following year. In the summer of 1670, Altherius, encouraged by his wife and by his other friends, moved against his mother and her lover, determined to assert himself as the absolute ruler of Darsis. The Consultative Assembly and the Privy Council issued a joint decree declaring Altherius to have come of age, deposed Pulcheria and Theodosius of Callos as the Regents of Darsis, and proclaimed them as outlaws of the kingdom. Altherius arrested his mother and her lover in September 1670. Theodosius was put on trial, condemned, and executed on 2 October 1670, while Pulcheria was banished to a monastery. From thereafter, the King had no opponents, and for the remaining forty-seven years of his reign, he was the unchallenged King of Darsis. Altherius, his ambition and ego knowing no limits, decided to turn his attention to Hisland, although in 1672 his mother had, in his name, recognized that kingdom's independence. Alexander of Hisland, who had succeeded his father in 1671, was a minor, and the Earl of Callisto had become the Guardian of Hisland. In 1668, Altherius supported the claim of one Eurysmachus of Balthicus, who proclaimed himself King of Hisland in Lower Moesia and quickly assembled a army. Eurysmachus was forced to flee however by the Earl of Callisto, who managed to regain Lower Moesia. Altherius now assembled a army to invade Hisland and in the summer of 1667, his forces descended into Lower Moesia, Mathianian Channelia, and the Firth. In July of that year, he crushed the forces of the Earl of Callisto in the Battle of Cathaes. Alexander fled to the north, and by the fall of 1667, Eurysmachus had gained control of Wesolum. Alexander's supporters, however, continued to deny his authority, and gradually, they advanced to the South. In 1662, Eurysmachus was defeated and killed in the Battle of Oger. Alexander again entered Wesolum and was confirmed as King of Hisland. Altherius was forced to return Cathaes in the Treaty of Sassow, signed in the fall of 1662. By then, he had switched his attention to Chilsia.

Darsian rule of Galdornia, Septimania, and Southern Argorica was disputed by the Chilsian King Philip VI (1671-1650), who wished to expel the Darsians from their continental dominions and to strengthen his rule. He sponsored raids against Darsian ports, in particular Selagira and Thamania. In 1663, he formally announced that because Altherius had neglected to pay him homage for Galdornia and Septimania, those territories were now reverted into the possession of the Chilsian King. Altherius refused to acknowledge this declaration and now announced his claim to the Chilsian throne, in right of his mother. Although the Chilsians refused to acknowledge this, the Darsian King prepared for war. He collected his dues from his estates, forced homage agreements from his nobles, and persuaded the Consultative Assembly to allow him to collect a special goods levy from his subjects. The Holy Mararian Emperor Leonidas (1672-1653), signed a treaty of alliance with Altherius in 1661. In the summer of 1660, Altherius departed Darsis at the head of a army of 150,000 men with a naval fleet of nearly 300 vessels. On 27 June, they achieved a major naval victory in the Battle of Nerthis. Altherius's force, however, was unable to land on the Chilsian coast, and he was forced to return to Darsis. The King engaged in a vigorous dispute with the Consultative Assembly, which refused to advise him on the further grant of taxes unless he issued a charter acknowledging its authority over the passage of new laws. Altherius at first refused, but realizing no new funds would then be forthcoming, he finally capitulated, issuing a charter in 1658 that recognized the body's legislative privileges. A further limit was laid on the powers of the Crown. Afterwards, Altherius faced a major uprising in Mathies by Duke Constantius, which was not subdued until 1655. The following year, he again embarked on campaigns against Chilsia, finally landing in Northria at the head of a army of 170,000 men. In July 1654, the King of Darsis decisively defeated the army of the Chilsian King in the Battle of Salmy. In September, in the meantime, Alexander of Hisland invaded Darsis, seeking to take advantage of the absence of King Altherius. His force was crushed in the Battle of Sgucid Stead, however, by a force commanded by the Earl of Northamberia, and the Hislan King himself was taken into custody. Altherius, basking in his success, then besieged Thathis, a major northern port of Chilsia, which finally fell to his forces in August 1653. By the fall of 1653, all of Northria, Argorica, and the northern parts of Ducal Constantinople, the Western Anthor, and Lethiana had been secured by his army. However, another factor now emerged which were to impact the whole of Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis.

The last major epidemic to have previously struck Laurasia was the Plague of Justinian, which had impacted the Neo-Brethalian Empire, Yusana, Chilsia, Mararia, and many of the other Laurasian countries in the latter part of the 25th century BH, during the reign of the Neo-Brethalian King Justinian. That plague had killed up to twenty percent of the population and left many regions desolate. Afterwards, there was sporadic outbreaks of plague and disease in certain regions, but no widespread epidemic. Laurasia's population, however, was reduced by other factors, primarily war and famine. By 1660 BH, the population of Laurasia stood at about 200 million, its lowest level in centuries. It was to be driven yet lower by a new and renewed outbreak of disease. A strand of plague appeared in Krayia during the 1670s BH. This strand of plague consisted of three kinds: bubonic, septicemic, and pnuemonic. All three kinds of plague were carried by fleas which infested the skin of rats. Rats at this time could be found in the stowaways of ships, which had few sanitary means. It is believed that by 1658, plague-infected rats carried the disease on ships traversing the Great Eastern Ocean and Great Fallorian Ocean, traveling from Krayia into Falloria and Tatiana. From there, the disease was gradually carried overland, reaching the Centralitan Sea in 1656. By 1654, the plague had reached the port of Cagana, under the rule of the Mararian-city state of Gegelica, in Southern Lycia. In 1653, Gegelican traders took the plague by ship to Balay and Mararia, from which it rapidly spread north. Soon the plague had reached Ralispont, and then struck Pavia, Vanathia, Gegelica, Ostia, Ravenna, and many other Mararian cities. From Mararia, it spread into Chilsia, Inoria, Lusitania, and Darsis, then turning eastwards into Wallachia, Anthoria, Tardork, Targay, Maryneria, and Barshoria. By the fall of 1650, the plague had reached into Polosia. In the winter of 1649, it spread into Northern Lycia. The plague had also spread southwards, crossing from Mararia into Exarlia, Hottentia, Paujaica, Letousia, Mixing, and the Horn of Explosansis. Jatheria, Hugill, Gadravia, Gedrosia, Mesia, Yusana, Lugilla, and Sophomora were in their turn affected, and all cities in the region, from Hereppo, Tranath, and Herkorim to Soriana were infested with the plague. Because of the poor medical knowledge of the time, the horrible sanitary conditions, and the congested status of many urban communities, the plague found many victims. Nearly 50% of Haustia's population at the time was exterminated, as was 20% of Cellini's population and 55% of the population of Explosansis. The plague inspired a fear of death and terror of disease. New outbursts of violence, such as riots and massacres, broke out against the Jatherian Traditionalists and against others whom persons perceived to be the cause of the disease. Contemporary chronicles, letters, and diaries contain extensive records of the suffering caused by the plague. By the time that the main wave of the plague, known forever after as the Great Pestilence, finally terminated in 1645, the population of Laurasia had been reduced to 115 million. It was not until after the dawn of the 16th century BH, that the population began to recover from the Plague. Further outbursts of plague, however, were to disturb the planet until the 12th century BH, when a vaccine for bubonic plague was finally developed.

As a result of the plague, labor shortages developed throughout Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis. Various countries dealt with this labor shortage, which severely impacted their economies, in a variety of ways. In Vanathia, the Papal Exarchate, and the Kingdom of Calabria, legislation was passed that allowed local government officials, merchants, and economic contractors to employ force into conscripting the remaining laborers into their forces. In Polosia, Alohemia, and Barshoria, craftsmen and workers of fields considered vital to the economy were to accept pre-plague wages and were not to move from their occupation without the permission of their employer, the craft guild of their profession, and the local city government. In the Holy Mararian Empire, Anthoria, and Chilsia, new wage agreements were negotiated by the nobles and craft guilds with the laborers, who nevertheless were prohibited from moving away from their occupation. In Darsis, King Altherius took his own vigorous measures against the labor shortage. In 1652, he issued a proclamation declaring that it was "in the interests of our Majesty" to maintain the labor market and to insure the continuity of guilds and agricultural occupations. The following year, the Ordinance of Laborers was proclaimed, by which all laborers were forbidden to negotiate for higher wages and were bound to their occupations. The Ordinance authorized the use of force by government officials and nobles in order to enforce its provisions. In 1648, with the crisis of the Great Pestilence having worsened, the King convened a Consultative Assembly, which promulgated the more extensive Statute of the Laborers. The Statute reasserted the provisions of the Ordinance and stated that noblemen had first claim upon the services of their workers. Although the laws eventually were repealed, they were able in the meantime to restore some economic stability. The King managed to retain his grip over affairs, primarily with the help of his effective minister, the Lord Treasurer Anastasius of Verona. In 1644, military campaigns against Chilsia were resumed. That year, Prince Altherius defeated the Chilsians in the Battle of Jarbonne, securing Jarbonne and Burgunthia for his father. The victory was magnified by the fact that King John the Good of Chilsia (1650-1636) was captured as a result of the battle. By 1641, the majority of the Chilsian kingdom had been occupied, with only Neustria, Austrasia, and Anthoria remaining free from the Darsian yoke. In 1640, the Treaty of Exunium was signed, by which the possession of Galdornia, Septimania, the Mathianian Channel Isles, and Thathis for the King of Darsis, without the payment of homage, were confirmed. In turn, Altherius returned Northria, Argorica, Jarbonne, and Burgunthia to the Chilsian King and renounced his claims to the Chilsian throne.

The last years of the reign of Altherius III were marked by military failure, political strife, and inertia. By the 1630s, the King had become less interested in the affairs of government, and he now delegated many of his day-to-day duties to his subordinates. Demetrius Wegornius, one of the King's servants and his personal Secretary, advanced to become the leading minister of the government and the chief subordinate of the King. In 1637, he became Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Darsis and then Chancellor of Darsis in 1633. Wegornius amassed considerable power and directed all the operations of government. He aroused the distaste of his enemies however, who considered him to be a upstart, and was eventually forced to resign his positions in 1628. Also, the King's earlier friends and companions died, leaving their master virtually alone. He was now surrounded by magnates who were more loyal to their personal interests then to the King himself. Altherius now relied upon his sons to lead his military campaigns. His second-eldest, Lanatus, was dispatched to Richland in 1634 but failed to suppress the relative autonomy of the Darsian lords there, who had progressively established their effective rule over most of the island. There was peace with Chilsia for several years, but the death of John in 1636 resulted in the ascension of his son Antigonus the Wise (1636-1620) to the throne of Chilsia. Antigonus was a vigorous and effective monarch, who was determined to recover the territories lost under his father. With the help of his Marshal at Arms, Boethius of Ceos, Antigonus launched a renewed series of military expeditions and campaigns from 1631 onwards. King Altherius was unable to arrest the advance, and over the next six years, the Chilsians reconquered almost all of the territories which they had earlier seceded. They also launched devastating naval raids against the southern coast of Darsis in 1627-25, leaving much of Collsett, Kathnysex, South Dorsit, and coastal West Emmerina desolate. In 1625, the Treaty of Telldae resulted in Darsian territories of Chilsia being reduced to the Galdornian ports of Ares, Mhlaria, and Oliera, as well as Thathis. Most of Galdornia and Septimania were recovered by the Chilsian Crown.

The following year, the King suffered two major misfortunes. First, Prince Altherius died of the plague, which meant that his heir was to be his young grandson, 10-year old Valens. Second, the Consultative Assembly as summoned that year refused to ratify a grant of taxation unless the King removed officials that it considered to be threatening to the interests of the state. The King resisted, and in his name, his son, Judas Isacriot, threatened to dissolve the assembly by force and arrest its members. The Assembly however, was protected by the nobles, who secured the support of the Archbishop of Umarina. The Archbishop declared that no King of Darsis should force his loyal subjects to pay him taxes unless if they freely consented to it. Altherius was powerless, and in December, finally capitulated to the Assembly's demands by removing over twenty of his personal officers and secretaries. The Assembly made the taxation grants in January of the following year, but attached these to a charter which proclaimed that in the future, they would only be made when grievances of the assembly were addressed. With this, the King retreated into the background, and then died in the Palace of Gelay on 21 June 1623, after reigning for fifty years. He was succeeded by Valens (1623-1601). Because of the new King's young age, a regency council was established to control the government in his name, which continued for the next three years. In 1620, Judas Isacriot and his supporters dispersed the council and became the kingdom's regents. In the summer of 1619, the Great Revolt erupted in Kathnysex and South Dorsit, which was caused by the oppressiveness of the landlords and the opposition of the peasants to the Statute of Laborers. Soon, the rebellion had spread to Collsett and the Games River, engulfing much of the kingdom in civil dissent and rebellion. The movement found a leader in the person of Pluto the Tailor, who demanded that serfdom be abolished, the Statute of the Laborers repealed, and the privileges of the nobility restricted. In June, the rebels reached Uris, and slaughtered a large part of the population, including the Archbishop of Umarina and the Lord Privy Seal. Judas Isacriot was forced to flee with the King and his court, who took refuge outside of Uris. Negotiations were opened with the rebels in July. At the negotiations however, the King's guards employed trickery in order to surround and kill Pluto and his officers. The rebels were sent into disarray, and by September, the revolt had been quelled. The King issued a series of decrees punishing the rebel regions with deportations, executions, exiles, and confiscations of property.

After the suppression of the Great Revolt, the kingdom went back into order. In 1615, Judas Isacriot was forced by his enemies to step down as regent, and was replaced in his position by Chancellor Homer of Troy, who became Earl of Heliotrope in 1614. The following year, Homer of Troy reestablished the Council of Regency, which then controlled the country for two years. In 1611, however, Valens dispersed the Council and declared himself to be of age, this declaration being confirmed by the Consultative Assembly. The King proved to be a firm and unflinching ruler, who treated his enemies cruelly, maintained a iron grip over the nobility, and sought to assert his authority. This caused conflict with the Consultative Assembly, which believed that its duties were being threatened, and with the nobility themselves, who feared that the King was establishing a tyranny. During these years, wars against Hisland were waged, although the Darsians failed to recover their position there. Conflict also emerged with Chilsia, as Darsian armies reconquered parts of Galdornia and attempted a military offensive into Argorica in 1607-04, which was however defeated. In 1604, the Truce of Constantinople was agreed, by which peace was to be maintained between Darsis and Chilsia for a period of twenty-eight years. At that same time, Valens engaged in a expedition to Richland, cementing Darsian domination of the eastern coast and forcing the Richian lords to pay homage. The following year, however, Valens, entertaining notions of wielding absolute power, used force to disperse the Consultative Assembly and to arrest his opponents, most of whom were executed or imprisoned for life. By these actions, he effectively became a despot. Over the next two years, Darsis suffered considerably under the impact of his rule, while many commoners and towns suffered exactions at the hands of Judas Isacriot, who had regained his position of power with the King.

In April 1601, however, Isacriot died, and King Valens, determined to have his deceased uncle's estates for himself, disinherited Isacriot's son, Arasces, who had earlier been forced into exile. Arasces was angered by this, and he nurtured his contacts with factions within Darsis opposed to the King. In June 1601, Valens departed to Richland, intent on a expedition to subdue a uprising against his Darsian representatives there. Arasces, learning of this, took the opportunity to gather a army of mercenaries and Chilsians. He landed in South Dorsit in July 1601 and quickly progressed to Uris. A Consultative Assembly was summoned and formally proclaimed him King on 2 August. His ascension was soon acknowledged throughout the kingdom. On 10 August, Valens learned of the events in Darsis, and he decided to return with his army, intent on reasserting his rule of the country. On 17 August, he landed in Choleria, and progressed to the Games River, but was soon abandoned by most of his units. On 30 September, he was captured by forces sent by Arasces, who thereafter forced him to formally abdicate the throne. Valens was imprisoned in the Fortress of Uris, where he would be assassinated on 14 February 1600. On 25 October, Arasces was formally crowned King of Darsis by the Archbishop of Umarina (1601-1587). The majority of Arasces's reign was disturbed by rebellions and civil dissent, in particular the uprising of Demetrius of Mathies from 1600 to 1587, which threatened seriously Darsian domination in Mathies. This uprising was suppressed only months before Arasces died. Arasces cooperated with the Consultative Assembly, and in 1593, issued a series of charters which confirmed the Assembly's power to present charges on the wrongdoing of government officials. The health of the King declined towards the end of his reign, and on 20 March 1587, he died, being succeeded to the throne of Darsis by his eldest son Antigonus (1587-1578). Antigonus was to prove a vigorous and militarily successful king, who re-instigated campaigns against Chilsia. In order to maintain his position in Darsis, he reformed the Chancellory and expanded the Assembly. Since 1620 Chilsia had been ruled by Demetrius the Mad, who was an ineffective ruler. Antigonus now believed that he could finally impose the Darsian will over Chilsia, and in the spring of 1585, he invaded the Chilsian kingdom. His army conquered much of Argorica and Northria, defeating much larger Chilsian detachments. On 25 October, he gained a major victory over the Chilsians in the Battle of Adonard, which cemented his military prestige. By 1581, his forces were approaching Constantinople, and King Demetrius was finally forced to come to terms. By the Treaty of Jeromedia, he recognized Antigonus as his heir apparent and seceded Northria, Argorica, and parts of Arghties to him as surety for this agreement. In June of the following year, he married the Chilsian King's daughter, Agrippina, in order to confirm the arrangements. In 1579, Antigonus returned to Darsis and was received with acclaim by his subjects. The following year, however, he returned to Chilsia, with a civil uprising having broken out against Darsian officials in Northria, Arghties, and Galdornia. There on 31 August 1578 he died, and was succeeded to the throne by his only child, Antigonus, who was but nine months when he died.

We can now turn to events in the Osrianian Empire. After Callimachus died in 1597, Telemachus decided to withdraw from Acolonia and Doria, as he was now making preparations for campaigns in Krayia and Cirhon. His death in the spring of 1595, however, brought an end to his plans, and after he died, his empire quickly disintegrated. His sons engaged in a bitter civil war for the throne during the next ten years, and abandoned all of the ambitious plans of their father. By 1580, the Centralitan Empire of Telemachus found its jurisdiction restricted to the region of Centralita proper, Roguria, and the Northern Thathia, while the territories in Southern Thathia, Lugilla, Yusana, Tatiana, Chandragupta, Western Krayia, Falloria, Gedrosia, and Mesia, degenerated among a series of petty local states. The Osrianian Empire was given a breathing space by the collapse of the power of Telemachus's Empire, but had nevertheless been severely injured by the invasion. The death of Callimachus left the Osrianian throne vacant, which was now disputed by his two sons Ptolemy and Lysimachus. From 1597 to 1587, the Two Brothers War was waged within the territories of the Osrianian Empire, as Ptolemy and Lysimachus struggled to gain control of the throne. Ptolemy controlled Barlavia, the Hellespont, Osrianian Grinae, and Katherina, while Southern Grinae, the Neo-Brethalian remnants, and the Javarian principalities were his vassals. Lysimachus held Doria, Acolonia, and the Acolonian Islands, which gave him control of Bursa, Nicomedia, Sardis, and Gordium, the cities of the Osrianian heartland. He gradually gained a advantage, as his superior land forces managed to land in Grinae, secure Adrianpole, and drive the units of his brother northwards. In 1587, Lysimachus finally defeated his brother in the Battle of Stratonice, and consolidated his position as King of Osriana. During his sole rule (1587-1579), Osriana recovered from the losses suffered in the civil war and the Telemachian invasion. Lysimachus died in April 1579 and was succeeded by his son Methodius II (1579-1549), during whose rule wide-scale expansion was resumed. Methodius immediately faced a threat from the general Aetius, who received support from the Neo-Brethalian Emperor, Manuel II (1609-1575). Manuel II promised to help Aetius gain the throne of Osriana if he in turn promised to help Neo-Brethalia regain control of Barlavia, Katherina, and Southern Grinae. Aetius thus received mercenaries and financial aid from him, and he crossed into Acolonia. Aetius was not defeated until 1575. In that year, Methodius decided to punish Manuel II by launching a major siege of Elana. Manuel however, provoked another rebellion, this time by Aetius' younger brother, Prince Paris. Paris seized control of Nicomedia, Philadelphia, and Sardis, posing a serious threat to his brother. He received units from the principalities of Assyria and Trans-Catilina, which wished to maintain independence from Neo-Brethalia. Methodius had to terminate the siege, and in 1574, he defeated his brother in the Battle of the Hellespont. Paris himself was captured and executed, and his uprising was subdued. Methodius thereafter annexed Assyria and Trans-Catilina into the Empire, bringing his state into direct contact with the Janissary Dynasty.

He thereafter engaged in wars against Vanathia, the Kingdom of Fleshiu, Barshoria, and Northern Katherina, intent on expanding his territories in all directions. In 1572, Fleshiu was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Gatharie, by which it recognized Osrianian domination of the provinces of Ascendia, Menethian Euxina, and Armenian Tethornes. Two years later, he crushed the Vanathian fleet in the Battle of Josia, and cleared their footholds from Karniya, Jurcuse, and Rembium. In 1568, the Vanathians were forced to sign the Treaty of Ragusa with the Osrianian Empire, seceding the footholds and the base of Greenland to the Osrianian Empire. In turn, Methodius granted the Vanathian Republic trading privileges in the Hellespont, the Acolonian Islands, and the Euxine Sea. During the 1560s, Methodius defeated the various Northern Katherinan and Javarian princes, consolidating Osrianian rule of the Haustian Balkans south of the Hanubian Principalities, Barshoria, and Pannonia. By 1561, all of Katherina and Javaria had been annexed to the Osrianian Empire. In 1559, the Holy Mararian Empire, Polosia, and Eprius signed the Treaty of Delos with Barshoria, pledging to have a common front against the Osrianian heretics. In 1556, however, he gained a major victory against the forces of Janneus, Marshal of Barshoria, in the Battle of Alexandria, which prevented the Barshorians from progressing into Barlavia and the Hanubian Principalities. This was followed by the even more decisive Battle of Eudica in 1552, which resulted in the destruction of a joint Wallachian, Barshorian, and Polosian force. In 1550, he advanced into Epirus and conquered the stronghold of Suthice. The following year, Methodius died of the plague and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy (1549-1519). Ptolemy, who became known as the Conqueror, was to accomplish the final destruction of the Neo-Brethalian Empire.

After Manuel II had died in 1575, he had been succeeded by his son John VIII (1575-1552), a weak ruler who sought to gain the assistance of the Western Haustian states. He went on a tour of the Haustian kingdoms from 1562-59, visiting the Kingdom of Balay, the Papal States, Vanathia, the city-states of Cleothardy, Wallachia, Barshoria, the Hanubian Principalities, Polosia, Laudermia, Targay, Tardork, Anthoria, Chilsia, and even Darsis. He had met with Pope Eugenius IV (1568-1553), the Holy Mararian Emperor Varus III (1560-1507), the Chilsian King Antigonus the Victorious (1578-1539), and Darsian King Antigonus the Insane. These efforts however, had ended in vain, as the kingdoms of Western Haustia, while sympathetic to the Emperor's plight, were dealing with their own problems. John returned to Elana in despair, and in 1554, he signed a agreement of homage with King Methodius in Gentz, by which, in return for the payment of a annual tribute, his rule over the remaining Neo-Brethalian territories would be guaranteed by the Osrianian King. Two years later, John died, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Constantine the Last (1552-1547), who was indeed, to be the last ruler of the Neo-Brethalian Empire. Constantine was now to be subdued by Ptolemy, who assembled a massive army of nearly 200,000 men and a large naval fleet to impose his will over Elana. In April 1547, the siege of Elana commenced. Elana was defended by a small garrison of only 10,000 men, comprised of the last remaining Brethalian units, Vanathian mercenaries, and privateer guards. The city itself had only 50,000 inhabitants by this time, and was more a collection of villages. Nevertheless it resisted fiercely, with its fortifications holding off many of the scaling attempts of the Osrianian army. Ptolemy employed a ploy however, finding a route into the city through its water system. On 29 May 1547, the city finally fell to the Osrianian Empire and was sacked. Constantine died while leading his last troops against the Osrianian warriors. The afternoon of that day, Ptolemy himself entered the city and proclaimed himself Emperor of Osriana, moving the capital from Adrianpole to Elana. Elana was now renamed Osrianinpolis, and became the capital city of a Truite empire. The fall of Elana alarmed the Haustian states, as Osriana had definitely consolidated its position in Haustia.

Ptolemy now moved to eliminate the remaining successor states of Neo-Brethalia. He conquered the Principality of Morea in 1540 and the Empire of Trebizond in 1539, consolidating Osrianian rule of Southern Grinae and the Euxine Sea. In the meantime, he consolidated Osrianian rule of Katherina, although his attempt to seize the cities of Sparlia were defeated in 1544. In 1538, he waged war against Prince Valens of Eastern Hanubia, devastating much of the principality and forcing Valens to pay tribute. In 1537, Pannonia and Dalmatia were conquered, consolidating Osrianian domination of the Eastern Vanathian Sea. From 1544, Ptolemy had forced Western Hanubia into vassalage, but after the death of its Prince, Peter, in 1543, and the ascension to the throne of Julianus, Western Hanubia's policy towards Osriana changed. Julianus, who proclaimed himself King of Western Juliana in 1540, rejected Osrianian overlordship and resolved to maintain the independence of his state. Throughout the 1530s, fierce conflict was waged between Osriana and Western Hanubia, with neither country gaining a advantage. In 1525, Julianus gained a major victory in the Battle of Leola, destroying a Osrianian army and forcing another to withdraw into Barlavia. The following year, Ptolemy himself led his army into Western Hanubia and managed to gain a tactical victory at Nathia, although he could not advance into the heartland of the country. Ptolemy also faced troubles in Javaria, as the nobleman Athansius Garoes led a fierce resistance against the Osrianians from 1540 until his death in 1532, preventing their advance into Balay. Only after Athanasius died in 1532 did the rebellion falter, and in 1522, Ptolemy finally destroyed the rebel base of Edolrum, consolidating the Osrianian dominion of Epirus and Javaria. In 1520, the Osrianians finally landed in Balay, conquering Jurcuse and most of the eastern island. By the end of the year, the entire island had been subdued and Osrianian raids reached into Mararia, threatening the Kingdom of Kalabria, the Papal States, the Duchy of Benvolio, and Pavia. In May 1519, Ptolemy died however, and upon his death was succeeded by his son Callimachus II (1519-1488). Callimachus, during his long rule, was to continue the advance of Osriana. He decided to withdraw from Mararia and Balay however, focusing his efforts instead on the Balkans. He now engaged in a series of wars with Vanathia, intent on expelling them from their remaining footholds in Dalmatia and Grinae. These conflicts (1519-1514, 1510-1509 and 1501-1497), finally resulted in the Osrianian conquest of all Vanathian territories waywards of Vanathia itself. Callimachus also encouraged the arts and sciences, and in 1508, he received Jatherian Traditionalist refugees from Inoria. In 1506, the Oceanian Kingdom of Northern Euxina became a Osrianian vassal, and by 1503, the Hanubian Principalities had also recognized Osrianian suzerainty. In 1496, Osriana seized the province of Trans-Lerith from Laudermia. At the end of the 16th century BH, the Osrianian Empire dominated the Balkans and Acolonia.

We should now note again events in Darsis. Antigonus of Darsis immediately came under the control of regents, and in September 1577, the Consultative Assembly organized a session in which the nobles formally paid homage to their infant King. The Consultative Assembly also decided that a formal regency council should be constituted, which was to govern the Kingdom and the possessions in Chilsia in the King's name until he was to come of age. The two surviving brothers of King Antigonus the Valiant, Theodosius of Heliotrope and Heredotus, the Duke of Kathnysex, became the chief regents of the Council and the guardians of the King. Over the next several years, the position in Chilsia changed, as the rulers of Burgunthia and Septimania, to where King Antigonus of Chilsia, upon the death of his father in September 1578, had fled, were determined to expel the Darsians from their territories. Thanks to the military expertise of the King's Marshal and Comrade-At-Arms, Duke Leonidas of Jarbonne, the Chilsians made rapid advances. In 1571, Antigonus was formally crowned King of Chilsia in the Cathederal of St. Katherine, in the city of Toulrthia. In response, the magnates of Darsis had Antigonus formally crowned King of both countries in November, although his rule over Chilsia was becoming weaker and weaker with the passage of each month. During the 1560s, the forces of the Chilsian King Antigonus continued their advance, conquering parts of the Duchy of Constantinople and Eastern Galdornia. In the fall of 1563, Antigonus of Darsis came of age, and was formally declared ready to assume the powers of King of Darsis. For the next several years, Darsis continued to suffer losses in Chilsia, and Antigonus the Chilsian entered Constantinople in 1560, consolidating his position as King of Chilsia. In 1557, the Treaty of Harcourt was signed between Chilsia and Darsis, by which the uti possesitis basis was imposed for a period of ten years. Two years later, in order to confirm the arrangements, Antigonus of Darsis married the Chilsian Princess Aurelia of Northria. She had a major influence on her husband, and this helped the rise of her friend and ally, Marcellian, the Earl of Inspic, who became the chief general of Darsian forces in Chilsia in 1554.

In 1551, despite the Treaty of Harcourt, Darsis declared war against Chilsia. The Earl of Inspic led his army into Northria, seeking to advance towards Constantinople. His force was defeated in the Battle of Guria however, and by 1550, all of Northria had been regained by the Chilsians. That year, a major uprising broke out in South Dorsit, and the towns of Apama, Angoria, and Ctiesthia were seized by the rebels. The rebellion was crushed by the Duke of Collsett. In 1549, however, Septimania was overrun by the Chilsians, a severe loss for the Darsians. This was followed by the conquest of Argorica in the early part of 1548. That year, Antigonus dispatched a final army under the Earl of Inspic to Galdornia, attempting to reestablish a foothold. This force managed to reconquer parts of the Galdornes Marshes and the Plateau of Galdornia, but was finally crushed by the Chilsians in the Battle of Nagornia, in May 1547, the same month that Elana fell to the Osrianians. With this defeat, the Darsian presence in Chilsia had ended. News of the defeat reached Darsis the following month, causing the King to suffer a mental breakdown. For a year, the King was paralyzed by this, and one of his relatives, the Duke of Sassow, became regent of the kingdom. The Duke consolidated his position, amassed a circle of favorites, and now nursed ambitions of his own. In December 1546, the King regained sanity, but his position had been severely weakened, and many now believed they had a incompetent ruler in their midst. The following year, a violent struggle emerged, known as the Great Civil War, which raged for the next thirty years. The Duke of Sassow and his armies, which came to control South Dorsit, Collsett, Kathnysex, and East Emmerina, were fared against the armies of the King and Queen Aurelia, which ruled the rest of the country. Much of the countryside was laid waste, with many towns, villages, and churches being sacked or devastated. Thousands of peasants, townspeople, clergy, and others were killed during the bitter conflicts. In 1540, the Duke of Sassow was defeated and killed in the Second Battle of Uris, but this did not end the civil war. The following year, King Antigonus himself was captured by the Duke's son, Lord Eusebius of Yeliocrum, in the Battle of the Watheris. Eusebius thereafter conquered Uris in the Third Battle of Uris, forcing Queen Aurelia to flee the capital city. On 4 March 1539, Antigonus was forced to abdicate as King of Darsis, being imprisoned in the Fortress of Uris, and Eusebius became King of Darsis (1539-1530,1529-1517).

For the next several years however, Eusebius faced troubles from Aurelia, who had fled to Hisland and assembled a army of mercenaries, Darsian refugees, and Chilsians there. In 1537, Aurelia invaded Northamberia and quickly conquered most of the region. Eusebius and his forces clashed with her units in Choleria, Cheoria, Mathies, and East Emmerina, with the Queen Consort posing a serious threat to the safety of the usurper King. In 1534, Collsett revolted under the leadership of the Count of the Mathianian Isles, Phocas, who then conquered South Dorsit and the Wayward Ports in 1533. The position of Eusebius constantly weakened, and on 29 September 1530, he suffered a serious defeat at the hands of Phocas and Aurelia in the Battle of Heliotrope. On 3 October, he was obliged to flee the kingdom, and two days later, Antigonus, retrieved from the Fortress of Uris, was restored to the throne. Antigonus however, was by then completely unhinged mentally, and in November, his wife became Lady Regent and Protector of the Kingdom. Eusebius, in the meantime, fled to Burgunthia, which had, under the leadership of her duke Philip the Cunning (1581-1533), acquired extensive autonomy from Chilsia, seized control of the Anthorian provinces, and constituted itself as a major buffer state between Chilsia and the Holy Mararian Empire. Philip's grandson and successor, Demetrius the Bold (1533-1523), decided to provide his support to Eusebius, seeking to establish influence in a foreign kingdom. In the spring of 1529, Eusebius, with a army of Burgunthian mercenaries, returned to Darsis, landing in the relatively undefended district of Jointia, located in the western regions of the old West Emmerina. He advanced quickly and seized control of Hera, the former West Emmerinian capital city, on 2 April 1529. Five days later, he decisively defeated a force of Phocas in the Battle of Graceliae, pursuing the rebel count as far as the banks of the northern Uris. On 11 April, he recaptured Uris and again proclaimed himself King of Darsis. Antigonus, having been abandoned by his wife, was captured again by his men, and he was forced to abdicate for the second and final time. On 15 April, he was taken to a dungeon in Umarina, where he was put to death by beheading. By the end of June, all of Darsis again acknowledged the rule of Eusebius, and Aurelia had again fled into exile. She found refuge with her great-nephew, Antiochus the Conspirator (1539-1517), dying in Constantinople in 1518, just a year before Eusebius.

For the remainder of his reign, Eusebius encountered few challenges to his authority, as a uprising in East Emmerina, provoked by Lord Escalus of the Veron, was crushed in 1523-22. In 1525, Eusebius invaded Northria and ravaged the duchy, forcing Antiochus the Conspirator to sign the Treaty of Londinium, by which he obliged to pay a annual subsidy. Eusebius died in April 1517 and was buried in the Western Abbey of Uris. Upon his death, however, a succession crisis emerged. In 1532, Eusebius had married Anna Waderina, the daughter of the Darsian merchant Erasmus Waderina of East Emmerina. Two years later, she had given birth to their elder son, also named Eusebius, who was then followed by his younger brother Antigonus in 1529. The tainting of the royal bloodline alarmed many, and the Consultative Assembly supported the claims of the deceased King's younger brother, Rogerius. Rogerius at first upheld his brother's will, and acted as regent for the young King for two months after his brother's death. Eventually however, in June 1517, he deposed Eusebius the Young and proclaimed himself King of Darsis. The two Princes were then imprisoned in the Fortress of Uris, dying there sometime during the summer or autumn of 1517. Although Rogerius denied that he had anything to do with their deaths, the Princes did expire under mysterious circumstances. Rogerius governed for the next two years, and proved to be a tyrant, as he limited the Assembly's number of sessions, instated martial law, maintained a standing army, and extorted from the Church, nobles, and merchants. Tensions aroused in the country, and a young noble of Mathies descent, named Augustus, raised a army and landed in Mathies in August 1515, determined to depose Rogerius. He quickly received support from the Darsian garrisons of Mathies, Cheoria, Choleria, and West Emmerina. On 22 August, he clashed with the larger army of Rogerius in the Battle of Marden, which resulted in a decisive victory for him. Rogerius himself was slain on the field of battle, and Augustus proclaimed himself King of Darsis immediately after the battle. His advance to Uris was unopposed, and he reached the Darsian capital city on 2 October. On 17 October, he crowned himself King of Darsis (1515-1491).

Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages (c. 6000-1500 BH) Part XIIEdit

We should now turn our attention to what has transpired with the Almitian Papacy, for much has taken place with that institution. Pope Boniface IV the Vigilant (1706-1697), engaged in a vigorous dispute with King Philip IV of Chilsia. Boniface throughout his Papacy had claimed that the Almitian Church was superior to all secular leaders. In 1705, he had implemented a papal decree which asserted the Church's rights to its lands, its privilege to defend itself against the incursions of any monarch, and its sole control of the Sacraments, the Ceremonies of Almitis, and the Communications to Almitis and his prophets. In 1703, when Philip had convened a assembly of the clergy and forced them to recognize his sequestration of the church estates in Arghties, he found himself condemned by the Pope in a papal edict. The Pope ordered his representatives to march into Constantinople, to bar the King and his household from the holy properties, and to order all bishops of Chilsia to honor the wishes of the Holy See. In 1700, the King formalized the grant of a crusading tax license to the nobles of Burgunthia and Septimania, although this license could only be authorized by the Pope and only in the time of actual crusade in the East. Philip however, claimed that it was within the Crown to dispense of taxation and privileges and that it was in its power to issue charters, privilege bulls, and grants of taxation. The Pope formally condemned the measure, declared the King "a violator of the church's privileges", and ordered the abbots to refuse to surrender their financial revenues on a crusading basis to the nobility who might demand them. In 1699, Philip inflicted a severe outrage on the Church when he ordered the arrest of the Bishop of Arles, who had attacked the King's policies and encouraged his congregation to resist the exactions of royal officials and noble lieutenants. The Pope responded with a papal bull which asserted the Church's right of supremacy over the monarchy of Chilsia in all matters and which absolved the King's subjects of any further allegiance, as long as he harmed the interests of the Church. The King's officials however, prevented the Pope's emissaries from delivering the bull into Chilsia, and all clergymen were forced to swear a oath of homage to the King, reaffirming his authority and denying the existence of the Pope's bull. Finally, in 1697, Chilsian troops entered the papal residence of Constance, which was located on Chilsian territory but subject to the laws of the Church, and arrested the Pope himself, who happened to be on vacation there. The Pope was taken to Jarbonne, where he was humiliated and stripped of his vestaments in the presence of the town population. He died shortly thereafter.

His scared successor, Benedict XI (1697-1696), signed the Truce of Jarbonne with Philip in January 1696, by which the Pope temporarily recognized the King's rights to a crusading license and to the lands of certain hostile bishops. Benedict was followed by Clement the Meek (1695-1686), a Chilsian clergyman from Argorica who was friendly to the King and his interests. Clement held a series of meetings with Philip at Constance from 1694-92, by which the Concordat of Constance was signed. By the Concordat, Philip recognized that the Pope remained the highest religious authority, and that every religious official was subject to the Pope's absolute authority. In return, the Pope confirmed Philip's unlimited rights of taxation, promised to intervene no more in the affairs of the Chilsian government, and blessed Philip as the "protector of the liberties of the Church and the insurer of Almitism". This arrangement held for the remainder of Philip's reign and thereafter.

In order to facilitate the retention of peace, the Pope took up permanent residence at Constance in the fall of 1694, which was granted to him by Philip as his personal territory in 1690. For the next seventy years, the Popes were to reside at Constance, instead of at Ralispont, which was placed under the rule of regent-viceroys. Clement spent the remainder of his reign in peace, and upon his death in 1686, was succeeded by John XXII (1684-1666), who spent much of his reign in conflict with the Holy Mararian Emperor, Leonidas. John in fact, excommunicated the Emperor in 1069, although this decree was later withdrawn. John died in 1666, and his successor Benedict XII (1666-1658), attempted a meditation of the conflicts between Darsis and Chilsia, although these efforts failed. Nevertheless, he did solve the dispute with Leonidas, and in 1659, formally crowned him Emperor at Ostia. He died the following year, and was succeeded by the former Archbishop of Constantinople, who became Clement VI (1658-1648). Clement heavily supported Chilsian interests, and by the successive agreements of 1655, 1654, and 1652, he provided the Chilsian King with a considerable financial loan in order to equip his forces against the Darsian invasions. Clement instigated a major expansion of his estates at Constance, assembled one of the most magnificent courts on Laurasia, and conducted diplomatic relations with the far-away dynasties of Krayia and Cirhon. His papacy coincided with the Great Pestilence, and Clement organized programs in the Papal States from 1650-48 which provided medical and financial assistance to those impacted by plague. He died in the summer of 1648 and was succeeded by Innocent the Pious (1648-1638). Innocent attempted to meditate a peace between Darsis and Chilsia, arranging the two congresses of Verona in 1645 and 1642. His efforts, like those of his predecessor, did not succeed. Innocent's last years were dominated by the Cardinals, as the Pope, an elderly man, was unable to participate much in the actual business of governing the Church.

Upon his death in 1638, he was succeeded by his personal secretary, Romulus of Ceros, who became Urban V (1638-1630). Urban V was very much under the influence of the Chilsian government, and in 1633, he issued a papal edict which named Antigonus the Wise as the Church's "most honorable brother and apostle of monarchs". After Urban died in 1630, his successor Gregory the Prudent (1630-1622), began contemplating the possibility of returning to Ralispont. A major uprising at Ostia and the Papal Villages from 1629-26 seriously troubled the Pope, who realized that his continuing absence damaged the Church's prestige in Mararia. Indeed, Vanathia, Gegucia, Pavia, and the States of the Cleothardian League sent a petition to the pope in the fall of 1625, begging him to return to Ralispont and resume the "proper state of affairs". Finally, in September 1624, Gregory and his court departed from Constance, and the Pope announced his intention to resume the occupation of Ralispont as the headquarters of the Holy See. In January 1623, he and his court finally arrived in Ralispont, and the Papacy had been returned to the city after a absence of seventy years. The following year, however, Gregory died, which launched a major schism within the Almitian Church.

Shortly after his death, the cardinals of Ralispont gathered and elected the Archbishop of Pavia and Regusa as Urban VI (1622-1611). Urban VI, proved to be a suspicious and cruel Pope, who alienated many of his supporters. Several of the cardinals, archbishops, and holy deacons, alienated by his actions, traveled to Constance, which remained under the rule of the Holy See, and elected Athanasius of Neustria as Clement VII in September. Clement reestablished the court of Constance and declared himself the sole Pope of Almitism. The Great Almitian Schism commenced, which divided the Church for the next thirty-nine years. Soon, both Clement and Urban had excommunicated each other, and each Pope received the support of a segment of the continent. Chilsia, Eastern Inoria, Western Inoria, Lustiania, Karniya, Burgunthia, Western Cleothardy, Kalabaria, Balay, Hisland, the Lycian Principalities, and the Hanubian Principalities recognized the court of Constance, while Tardork, Targay, parts of the Holy Mararian Empire, Maryneria, Darsis, Barshoria, the Papal States, Vanathia, Barshoria, Richland, Polosia, Laudermia, Katherina, Barlavia, Grinae, and the Hellespont recognized the court of Ralispont. Many monarchs took advantage of the schism to raise religious taxes, appoint bishops and abbots, and confiscate the goods of church properties. Urban VI of Ralispont died in 1611 and was succeeded as Pope of Ralispont by Boniface IX. Benedict XII became Pope of Constance in 1606, succeeding Clement VII. In 1600 BH, the population of Laurasia was 120 million. Haustia was divided among its various kingdoms, while the Osrianian Empire, the Janissary Dynasty, and the Telemachian Empire shared rule of Explosansis and western Cellini.

Boniface died in 1596 and was succeeded by Innocent VII. In 1591, more confusion was added when the antipope Alexander V was elected at Beneventum in Inoria, ruling there until his death the following year. He was succeeded by John XXIII, whose authority was recognized in Inoria, Lustiania, and Galdornia. The crisis impacting the Church eventually aroused the serious concern of the various Haustian monarchs, and in 1586, the Council of Kirgthia was convened by John XXIII and Gregory the Meditator, who had become Pope at Ralispont in 1596. Benedict XII of Constance refused to acknowledge the council and as a result was excommunicated by those who attended. In 1585, John XXIII and Gregory the Meditator both abdicated, but issued a joint papal bull before they did so, empowering the Council to nominate a successor. The Council was moderated by the Holy Mararian Emperor Seleucus of Barshoria, who, having been King of Barshoria since 1613, ascended to the Imperial throne in 1590. The monarchs of Chilsia, Darsis, Targay, Tardork, Maryneria, Polosia, Laudermia, Madavarian Lycia, Eastern Inoria, Central Inoria, Lusitania, Kalabria, and Vanathia sent their delegates and personal representatives to the Council. After two further years of deliberation, during which the Council condemned the Gagranian heresy of Alohemia and the Neo-Truite heresy of Darsis, the Mararian Archbishop of Pavia, Exargius, was elected Pope as Martin V in 1583. The election of Martin signified the end of the Great Almitian Schism. Although the Church was reunified, it had been severely weakened by the disputes. Martin, who remained Pope until his death in 1569, had to deal with the usurper lord Malarius of Ostia, who seized the eastern provinces of the Papal States in 1581 and refused to acknowledge the decision of the Council of Kirgithia. Through a combination of military action and church sanctions, Martin managed to subdue Malarius in 1578, consolidating his authority over the Papal States. The remainder of his rule was relatively peaceful.

Upon his death in February 1569, the Archbishop of Vanathia, Eugenius, became Pope Eugenius IV (1569-1553). Eugenius IV was to be engaged in a clash for the control of the church with the Council of Mendelevium, which he originally convened in the fall of 1569. The Council however, declared that it was superior to the Pope. In 1567, a truce was meditated by Emperor Seleucus, who had been crowned in Ralispont by the Pope that year. The truce survived until Seleucus died in 1563. The following year, it broke out anew, and in June, the Pope excommunicated all the members of the Council of Kirgithia. The Council responded to this by suspending him from office, following this with a formal disposition of him as Pope in June 961. On 5 November, the Council elevated the duke of Salanian Cleothardy, Amadeus, to the See as Felix V (1561-1551). The authority of Felix was acknowledged in Cleothardy, Northern Mararia, Heletia, Galdornia, Septimania, the Inorian kingdoms, Lusitania, and the Mararian Islands. Eventually, with the support of the Holy Mararian Emperor Varus III, Eugenius managed to consolidate his position and eliminate his rivals. In 1557, a council of prelates at Ralispont recognized him as the sole Pope of the Almitian Church, and in 1555, the Inorian kingdoms renounced their allegiance to Felix. Two years later Eugenius died, and he was succeeded by Athanasius II (1553-1545), who secured the final abdication of Felix in 1551. Athanasius was a vigorous and energetic Pope. He was a major patron of the Laurasian Renaissance, to be described below and engaged in correspondence with Constantine the Last, who in 1549-48 sent him repeated pleas for aid against the Osrianians. This aid did not come, and in 1547, the Pope was confronted with the news of the Fall of Elana. He began making plans for a holy crusade to the East, but died before these could be carried out. In 1548, he formally crowned Varus III Emperor at Ralispont, the last time in the history of the Holy Mararian Empire that a Emperor was crowned in Ralispont. Athanasius also issued bulls of privilege to Lusitania, which had commenced its voyages of exploration to Westar and Explosansis. Upon his death in 1545, he was succeeded by Callixtus III (945-942), whose calls for a crusade against the Osrianians were ignored.

Callixtus was followed in 1542 by Pius II (1542-1536), who maintained the stability of the Church and instigated various architectural projects in Ostia, Ralispont, and Ravenna. Pius's successor, Paul II (1536-1529), expanded the structure of the Church by creating eight new cardinals in 1531 for the dioceses of Lycia, Targay, Tardork, Barshoria, and Barlavia. Paul became engaged in a dispute over monasteries and their privileges with King Antigonus the Conspirator of Chilsia, which was ultimately solved in 1531 by the Pact of Constance. He too, embellished his capital with lavish treasures and architectural wonders, and in 1530, declared that the Papacy was forever after to be "a esteemed patron of the arts and sciences in the name of Almitis". Paul's successor Sixtus IV (1529-1516), became known for his wealth and gluttony. He nevertheless was responsible for the establishment of the Holy Inquisition in 1522, by which heretics, Jatherian Traditionalists, and Truite infidels were to be pursued, charged, and persecuted. The Inquisition established its special offices in Beneventum, and became especially strong in the Inorian kingdoms. Sixtus died in the autumn of 1516, being succeeded by Innocent VII (1516-1508). Innocent strengthened the Inquisition and ordered the instigation of perscuetions against the Walerian, Gorite, and Joanite sects of Chilsia, Burgunthia, and the western provinces of the Holy Mararian Empire, in particular Rhinoria, Mendelvia, and Heletia. Innocent also continued the artistic projects of his predecessors, and he was responsible for the organization of the vast Ralian Library, which became a center of learning in Haustia. Innocent lived to see the fall of the final Truite stronghold in Inoria, Goria, to the Kingdom of Western Inoria in January 1508, a event which was celebrated by many across Haustia. He died in July, and his successor was the Kalabrian Archbishop of Pompeii, who became Alexander VI (1508-1497). Alexander became known for his corrupt nature, spectacular gluttony, and crude perception of his spiritual duties. Alexander spent much of his reign accumulating territory and wealth for his family, who came to dominate the economy and society of the Papal States. The Chilsian Wars, the discovery of the Westar continents, and the controversy of the monk Saladius in Gararia were the main events of his Papacy.

We should now turn to a discussion of the Laurasian Renaissance, which first emerged during the 18th century BH and ushered in a great expansion, consolidation, and enrichment of Laurasian culture, society, and government. Since the end of Laurasian Antiquity, many ancient texts, dating back to the times of not only the Brethalians, but also of the Tatianians, Mesians, Gedrosians, Assyrians, Akkadians, Susanians, Harappans, Letousians, Grinans, and others had been lost, damaged, or corrupted. As the Dark Ages descended on the surface of Laurasia, much of the earlier learning was lost, and many people became ignorant of classical knowledge, historical events, and scholars. Monasteries and churches preserved some of the knowledge of earlier times, but were primarily interested in annotating and maintaining those texts which made reference to Almitism or which agreed with the teachings of the Church. Geographical and military texts were misplaced or buried, and information about Westar, eastern Cellini, and Explosansis was scattered to the winds. For centuries, scholars were to be puzzled by the references to far-away lands in Brethalian works, such as those to Krayia, Cirhon, Ameridini, Australasia, or the Syrenes Sea, and were to erroneously connect them with certain regions of Haustia or Western Cellini. This deficiency was to be first corrected in the 18th century BH, with the voyages to Cirhon, Krayia, and Eastern Oceania of Marcus Poloinus (1746-1676), who traveled with his brothers to the East in 1731 and recorded his adventures in the Voyages of Marcus Polonius, which were widely circulated in Haustia from 1701 onwards. In his work, Polonius described the customs of Krayia, Cirhon, Eastern Oceania, Falloria, Tatiana, Gedrosia, Mesia, the trans-Tethornes, Acolonia, Doria, and Hugill. He inserted sections about the history of those regions, which he learned from local chronicles and accounts, as well as from Truite and Krayian histories. Polonius was the first in his time to accurately deduce that these regions had once been part of the Brethalian Empire, and he included in his work, notes on his belief that in the West "lay the lands of old Ameridini". Polonius was to be followed by several other travelers, including Geraldius of Lawrence (1713-1675), Friar Thomasius of Pavia (1700-1635), and the Lord Methodius of Al-Volga (1696-1638), whose accounts and recollections of what they observed in the East provided much information to Haustia about those distant lands.

Besides this, contact with the Truite world introduced major innovations into Haustia. The great Darsian scientist Adelarus (1896-1841), was the first in Haustia to use the system of Truite numerals, to employ the Truite concepts of algebra and geometry, and to refer to Truite treatises on science, medicine, and military techniques. Adelarus' contemporary, Peter of Chilsia (c. 1890-1830), rediscovered the ancient works of the Brethalian physician Galerius, who had lived in the 29th century BH, and the treatises on philosophy of Aristovistulus, a scholar of Elana who had lived in the 28th century BH. By the end of the century, scholarly institutes at Pavia, Mendeluvium, Ostia, Ralispont, Vanathia, Ravenna, Constantinople, Jarbonne, Londinium, Uris, and Benoventum had been established which studied the texts of the ancients, taught the sciences of grammar and logic, and infused among themselves the knowledge of the past. These institutes gradually evolved into the first Laurasian universities, and the University of Londinium was to be formally organized in 1792, followed by that of Uris in 1790 and Constantinople in 1787. By 1780, the works of most of the great Brethalian, Tatianian, Grinan, and Mesian scholars had been translated and annotated, while the chief works of Truite scholars such as Athanasius of Ceros and Matthew of Mesia became accessible to Haustian scholars.

Over the next seventy years, nearly 700 commentaries and treatises appeared on these ancient works, most of whom were produced in Wallachia, Chilsia, Anthoria, Darsis, Barshoria, and Mararia. Scholars such as Rogerius Bathonicus, Boethius of Ravenna, and Horace Nakia became respected in their fields of expertise. Monarchs and princes began to sponsor their pursuits, while the Church issued a edict in 1750 that formally authorized the research of ancient works and encouraged also the study of old Almitian treatises. In 1735, Rogerius Bathonicus was to discover the original manuscript of the First Gospel of Paul and the notes of Eusebius on the Trinity of Almitism, both of whom dated from the mid 30th century. Five years later, he discovered fragments of Paul's treatise on holy sacrifices and benedictions, which dated from 2972 BH. Major inventions during this time, such as the introduction of paper, the creation of the magnifying glass, and the earliest gunpowder, helped to revolutionize Haustian society.

During the 17th century BH, the Laurasian Renaissance progressed further with the appearance in Haustia of five major figures, each of whom were to have their own impact upon the Laurasians and were to be the precursors of the future humanist movement. The first of these was Demetrius Cassolidus (1635-1679), who was born to a family of nobles in the Principality of Pavia. Cassolidus studied at the Institute of Ralispont and the University of Constantinople, becoming familiar with the classics, languages, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, forensics, grammar, logic, and various other fields of study. He developed a fierce interest in affairs of the past and became determined to research about the times of the Brethalian Empire. From 1710 until his death in 1679, Cassolidus established himself as a major scholar, poet, and librarian in Haustia. He searched monasteries and palaces throughout Haustia, gathering hundreds of ancient manuscripts and documents on subjects such as law, politics, military studies, astronomy, anatomy, theology, philisophy, mythology, forensics, chemistry, commerce, and agriculture. In 1704, he produced his first major treatise, On the Works of the Ancients, which became a standard guidebook to the research of Grinan, Brethalian, and Tatianian studies. Three years later, Cassolidus produced his Essay on Human Logic, which he presented to the Pope. In 1698, his Commentaries on Ancient Poetry appeared, and inspired debate about the virtues of ancient lyrics and verses in universities and institutes throughout Haustia. In 1695, Cassolidus was appointed Dean of the School of Grammar in Constantinople by King Demetrius the Mad, and it was in this secure position that he wrote his famed Letters of Philiology and Forensics, addressed to various monarchs and to his fellow scholars. Four volumes would ultimately be published of this monumental work. In 1682, Cassolidus began work on his Laurasian Comedies of Society, and had completed the first forty-five poems of verse when he died.

The work of Cassolidus was to be completed and refined by Scripio Maranius (1696-1626), who was born in Jurcuse and became known throughout Haustia for his scholary studies, his sonnets, and his extensive correspondence. Scripio attended the University of Jurcuse, and it was there that he became familar with the works of Cassolidus, Polonius, Adelarus, Peter of Chilsia, Geraldus of Lawrence, Friar Thomasius of Pavia, among others. Maranius imbued with a passion and a love for the works of the ancients, and he decided to dedicate his life to the restoration and distribution of their teachings. Upon his graduation from the University of Jurcuse in 1675, Maranius moved to Wallachia, settling in the city of Basalina and gaining a position with the Classical Institute of Studies. There, he worked as assistant librarian, gathering, annotating, and collecting manuscripts, organizing the university's volumes, and preparing one of the earliest literary indexes in Haustia. In 1670, Maranius traveled throughout Mararia, Wallachia, and Barshoria, visiting old monasteries. It was in the Monastery of St. Benedict, located five miles to the north of Ostia, that he discovered ancient manuscripts of the works of the Brethalian scholars Prosperius, Laucantius secretary of Vespasian, Theodoisus of Elana, and others. Maranius brought these back to the University of Jurcuse, and he began a extensive study of their treatises and essays, the Chronographia of Ancient Tomes, which he produced in 1667. This work gained Maranius instant fame throughout Haustia, and in 1665, he moved to Vanathia, accepting a invitation sent by the Vanathian Senate. Maranius became Vice-Chancellor of the University of Vanathia, and during that period, he produced his Poems of Comedy (1663), the Treatise on Logic (1661), the Sonnets praising Vanathia (1660), and the Survey of the Present State of Mararia (1658), which sought to emphasize remaining Brethalian, Oslemite, and Al-Volgan influences.

From 1657 to 1645, he wrote his famous letters to the ancient scholars. In his letter to Prosperius, he stated that "had you lived a few years longer, you would have witnessed the birth of one who has had a great impact on Laurasian society" (referring to St. Paul, the Disciple and Prophet of Almitism). Ultimately, he produced 230 letters. In 1647, Maranius, reading what had been completed by Cassolidus of his Laurasian Comedies of Society, decided to finish the work, and produced a further 115 poems to the Comedies, alongside a commentary and a dedication letter, which were completed in 1641. In 1638, Maranius inherited his family's fortunes, upon the death of his mother, and as such became very wealthy. He came to own estates in the Papal States, Kalabria, Cleothardy, Vanathia, Barshoria, Heletia, Alohemia, Hanubia, Polosia, Chilsia, and Darsis. In 1635, Maranius moved into his family's mansion in Ostia, and remained there for the rest of his life. For the last nine years of his life, he produced a score of pamphlets, letters, comedies, sonnets, and tragedies, which cemented further his prestige. Maranius died in the summer of 1626 and was, by the orders of the Pope, given a state funeral. At the funeral, Maranius' friend, Boethius of Plantinus (1687-1625), delivered the oration. Boethius, who had graduated from the University of Ralispont in 1667, became known as a major scholar in his own right, especially for his works on theology, mythology, and law. His Essay on the Virtues of Brethalian Law (1661), Commentaries on Civil and Judicial Proceedings (1659), and Collection of the Laws of the Brethalian Monarchs (1654) had a major legal impact upon Laurasian society of that time period. Boethius's History of the Formation of the Almitian Church (1652), received a bull of applause from the Pope. From 1640, he labored on the Testament of Monarchies, which were completed only in 1626, consisting of seven volumes. In 1629, Boethius became Professor Emeritus of the University of Ralispont, and in 1627, personal secretary of the Pope. He died in November 1625, and was buried in the Chapel of the Papacy, alongside Maranius. Portraits of both Maranius and Boethius were produced by their mentor, Seneca of Pavia (1733-1653), who had also been a contemporary of Cassolidus. Seneca was the first in a line of great Renaissance artists. The fifth and last great figure was Gregory of Darsis (1647-1600), who was familiar with the works of the above scholars and scientists. Gregory decided to employ ancient style and information in his Darsian Tales, which were completed in 1613. The Darsian Tales became famous throughout Haustia, and inspired interest in ancient literature.

During the 16th century BH, the Renaissance advanced considerably. Successive Popes, from Innocent VII onwards, assembled a massive library in Ralispont, collecting a wide range of manuscripts and inviting Renaissance scholars to their court. When Elana fell to the Osrianians in 1547, numerous Brethalian, Grinan, and Acolonian scholars fled to Mararia and Wallachia, bringing manuscripts, their knowledge of Brethalian and Acolonian, and their expertise with them. The scholars shared their knowledge with their counterparts, and a flood of further commentaries, essays, and evaluation surveys were produced. One of the most notable of these commentators was Plautus Madardonlus (1536-1506), who, although he died at the age of only thirty, nevertheless became a prolific writer. Madardonlus' commentaries on Pluto, Theodosius of Elana, and Laucantius, the Discussions of Ancient Writers, were published in 1516, followed by his Poems of a Learner (1514), Treatise of Scientific Observations (1512), and Annotated Collection of Ancient Mythological Poems and Plays (1510-07). By the time of his premature death in 906, he had cemented his position as a respected figure of the Laurasian Renaissance. It must be noted that in the second half of the 16th century, a major invention took place which assisted the efforts of the humanists of the Renaissance: the invention of printing. Paper, it must be remembered, had been brought into Haustia in earlier centuries. This did not however, modify the traditional method of the production and distribution of written works. For the past 4,300 years, ever since the initial invention of writing by the ancient Susanians, the dissemination of works had relied upon copyists, scribes, and religious translators. These men labored on their manuscripts, and it took them months to produce a copy of a single world. As a result, the number of copies of any book or document were severely limited. From the introduction of Almitism, most of these copies were stored in monasteries and in the libraries of great noblemen, kings, Popes, and Truite Grand Masters. The works were also accompanied with errors, as scribes mistranslated or mis-copied the earlier manuscripts from which they labored. Over the course of time, many of the manuscripts from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th millenniums BH had been lost, corrupted, or destroyed. By the 16th century, the need for a more effective system of distribution and maintenance of books was recognized. In the 18th century BH, experiments were conducted with a system of "wood-block printing", primarily in the Truite cities of Gedrosia, Mesia, Tatiana, and Sophomora. In this system, a separate page was painstakingly carved on a woodblock, which would then be continually impressed over a sheet of paper to produce multiple copies. It was time-consuming, although it did increase the number of copies of a particular work.

In the middle of the 16th century, the Wallachian businessman Jonathus of Sellos (1600-1532), conceived the idea of movable type, which would comprise of all the components needed for the wide-spread production of books. In 1550, he invented his first working printing press in his shop in the town of Sellos, and in 1546, he published the first book ever produced by a printing press. It was his edition of the Almitian Scriptures. Two years later, Jonathus formally patented his device with the Wallachian government, and it quickly spread throughout Haustia. Jonathus himself became wealthy from his efforts, and by the time of his death in 1532 BH, he had established 40 printing presses throughout Wallachia, Barshoria, Polosia, Mararia, Anthoria, Chilsia, Darsis, Tardork, and Targay. Over the remainder of the century, the printing press spread to the other Haustian kingdoms. By 1500, there were one hundred printing presses in existence throughout Haustia, and the corporation of Jonathius, Jonathian Printers, dominated the business. It was not until 1463 that its dominance was broken. The Truite world at first regarded the press as heretical, and it was not until the middle of the 14th century that the Osrianian Empire finally permitted its use within its territories. The press did not spread to Krayia, Cirhon, and Falloria until after 1300 BH. Nevertheless, the invention of movable-type printing was a major innovation of Laurasian history. In 1496, Aldinus of Pisgus established the Aldine Press in Vanathia, which was to become a major distributor of Renaissance works. Coinciding with the invention in painting was the further developments in art. The renowned architect and sculptor Philip of Europa (1633-1566), became known for his discovery of perspective, his construction of the Great Dome of Pavia, and his paintings of various historical figures, including all of the Popes from the 24th to the 16th centuries BH. Philip's theories on perspective would be refined by the great artistic historian of the 15th century, Leonidas Cagornia (1496-1428), whose History of Artistic Evolution (1463), Essay on Perspective and Mathematical Principles of Art (1460), and Study of Artistic Techniques (1452), would be renowned throughout Haustia for their detail, insight, and accuracy.

Cagornia's contemporary, Demetrius Icarus (1514-1434), became known for his representations of Cliethus, Paul, Eusebius, Constantine, Vespasian, Lysimachus Martel, Demetrius the Great, Gregory the Great, and other pivotal figures of history. Icarus himself was a renowned author and historian, and his Study of the Art of the Ancients and Medievals (1447), became as renowned as the studies of Cagornia. In the last part of the century, Icarus was to be followed by three greats of the arts: Cicero Gagourliae (1455-1390), whose paintings of various Brethalian, Grinan, and Tatianian mythological gods, especially of Messalina, provoked much discussion in Haustian intellectual circles and aroused the condemnation of the Church; Lysimachus Agonasius (1425-1336), one of the greatest Laurasian intellectuals to have ever lived, who displayed his skills as a poet, painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, librarian, and historian; and another Laurasian great, perhaps the greatest Laurasian intellectual before the Space Age, Seleucus Vancantius (1448-1381), who became known for his five masterpiece paintings, his extensive journals which fill 100 volumes, and his histories on the Brethalian, Tatianian, Grinan, Chilsian, Truite, and Holy Mararian Empires. Vancantius was a poet, painter, musician, philosopher, novelist, sculptor, engineer, mathematician, architect, geologist, botanist, and cartographer. All of these men did much to advance the Renaissance and ushered in the greatest flowering of Laurasian society before the Space Age. Several other figures, such as Eurysmachus Pallas, Apollo Agorni, and Mercury of Geldes became respected artists in their own right. During the 9th century, the Renaissance spread throughout Haustia, and prominent figures appeared outside of Mararia, such as Walterius Sergonius (1436-1384), one of the most prominent playwrights and poets in Laurasian history.

Sergonius, who was heavily influenced by the impact of the Renaissance, graduated from the University of Heliotrope in 1410 and thereafter went on a journey throughout Chilsia, Burgunthia, Wallachia, Mararia, and Polosia, writing the extensive Diaries of a Darsian Traveler, which were published in 1404. Sergonius incorporated foreign locations, foreign characters, foreign historical events, and foreign references in his plays. In 1405-1400 he wrote his great comedies: The Wiles of Women, Darsian Humors, The Dreams of a Fair Knight, and My Lady's Recourse. This was followed in 1400-1395 with his great romances and histories, which included Julius Nepalius, Demetrius the Great, Justinian, Cliethus, the Pompeys of Brethalia, Parts I and II, Romulus and Livia, The Rulers of Darsis, and These Men of Fame. From 1395 to 1389, he produced his great tragedies, including Otho, The Folly of Humankind, Ecclesiastes, the Murderous Tyrant, and Why Shalt We Die?. All total, he produced 57 plays. In 1388, he published his collection of 500 sonnets and 200 lines of verse, which gained extensive fame throughout Laurasia. In 1385, he published the first volume of his Recollections of a Playwright, which included material from his earlier diaries and a account of his life. He was working on the second volume when he died. It was completed by his daughter, Anna Galeria, who published the final three volumes in 1371. Sergonius's contemporary, Alexander Gaslancius (1436-1408), became known for his plays Dr. Isarus (1411) and The Mystery of Wonna (1409). Other notable Darsian authors and poets of the Renaissance included Lord Cornellius of Grathine (1532-1465); Sir Athanasius Rascoius (1447-1401); Sir Creon Synathicus (1446-1414); Demetrius Shathigus, Lord of Jasone (1439-1374); and John of Mathies (1392-1326). Cornellius became known for his Visions, which were published in 1484. Rascoius was renowned for his great poem Gloriana (1404). Synathicus became known for his Reflections of Time (1420) and his Sayings of a Gentleman (1415). Shathigus was a renowned scientist, jurist, poet, author, and philosopher, whose theories of scientific experimentation would become the groundwork of further scientific inquiry on Laurasia. John of Mathies was a renowned poet, author, and theorist, who published 50 political treatises, 30 economic essays, and 20 collections of poems, each with 100 sonnets. Finally, although he was not a Darsian, we must note Desiderius Aracrius (1534-1464), a respected Anthorian theologian, philosopher, historian, poet, author, professor, and priest, whose works, including The Death of Simplicity, Guidebook to Men of Reasonable Ideals, Essay on the Principles of Mankind, Translation and Annotation of the Blessed Scriptures, Observations on the Virtues of the Church, Philosophic Treatises, and Proper Means of Behavior, would have a major influence upon succeeding generations.

With the Renaissance having been discussed in sufficient detail, we must now turn our attention towards other events which transpired during the 16th century BH. The 16th century was the Age of Haustian Exploration, during which the Haustian kingdoms launched voyages, inspired by the accounts of Polonius and others, to the West, seeking to rediscover the lands of "old Ameridini, the Syrenes, and Southern Westar", to establish direct contact with eastern Haustia, and to plant colonies, trading posts, and military stations in foreign regions. Further motivation was of course provided by the Osrianian advance. The Osrianians, who gradually took possession of the eastern and southern Great Haustian Sea, thus gained control of the trade routes leading through Explosansis and Western Cellini. For a long time as well, the Mararian states, such as Vanathia, had conducted trade with Truite merchants and had controlled the transport, distribution, and sale of Cellini products in Haustia. They dominated the silk and spice trade, which enriched their treasuries and cemented their influence. Spices, some of the most demanded and used products in Haustia during the Middle Age, being used in religious rituals, medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, food additives, and food preservatives. Gradually, the rise of the Osrianians and fear of the wealth and power of the Mararian city-states inspired other Haustian powers to seek their own trade routes. They were also motivated by a severe shortage in gold and silver bullion, which developed during the first half of the 16th century BH. Mines and mints, which had been used consistently since the times of the Brethalian Empire, were largely exhausted, and countries such as Chilsia, Darsis, Eastern Inoria, Western Inoria, and Lusitania needed new sources of gold and silver. Lusitania was the first of the Haustian kingdoms to instigate extensive adventures and missions to the West. As early as 1703, King Demtraus of Lusitania (1721-1675), in the wake of the Lusitanian conquest of Allorica from the Truite Kingdom of Hercules, had issued a decree calling for the expansion of the Lusitanian navy. Twenty years later, he appointed the Pavian merchant sailor, Menelaus of Pythagoras, as the first admiral of the Lusitanian navy. Menelaus focused his efforts on patrolling the Lusitanian coast and conducting surveys of the Lusitanian Sea. Demtraus' son and successor, Altherius IV of Lusitania (1675-1643), continued to sponsor the development of Lusitanian naval and mercantile pursuits. During his reign, the Canathian Islands were colonized.

Following the death of Altherius, Lusitania continued its advance. In 1585 BH, the port of Hellecia, on the western shore of Explosansis, which touched the Pillars of Hercules, was conquered by a naval fleet of Lusitania. The young Prince Balbinus (1666-1540), who was to become a major supporter of future Lusitanian naval pursuits, served in the corps which descended upon Hellecia's walls. Balbinius, a energetic and curious figure, was determined to extend Lusitania's reach into foreign regions and to seek out possibilities for the expansion of trade. Balbinius began investing in exploration expeditions to explore the coast of Western Explosansis. He also sponsored the translation and annotation of ancient geographical maps, treatises, and essays, which provided clues to the locations of Westar and the lands of Ameridini. Thanks to his efforts, Lusitanian exploration expeditions progressed rapidly. In 1581, the island of Madelena was explored and claimed by Lusitania, followed by the islands of the Trans-Veres (1573). From 1579 until 1566, Lusitanian vessels gradually progressed beyond the Cape of Cantemines, eventually reaching the region of Vera in 1566. A extensive collection of maps of the coastal regions of Explosansis, alongside comparison surveys with ancient maps of the same regions, would eventually be published in 1536. By the middle of the century, the caravel had been perfected, a ship of such construction and form that would allow it to traverse longer distances safely. With the assistance of the caravel, and also of the compass (1596) and astrolabe (1590), the Lusitanian expeditions continued. In 1555, the Lethone Peninsula was reached, followed in 1554 by the Island of Esia. The fall of Elana to the Osrianians in 1547 prompted the Lusitanian expeditions yet further. In 1545, Pope Athanasius II formalized the grant of all lands discovered through exploration to the Lusitanian Kingdom, and declared that King Altherius V of Lusitania (1563-1418) and his successors were to be the "overseas saviors of Almitism and the colonizers of lands to be subdued by the will of our Great Lord". The following year, the Verdo Triangle was explored.

In 1540, Prince Balbinus died, shortly after a Lusitanian expedition reached the cities of Vargae, a Truite kingdom located at the Tropic of Jancer. A treaty was signed between Lusitania and Vargae in 1537, providing for diplomatic relations and a economic partnership. To cement the treaty, King Leonidas of Vargae provided twelve slaves to King Altherius V, thus instigating the Explosansian slave trade. In 1531, a contract of exploration was granted by the King to the Mararian sailor Telemachus Ithius, who had entered the service of Lusitania in 1535. If Ithius explored one hundred miles of coastline each year for five years, he was to be given the title of Admiral and extensive estates on the Canathian Islands. Ithius took up the commission and by 1526, had penetrated to Sarith, almost near the tip of Explosansis and some six hundred miles south of Vargae. In 1518, upon the death of Altherius V, he was succeeded by his son John II (1518-1505). John II ordered the establishment of a mining colony on Esia in 1517, which was to be exploited with the labor of Explosansian slaves. In 1516-15, trading posts and slaver castles were established in the Lethone Peninsula and the edge of the Verdo Triangle. By 1514, the inland regions of Vargae and Trans-Hottentia had been explored, while the Lusitanians had established further colonies at Allolia, Bosipa, and Jovernia on the western coast of Explosansis, especially in Macedonia and Muadermia. In 1512, the Lusitanian admiral Bartholomew Sallixtus rounded the Cape of Southern Explosansis, becoming the first Haustian since the 24th century BH to enter the Great Fallorian Ocean. When he returned to Lusitania in 1510, he was received with great honors, and throughout Haustia, celebrations were held to mark on how the bounds of the ancient Brethalian Empire were being reunited into one society. Within two years, however, his achievement was to be overshadowed, as even greater events were to take place.

The eastern neighbor and rival of Lusitania, Western Inoria, had been distracted for most of the century by wars with Goria, the last Truite foothold in Inoria, by civil unrest, and by border conflicts with its neighbor, Eastern Inoria. In the second half of the century, however, both Inorian kingdoms consolidated and considerably expanded their power. In October 1531, Princess Alexandra of Western Inoria (heiress to the Western Inorian throne), and Prince Eusebius of Eastern Inoria (heir to the Eastern Inorian throne), having fallen in love, married in secret. The father of Eusebius, John the Old of Eastern Inoria (1542-1521), was enraged when he learned of the union, and threatened to cut his son from the succession, but ultimately relented and formally approved the marriage in 1529. In August 1526, Alexandra succeeded her half-brother, Hensius II of Western Inoria (1546-1526), to the throne of Western Inoria. She and her husband, who was now King jure uxoris of Western Inoria, soon faced the challenge of Princess Horacia, who held a claim to the Western Inorian throne and received financial aid from Altherius V. She was ultimately defeated in 1523. In 1521, upon the death of John the Old, Eusebius ascended to the throne of Eastern Inoria (1521-1484). In September of that year, the Treaty of Sargoria was signed with Altherius V. By the terms of the treaty, Altherius V recognized Alexandra as Queen of Western Inoria and promised to support no more rebel movements against her reign. In turn, Alexandra renounced her claims to the Lusitanian throne. Both she and her husband agreed to divide the Great Western Ocean with Lusitania into two zones of influence. Lusitania's control of all the lands along the coast of Explosansis was confirmed, while Western Inoria gained the right to send expeditions to the farther west, in hopes of "discovering the landmasses of Westar". Following this however, the attention of the co-monarchs was diverted to Goria, the last Truite territory in Inoria. 767 years had elapsed since the first Truite forces had landed in the Pillars of Hercules. Goria, under the rule of the Nadrianian Dynasty, still occasionally harassed the Inorian kingdoms with border raids and espionage operations. In December 1518, a Gorian border raid against the garrison town of Sethalia provided a excuse to the Inorian co-monarchs for a holy crusade. Mustering a army comprised of mercenaries, Inorian trooper corps, and conscripts provided by nobles and cities, Alexandra and Eusebius declared war in January 1517 and launched a major invasion of Goria, thus instigating the final Truite war in Inoria.

For the next ten years, a fierce conflict ensued, as the Inorian armies advanced slowly into Gorian territory. Goria was impacted by civil war, which helped the Inorians. Three rulers governed Goria during the civil war: Mithridates (1518-1515); Matthew XIII (1515-1513); and Matthew XI (1513-1508). Nevertheless, great pressure was applied on the economy of the Inorian kingdoms, and the co-monarchs were forced to seek grants of crusading and Mother of Almitis taxes from the Pope in 1515. Gradually however, the Gorian cities of Rothana (1515); Isanna (1514); Miletus (1513); Baselia (1513); Vamines (1512); Lycus (1511); Almeria (1510); Cagonia (1510); the Veses Towns (1510); and Hoque (1509) were conquered. By the spring of 1509, only the city of Goria remained under Truite rule in Inoria. In April 1509, the siege of Goria commenced. Matthew XI attempted to rally the city's defenders, and until November, it fiercely resisted the Almitian armies. When Alexandra and Eusebius arrived to take personal command of their forces, however, the city's resistance weakened. On November 3, Matthew XI asked for a truce, and on November 25, the Treaty of Goria was signed. It provided for a two-month truce, during which Goria was to dismantle its government resources, transfer its treasury to Inoria, and make preparations for the end of Truite rule. Religious toleration and freedom of passage was to be guaranteed to all Truites living within Inoria. Matthew himself was to be insured in his faith and was to be honored as a monarch until his death. On 2 January 1508, at the end of the two-month period, Goria formally surrendered to the Inorian monarchs, and the entire peninsula was again under Almitian rule, after nearly eight centuries. Alexandra and Eusebius received the keys of the city from Matthew himself. The fall of Goria was greeted with major celebrations throughout Haustia. All of the Almitian monarchs sent their congratulations to Alexandra and Eusebius, praising them for their victory. Pope Alexander VI, after his ascension in July, bestowed the title of "Most Reverent Enforcer of Almitis" on the Inorian Monarchs and blessed them in the name of Almitis, the Disciples, and Paul the Lord. In March, the two monarchs issued the Goria Decree, which confirmed the grant of religious toleration to Truites but restricted their political rights and placed them under state supervision. The same decree expelled all Jatherian Traditionalists from Inoria. Ultimately, some 200,000 fled into exile, mostly to the Osrianian Empire, Barshoria, or the Janissary Dynasty. The Osrianian Emperor, Callimachus II, boasted that the Inorian Monarchs had "impoverished themselves and enriched my own dominion".

With Goria subdued and the Jatherian Traditionalists expelled, the Inorian Monarchs could now turn their attention to exploration and colonization. Since 1512, the Vanathian explorer, sailor, and navigator Alexander Caladrinus (1549-1494), had been at the court of the Inorian Monarchs. He had sought to gain support for a voyage to the West, in order to rediscover the Westar continents, establish trading stations in those regions, and facilitate direct contacts with the lands of Krayia, Cirhon, and Australasia. Before 1512, he had visited the courts of Darsis, Chilsia, Anthoria, the Holy Mararian Empire, Lusitania, and even Polosia, attempting to gain a patron for his planned expeditions. On all occasions, he had been rejected. Caladrinus now pinned his last hope for fame and prestige with the Inorian Monarchs, praying that they would sponsor a voyage of exploration to the West. The Gorian Wars prevented for several years a decision of the Monarchs on the manner. In the summer of 1508, just as Caladrinus was making plans to return to his native Vanathia, the monarchs sent a messenger to him and offered him command of a naval and exploration expedition to the Western Continents. Caladrinus, as part of his conditions for the command of a expedition, and as his compensation for years of waiting, demanded that he be appointed Admiral of the Western Inorian Navy, Commander of all exploration forces, and governor of the lands which he would encounter. The monarchs at first relented, but when Caladrinus resumed his plans to leave, they decided to take up his demands. In July 1508, they issued a decree which formally appointed Caladrinus to the positions which he had requested and authorized the expedition. On August 3, 1508, Caladrinus departed from the port of Thalina at the head of three ships, the Explorer of the Seas, the Viva Alexandra, and the Narglaie. He first traveled to the Canathian Islands in order to resupply his ships, and then ventured into the Great Western Ocean, farther than any had before since the 17th century BH.

After over a month on sea, the ships sighted land on 12 October 1508 in the Syrenes Sea. Using ancient cartographic representations and the Geographic Volumes of Ptolemy, Caladrinus correctly deduced that the lands off coastal Ameridini had been reached and that these regions were the Westar continents. They landed on the island of Ilana, which had once been a Brethalian economic outpost. Caladrinus, when he reached the coast, kissed the ground and made a fervent prayer to Almitis. Over the next two months, he and his expedition explored Ilana, Vessalina, and the islands of the wayward Syrenes, meeting with Syrenian tribal chieftains. The natives of Westar however, after the Brethalian withdrawal and the end of the brief Truite presence in the Syrenes Sea, had relapsed into paganism and lost all touch of Brethalian civilization. Nevertheless, Caladrinus was able to maintain communications with them. In January 1507, Caladrinus departed from the Syrenes Sea, but not before taking 40 Syrenite natives with him. Most of them died on the journey back, but by the time he reached the port of Solios in March, 10 had survived. Arriving in Beneventum on 15 March 1507, he was received at court by King Eusebius and Queen Alexandra with great honors, and news of his journey spread throughout Haustia, Cellini, and Explosansis. In April, Caladrinus published his Observations on the Voyages of the Admiral, and in this work, stated that "I have rediscovered the ancient western lands of the great Brethalian Empire". Caladrinus said that "the rediscovery of these lands is of great benefit to all civilization in Haustia" and that the "bounds of ancient civilization are being restored". He included in his work maps and surveys which had been completed by the expedition during the journey, alongside the records of the log-book and his own notes on the journey.

In May 1507, Pope Alexander VI issued the Bull of Exploration, by which all lands west of a imaginary line in the location of the Syrenes Sea would be given to the Inorian kingdoms. This bull, although it pleased the Inorian Monarchs, angered John II of Lusitania, as he believed that it ignored his claims. The following year, John forced the signing of the Treaty of Electra, by which the arrangements of the Bull of Exploration were modified so that the coastal lands of eastern South Westar could be claimed by Lusitania. Lusitania's rights to territory in Explosansis and Falloria were also confirmed. In 1505, Caladrinus departed from Thalina at the head of a force of 150 warships, 10,000 soldiers, 20,000 colonists, 100 priests, and 3,000 laborers. He landed in Ilana and Vessalina, formally claiming those islands for the Inorian Monarchs. In 1503, King Augustus of Darsis dispatched the Mararian explorer Agathcoles of Jurcuse west. Agathcoles landed in Nannia and the Polar Islands, which had not been seen by any Haustian since the 21st century BH. He failed to establish a colony in those regions, however. In 1502, the Lusitanian sailor and Admiral Julius Barthius rounded the Cape of Southern Explosansis, crossed the Great Fallorian Ocean, and reached Falloria, descending in the port of Bathackay. At the very end of the century, the Lusitanian brothers Archimedes and Phlagon Yausuri explored the coasts of Northland and Polarland. In 1502-1500 Caladrinus led a third expedition into the Syrenes Sea, throughly exploring the Windward Islands and the coast of Floriana.

In order to finish the sections about Laurasian Antiquity and Middle Ages, we shall next describe the Chilsian Wars, which occurred in the last decade of the 16th century BH. When Antigonus the Conspirator had died in April 1517, he had been succeeded by his ambitious son, Demetrius the Handsome (1517-1502), who was only thirteen years old when his father died. As such, Chilsia came under the regency of his mother, the Queen Mother Cornelia, until the King came of age in 1508. Demetrius grew to be a ambitious, energetic, and scheming young man, who was determined to extend Chilsian territory and consolidate the power of his kingdom. As a result of his father's military campaigns against Burgunthia, the historical regions of Burgunthia to Heletia had been reacquired in 1523, followed by the acquisition of Jarbonne and the lands of Eastern Septimania in 1519. Demetrius now looked into Mararia, determined to restore the ancient dominion of the Chilsian Empire over Cleothardy, Vanathia, the Papal States, Benvolio, and Mercutio. In December 1508, he further cemented his position within Chilsia by marrying Duchess Aemilla of Argorica, thus bringing that territory back under the direct rule of the Chilsian Crown. He thereafter signed treaties with the Holy Mararian Empire and Darsis, in order to secure Chilsia against invasion on her northern and eastern flanks. In 1511, Pope Innocent VII, engaged in a dispute with Altherius I of Kalabria, had offered Kalabria to Demetrius, who held a weak family claim to the throne of that kingdom. In 1506, Altherius died, and his successor, his son Altherius II, applied considerable pressure on the Duke of Pavia, Germanicus. Germanicus now appealed to Demetrius, urging him to seize Kalabria. Demetrius, whose friends were also encouraging him to launch a military campaign, assembled a army of 50,000 men.

In November 1506, the Chilsian army crossed the Trans-Alpian Passes and entered Mararia. For the next several months, the Chilsian army moved through Gegucia, Pavia, Salornia, Gararia, and the Papal States virtually unopposed. On 22 February 1505, Demetrius and his army reached Benvolio, the capital city of Kalabria since 1562. Benvolio fell to them without a battle or siege, while Gararia acknowledged the overlordship of Chilsia. In March however, when a uprising broke out against the Chilsian army, Demetrius ordered for Benvolio to be sacked. This aroused the indignation of the other Mararian states, and Pope Alexander VI, fearful of the Chilsians, organized the League of Vanathia against their incursions. On 6 July 1505, Demetrius suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Fornovia, which forced him to withdraw from Kalabria back to Chilsia. At Fornovia, Duke Germanicus of Pavia betrayed his ally, and was later to suffer revenge at the hands of the Chilsians. In August, King Altherius III of Kalabria (1505-1504), recaptured Benvolio and expelled the remaining Chilsian garrisons. Demetrius, back in Chilsia, attempted to rebuild his forces, but he had incurred substantial debts in the pursuit of his ambitions. On 7 April 1502, Demetrius died suddenly, and because he had no children, was succeeded by his cousin, Antigonus the Lame (1502-1485). Antigonus spent the first two years of his reign rebuilding the Chilsian military, reforming the taxation system, and strengthening the government. Although he was physically handicapped, he was intelligent and determined, wishing to resume Chilsia's military campaigns in Mararia.

Laurasian Modern Era (c. 1500-1045 BH) Part IEdit

With the close of the 16th century BH, and with the Laurasian Renaissance, the Age of Explorations, and the Chilsian Wars of Mararia, the Middle Ages of Laurasia had ended after a thousand years, commencing the Laurasian Modern Era. The Laurasian Modern Era is generally considered to have lasted from 1500 BH, when these above developments combined to create a new form of Laurasian society, to 1045 BH, with the launch of the first Laurasian satellite. With his reforms and revitalization completed, Antigonus the Lame now turned the Chilsian gaze into Mararia. Determined to punish Pavia for its betrayals in the First Chilsian War, the Chilsian King signed a treaty with Vanathia and Heletia in February 1499 BH, by which, in return for recognition of his rule over the Duchy of Pavia, Chilsia undertook to pay both powers a annual subsidy of 100,000 Chilsian denarius. Pope Alexander VI, who had been engaged in his own quarrels with Duke Germanicus, signed the Treaty of Ostia with Chilsia in April, by which he recognized Chilsian rights in Pavia, in exchange for Chilsian support for the Pope's campaigns in Ravenna and along the Hadriatic coast. With all of these arrangements concluded, Antigonus and his army of 75,000 men invaded Pavia in June 1499 BH. On 2 July, Pavia itself was conquered, and Antigonus proclaimed himself Duke of Pavia. Germanicus, who had been on visit to Gegucia, returned to his duchy to find it under foreign occupation. He attempted to raise a resistance against the invaders, but his army was decisively defeated in the Battle of Liligonia, which was fought on 17 July. On 20 July, Germanicus himself was captured and taken as a prisoner to Chilsia, where he died the following year. Antigonus now extended the offer of a alliance to Eusebius of Eastern Inoria, who, already controlling Balay (a legacy of Peter of Chilsian Inoria's campaigns), now wished to cement his position in Benvolio. Since 1504, Kalabria had been ruled by Varus IV of Kalabria (1504-1499). Varus IV was considered illegitimate by many, however. In June 1499, Pope Alexander VI formally excommunicated the King of Kalabria and declared his support for the intentions of Antigonus and Eusebius.

In August 1499, Kalabria was invaded by the combined forces of Chilsia and Eastern Inoria. By November, Benvolio had been seized and Varus was driven into northern Mercutio. He was eventually found, captured, and killed at Otranto on 21 December, 1499 BH. On 2 January, 1498 BH, Antigonus the Lame arrived in Benvolio, meeting King Eusebius in the Palace of the Kalabrian Greats. A dispute however, erupted between the two monarchs on the manner of the division of Kalabrian territories, as Eusebius wished to add Kalabria to his kingdom of Balay. In March 1498, Eusebius left Benvolio in a outburst of anger, and sailed back to Eastern Inoria. He left his commander of the forces of Balay, General Nero Vispanius, at Benvolio however, and secretly ordered him to begin preparing for campaigns against the Chilsians. Vispanius assembled a large army and began preparing the fleet of Balay for a attack. Antigonus the Lame however, also readied his forces, and he secured rights of free passage through the Papal States so that his army could be reinforced with supplies as they needed them. In January 1497, war was formally declared between Eastern Inoria and Chilsia. Skirmishes and frontier raids in the Galdornes Mountains took place, but the majority of the fighting focused on Kalabria. On 25 January, General Vispanius defeated Antigonus in the Battle of Caragullio, followed by the even more devastating victory of Ceringola on 3 February. As a result of these victories, the Eastern Inorians secured their control of Balay and conquered the southern provinces of Kalabria. In April, Benvolio fell to the Eastern Inorian army, and Antigonus was forced to retreat north. Eastern Inorian armies crossed the Papal States and penetrated into Pavia, but were decisively defeated by Antigonus in the Battle of Girogolio, on 27 May, which forced them to retreat to Kalabria. Indecisive skirmishes and naval raids continued for the remainder of the year. In March 1496, however, Antigonus finally asked for peace talks. A conference was convened at Romagna, on Papal territory, and was meditated by the new Pope, Julius II (1497-1487), the former Archbishop of Benvolio who had succeeded Alexander VI in November 1497. After months of wrangling, the Treaty of Romagna was signed on 21 September, 1496 BH. Chilsia recognized Eastern Inorian rule of Kalabria and Balay. In turn, Eastern Inoria recognized Chilsian rule of Pavia.

With the Chilsian Wars having been described in some detail, attention can be paid again to the Age of Exploration. After the Lusitanians successfully reached Falloria, further exploration expeditions were organized by Lusitania and the Inorian kingdoms. In 1500 BH, the Lusitanians dispatched a second fleet under the command of Admiral Barthius to Falloria, comprised of 100 warships and some 30,000 men. This fleet explored the eastern Explosansian island of Atlantis in 1499 BH, followed by the smaller islands of the Great Collection in 1494-93. In 1494, the island of Scolonis was occupied by the Lusitanian expedition, which established it as the first colony of Lusitania in the Great Fallorian Ocean. That same year, the island of Little Falloria was reached and surveyed. In 14890, the first Lusitanian trading post in Falloria, Galonia, was established on the western coast, near the location of the old Brethalian province of Abay. In 1489-87, the first volume of the extensive Survey of the Regions of Falloria and the Far East was published, with contributions being made by Admiral Barthius and by Lord Quintus Rexius (1547-1485), who led the establishment of Galonia. The survey contained information on the geography, culture, politics, military, and economics of the coastal regions of Falloria, Little Falloria, and Explosansis. It also contained annotated notes on ancient geographical works and compared these with the geographical maps of the Lusitanian explorations. Sixty volumes were ultimately to be published, the last in 1296. The Survey ultimately contained information on all of Explosansis, Falloria, the Cellini Middle East, Australasia, and the Great Eastern Ocean. For centuries afterwards, it was to be a major reference work to Haustian scholars, explorers, and sailors. In 1489, Lord Rexius conquered the city of Malasia in the Aprilian Peninsula, establishing a Lusitanian foothold in the Great Eastern Ocean. Rexius, the first Viceroy of Lusitianian Far Eastria, sent envoys and expeditions to Australasia, the Oceanian Islands, Cirhon, and southern Krayia, who used ancient geographical surveys and their own expedition records in order to pinpoint the locations of their destinations. By 1485, most of the region had been surveyed. It was discovered that, since the collapse of the Brethalian Empire, these regions had fallen into anarchy. The modern Australasian tribes had no formal civilization and had lost all knowledge of Almitism and Brethalian society. Thus, they were to be viewed by the Lusitanians as primitives. Only Krayia remained free from this, as under the rule of the Xanthian Dynasty, which had been established in the 17th century BH, it had become a powerful civilized state. In 1483, trade relations between Lusitania and Krayia were established. Thirty years later, Krayia granted the port of Canthogirum to the Lusitanians.

The Inorian kingdoms had continued their advance in the Syrenes Sea. By the time of Caladrinus's death in 1494, Illana and Vessalina were under the firm control of the Chilsian Crown, and the cities of Illum and Troy had been established as the centers of Inorian power in the Syrenes Sea. King Eusebius and his representatives sponsored archaeological surveys on the two islands, seeking to discover firm traces of the presence of the old Brethalian Empire. In 1492, laborers working on a site in Illana stumbled upon old Brethalian statutes. The site was soon completely evacuated, and a large Brethalian monument was recovered. The monument's remains were taken by ship back to Inoria in 1490. News of this discovery astounded many in Haustia. Over the next forty years, further surveys discovered more Brethalian architectural remains, as well as military, political, and social artifacts, on the islands of the Syrenes Sea. The Inorians, during all that time, launched further expeditions and colonized more territory. In 1492, the Inorian explorer Peter Leothinus had rediscovered the island of Mania, and as a result was rewarded by the King. In 1488, King Eusebius granted Leothinus a further commission of exploration. In exchange for exploring new lands and claiming them for the Chilsian Crown, the King granted Leothinus the privilege to half of all exports from the Syrenes Sea for the next twelve years, as well as governorship of any further lands he discovered. Leothinus eagerly agreed to this. In 1487, he and his expedition landed in Floriana, exploring the inland regions and claiming the territory for the Inorian Kingdom. Leothinus was thus the first Haustian to set foot on the mainland of North Westar since the 27th century BH. By 1486, most of the tribes of Floriana had been subdued, and a city for the governance of the new province was established as Augustine. Leothinus became governor of Floriana and Mania as promised by the King and remained in that position until his death in 1479. In 1483, the governor of Vessalina, Sir Mark Anthony of Inoria, sent a expedition under the command of his brother, Lord Marcus Pius, in order to explore the coast of Central Westar. Pius landed in Mexicana in 1482, the first Haustian to set foot in that region in over a thousand years, but was shortly after killed by Mexicanian tribal natives.

In 1482, Governor Anthony sent another expedition to Mexicana under the command of the ambitious young soldier Crassus Corgina, who was to complete the mission of the earlier expedition. The governor canceled the expedition however, in January 1481, as a result of a dispute with Corgina. Corgina, however, had already assembled his forces, and in February, he left for Mexicana without the Governor's permission. At the end of February, he landed in the Yucanian Peninsula of Mexicana, claiming the region for Inoria. He soon progressed inland, destroying a Maca army in the Battle of Tabulsio. By July, he had reached the outskirts of the Mexicanian Confederacy, which had, over the course of the previous century, established its dominance over the other native tribes of the region. Corgina learned of the Confederacy's vast riches, and, guided by his Maca captives, his expedition headed to Techanlis, the capital city of the Confederacy. In October, the city of Madae, the second city of the Confederacy, was destroyed by the Inorians. On 8 November, they reached Techanlis, being received by the Mexicanian Emperor Licinius II (1498-1479). Licinius entertained them lavishly and provided them large amounts of gold, which aroused the greediness of the Inorian expedition members. Corgina however, learned that the Emperor was attempting to weaken the newcomers so that he could destroy them. In January 1480, Licinius was taken captive by the Inorians, and his capital was placed under siege. In May, Corgina left Techanlis with part of his forces, encountering and destroying a further force which had been sent by Governor Anthony, who was attempting to subdue Corgina. This gave the opportunity to the Mexicanians, who erupted in rebellion against the Inorian garrison in June, killed Licinius II (whom they considered a traitor), and regained control of Techanlis. Corgina re-assembled his forces, and in November, Governor Anthony granted him a pardon, sending him 40,000 reinforcements. In January 1479, Corgina and his forces resumed their offensives against the Mexicanian Confederacy. On 7 February, they destroyed a Mexicanian army in the Second Battle of Tabulsio. In April, the Inorians and their native allies instigated a major siege of Techanlis. The city resisted fiercely under its last Emperor, Licinius IV. Smallpox and plague, which had been introduced by the Inorians from Haustia, decimated the native population of Techanlis however. On 4 August 1479, the city surrendered to the Inorian forces. Licinius IV was captured and executed, bringing a end to the Mexicanian Confederacy, while Techanlis was renamed Mexicana City. In December 1479, Corgina was formally appointed by King-Emperor Demetrius of Inoria and the Holy Mararian Empire as the first viceroy of New Inoria.

The conquest of Mexicana came after other developments, which brought the Inorians into the Great Eastern Ocean. In 1487, the Inorian explorer and sailor Odysseus Bathoria left Vessalina at the head of a small expedition. Landing in Southiana (the border regions of North and South Westar), he then traversed the land Isthmus. In August, he and his expedition became the first Haustians from North Westar to sight the Great Eastern Ocean since the 26st century BH. A triumphant Bathoria claimed the regions of the Great Fallorian Ocean which he surveyed for the Inorian Crown and conducted a geographical survey, which would be completed in 1482. The rediscovery of the eastern Great Fallorian Ocean inspired a further wave of expeditions. By 1484, when Demetrius I ascended to the thrones of both Western and Eastern Inoria, a number of Lusitanian explorers, sailors, and navigators had gathered in Beneventum, having been engaged in disputes with King Menelaus I of Lusitania. Among these men was Sir Antigenes Magallenius (1520-1479), who had participated in the Lusitanian conquest of Malasia in 1489 but had then left the Lusitanian service two years later. Magallenius was determined to again reach the Great Fallorian Ocean, but this time in the service of a more deserving and confident monarch. He presented his plan to the King for a major circumnavigation of the globe, which would reach Eastern Oceania and Australasia, re-chart the ancient islands of the Great Fallorian Ocean, and establish colonies for the benefit of the Inorian Crown. King Demetrius approved his plan and provided finances for his expedition. Magallenius assembled a fleet of 20 warships and 30 transports, carrying 15,000 soldiers, 2,000 colonists, 300 priests, 400 navigators, 500 pilots, and 5,000 sailors. On August 25, 1481, he departed from Inoria at the head of his force, and began his long journey to South Westar. On November 28, the Straits of Magallenius (as they would afterwards be known) were reached by the expedition, but 10 of the 20 warships and 5 of the transports were destroyed in a storm. The remainder of the expedition managed to cross the Great Fallorian Ocean, but suffered extensive losses along the way. By April 1479, the expedition had reached the Latharite Islands. There, Magallenius got caught up in local troubles and was killed in the Battle of Magan. His second-in-command, Demetrius Xathanius, became sole commander of the expedition and led the remaining 2 warships and 4 transports on the remainder of the voyage. Most of the remaining ships were scattered in storms or wrecked on the seashore. On 12 September 1477, the last remaining ship of the expedition, the Noblissimia, reached Inoria, thus completing the first circumnavigation of the globe since ancient times. Although the expedition was not able to establish any colonies, it had cemented knowledge of the Great Fallorian Ocean.

In 1475, Demetrius of Inoria dispatched another naval expedition to the Great Fallorian Ocean, this time intent on conquest. The expedition, launched from Mexicana, reached the Taconda Islands and claimed them for Inoria. Lusitania however, raised a complaint, as it pointed out that lands in the Far East were its portion of the globe, as had been agreed in the Treaty of Electra. In order to resolve the issue, a series of meetings were held between the two nations from 1475 to 1471 at Constance, being meditated by the Pope. Astronomers, cartographers, navigators, and mathematicians from each country were appointed to delineate a second line of partition in the Great Fallorian Ocean. To assist them, they consulted the log-books of Magellenius, ancient geographical surveys and descriptions of the Great Fallorian Ocean, and observational letters from the mission of Bathoria. Finally, by the Treaty of Malagorga, which was signed on 29 November, 1471 BH, the issue of partition was decided. The Latharite Islands were given to Inoria and the Taconda Islands to Lusitania. All lands east of the Latharite Islands could be colonized by Inoria, while all lands west of the Latharite Islands could be colonized by Lusitania. By 1471, Lusitania had already taken possession of the Taconda Islands, dispatching three expeditions to plant colonies and survey the regions. In 1470, Inoria formally claimed the Latharite Islands and established the military garrison of Ajxules, subduing the Island of Magan. With the background to Inorian and Lusitanian pursuits in the Great Fallorian Ocean having been provided, attention can now be turned again to the continents, but this time to South Westar.

Ever since the conquest of Mexicana, the Inorians had heard rumors about a wealthy empire in South Westar, in the western regions of old Athania, which had never been subdued by the arms of the Brethalian Empire and was indeed the origin point for many of the barbarian invaders, such as the Hisigoths, the Oslemites, and the Breshites. These races had been absent from South Westar for 1,100 years. Of them, only the Hisigoths still survived in 1479 BH as the Kingdom of Hisland in northern Great Darsis. The others had long since disappeared, ethnically and politically. The ambitious explorer, Arasces Pazanius, who had accompanied Bathoria in the crossing to the Great Fallorian Ocean, became determined to land in South Westar and to claim the western territories for Inoria. In 1476, he gained the permission of Corgina to prepare a expedition to the South. On 13 September, 1476 BH, Pazanius and his expedition, comprised of about 2,000 men and 10 cannon, left Mexicana and sailed for Athania. The expedition however, got only as far as Bralania before succumbing to skirmishes with natives, disease, bad weather, and hunger. Pazanius was forced to return to Mexicana in December. For the next two years, he focused his efforts on assembling a second expedition. In August 1474, he left from Vassalina at the head of 5,000 men, 30 ships, 50 cannon, and 3,000 horse. Pazanius landed in Athania and immediately began to explore the coastal regions. He was able to equate the areas with the "lands of barbarians" mentioned in Brethalian histories and chronicles of the 27th, 28th, and 29th centuries BH. Soon, the expedition encountered gold, silver, and textiles, which fueled their desire to move inland. Pazanius however, decided that they should send for reinforcements before preceding. He sent his chief subordinate, Lysimachus Parlius, to Southiana, which had in 1475 been formally annexed by the Inorian Crown. The Governor of Southiana however, refused to send reinforcements and instead ordered for all of the expedition members to leave Athania and return to Inorian territory. Pazanius however, defied the Governor and decided that he and his men would continue on their own. Parlius eagerly agreed and the expedition traveled farther inland. By April 1472, the expedition had reached Tathumba, being warmly received by the natives of that area. Pazanius' expedition noticed the riches of the tribe. Pazanius decided to head back and collect reinforcements by his own efforts. His men however, conducted extensive geographical surveys of western Athania before they disembarked, compiling the most extensive treatise on the region since the 27th century, when the last Brethalian chronicle about South Westar had been compiled.

In the spring of 1472 BH, the expedition sailed directly for Inoria, where Pazanius had a audience with King Demetrius. The king, hearing on how the expedition had discovered gold and silver, agreed to support its further ventures and named Pazanius governor of any lands to be conquered in Athania. Pazanius convinced many of his friends and family members to join him in the expedition, while in May, the King issued a bull of privilege formally authorizing the conquest of Athania. Pazanius's third and final expedition, comprised of some 100,000 soldiers, 50,000 colonists, 500 ships, 130,000 horse, and 2,000 cannon, a true conquering expedition, left Inoria on 27 December, 1470 BH. The expedition landed in Bralania on 15 February, 1469 BH, and proceeded southwards into Athania, establishing the first Inorian colonial settlements along the way. It was then that the Inorians finally established contact with the extensive Incantian Empire, which governed most of Athania, Bralania, and Waywariana as far south as the Straits of Magallenius. On 25 November 1467, after two years of campaigning against the Incantians, Pazanius defeated the Incantian army in the Battle of Calamarca, capturing the Incantian Emperor Sardonicus. The following month, Sardonicus was strangled to death by the Inorian troops, after a failed attempt to bribe Pazanius. Pazanius thereafter secured Athania and Bralania. On 27 February, 1466 BH, he attacked and destroyed the Incantian capital city of Rojarnius, consolidating the conquest of the Incantian territories. Inoria now controlled the coastal regions of western South Westar, with claims to the inland territory. Over the course of the century, all of the regions up to the confines of Lusitanian Braziana were to be subdued under the Inorian might. On 18 January, 1465 BH, the city of Decambia was founded by Pazanius as the capital city of the Inorian Vice-royalty of Athania. Pazanius himself remained Viceroy of Athania and Commander of South Westar until his death in December, 1459 BH.

Laurasian Modern Era (c. 1500-1045 BH) Part IIEdit

With information having been provided on the Inorian and Lusitanian adventures, conquests, and exploits in the Westar Continents, Falloria, and the Great Eastern Ocean, we can now turn our attention back to Haustia. For four years after the signing of the Treaty of Romagna, peace managed to hold in Mararia. During those years however, changes took place in the Inorian kingdoms. On 26 November, 1496 BH, shortly after the conclusion of the Treaty of Romagna, Queen Alexandra of Western Inoria died at the age of 52. With the death of Alexandra, Western Inoria passed to her and Eusebius's eldest surviving child, their daughter Laodice (1496-1445). Laodice had married Prince Philip of Burgunthia and Anthoria, the son of the Holy Mararian Emperor Menelaus I, eight years earlier. Philip, known as the Handsome for his good looks and great energy, was also a ambitious and scheming figure, who wished to become the sole monarch of the Inorian kingdoms. He was to be resisted by Eusebius however, who, determined to maintain control over Western Inoria, attempted to gain the regency of the kingdom in the name of his daughter. Eusebius was resisted in his turn by the Western Inorian nobles, who did not want the husband of their late Queen to impose himself as their supreme master. Eusebius was soon forced to withdraw from Western Inoria. In December 1495, Philip the Handsome was formally recognized as King jure uxoris of Western Inoria. Philip and Laodice left Anthoria on 29 December, but in January of the following year, were shipwrecked in Darsis. King Augustus, who received them as guests at his court in Uris, nevertheless refused to have them leave unless if Philip signed a treaty with the Darsian King. The Treaty of Uris, signed on 4 March, 1494 BH, resulted in Darsian merchants being granted tax exemption and special shipping privileges in Anthoria, while Philip promised to pay a annual subsidy to the Darsian King. After this agreement was ratified, Augustus allowed Philip and Joanna to go on their way. They left Darsis on 25 March, 1494 BH, arriving in Carouna, Western Inoria, on 28 April. Eusebius, alarmed by Philip's arrival, sent troops into Western Inoria, but these were defeated in the Battle of Calsays. On 27 June, he signed the Treaty of Calsays with Philip, by which Philip was recognized as King of Western Inoria. In return, Philip recognized Eusebius as his overlord and promised to preserve the status of the Eastern Inorian King's daughter. On 25 September, 1494 BH, however, Philip was felled in a jousting tournament and died from his injuries. As a result of his death, Eusebius intervened into the affairs of Western Inoria and proclaimed himself regent and Lord Protector for his daughter, who was mentally unbalanced. For the remaining ten years of his reign and life, he governed Western Inoria in his daughter's name. In Western Inoria, his interests were represented by his general, Sir Pausanius Cladcides.

War in the meantime, resumed in Mararia. Pope Julius II, who nurtured high territorial ambitions of his own for the Papal States, was nevertheless alarmed by the claims of the Vanathian Republic, which by 1492 BH, controlled the cities of the regions of Inducia, Vincenia, and Istria. The Republic had also advanced into the villages of Ravenna and Cirllo, which the Pope considered to be threatening to his position in central Mararia. Twice, in 1494 and in 1493, he sent petitions to the Vanathian Senate and government, asking them to withdraw from the disputed regions and to confine their sphere of interests to their own territories. The Senate, although revering him as "our most holy father of the Church", rejected his claims to be a temporal prince and refused to withdraw from the disputed territories. Julius, angered at this, encouraged Emperor Menelaus I of the Holy Mararian Empire to advance from his personal duchies of Carnithia and Trinthia, and to invade the territories of the Vanathian Republic. At the end of 1493 BH, Menelaus, at the head of a army of 50,000 men, crossed the border into Vanathian territory. The Emperor's force moved towards Selecia, but was defeated by a Vanathian army in the Battle of the Yaurian Fields, which took place on 2 February, 1492 BH. On 17 February, Menelaus attempted another offensive against Inducia, but his entire force was obliterated by a Vanathian army group in the Battle of Dalmanes. The Vanathians then seized the Trinithian port of Denace, forcing Menelaus to conclude a truce in March. The Pope, who was humiliated by the failure of the Emperor's invasion, decided to make new arrangements, this time with Antigonus the Lame. When, on 25 March, the Vanathian Senate declared itself possessed of the absolute authority to dispose of Church bishoprics in its jurisdiction, the Pope raised a call for arms, for a holy coalition to subdue the rebellious Republic. On 10 December, 1492 BH, the Treaty of Cambria was signed by the Papal States, Chilsia, the Holy Mararian Empire, and Eastern Inoria, establishing a military coalition against Vanathia. The treaty provided for the partition of Vanathia's territories. Trinthia was to receive Istria, parts of Vincenia, Denace and Trieste, and the Dalmatian Coast; Chilsia would receive Inducia, the wayward and hill regions of Vincenia, Bragania, and the villages of the Lutheris; the Papal States would receive Cirllo and the villages of Ravenna; and Eastern Inoria would receive the Vanathian colonies of Jurcuse and Rembium.

With the arrangement concluded, Antigonus the Lame assembled his forces, leaving Pavia at the head of 130,000 troops on 15 April, 1491 BH. His army proceeded rapidly into Vanathian territory, burning and destroying all towns and villages in Inducia along its route. The Vanathians had gathered a army of Heletian and Barshorian mercenaries, supplemented by Vanathian shock cavalry corps, in order to resist the Chilsian advance. On 14 May, the Vanathian and Chilsian armies clashed in the Battle of Alvaugiso. Although the Vanathians at first held the upper hand, the superior numbers of the Chilsian forces and the aggressive strategies of the Chilsian King eventually resulted in their defeat. Most of the Vanathian army was surrounded and destroyed. The commander of the Vanathian forces, the Heletian general Marius of Juxles, was captured and executed by the Chilsian forces. Following the Battle of Alvaugiso, Antigonus the Lame proceeded to occupy the remainder of Inducia and to conquer the city of Bragania, which had been a major armory and mint distribution post for the Republic. The major cities not occupied by the Chilsians: Selecia, Arcinium, and Arkania, were left exposed to attack and quickly surrendered to the Emperor, whose forces had moved into Istria and recaptured Denace. The Pope, in the meantime, had imposed a interdict on Vanathia and excommunicated all of its citizens. Papal troops and mercenaries seized Cirllo and the villages of Ravenna without much resistance. The Emperor's officers however, quickly gained unpopularity in the cities which they governed, and on 15 July, Selecia and Arcinium rose up in revolt, successfully expelling their Imperial garrisons. In August, the Emperor himself led his army into Vanathia, determined to reassert control. Selecia was besieged, beginning on 5 September, but the siege was ultimately abandoned on 30 September, due to a lack of siege equipment and to the plague. In November, Vanathian forces recaptured Arkania and expelled the Trinthians from Istria and Vincenia. The Vanathian naval fleet however, was destroyed by the Pope's squadrons in the Battle of Calligona, which took place in December. Vanathia was now suffering from the effects of the war, and sent a request for peace to the Pope. The terms presented by the Pope were harsh: Papal authority over clergy appointments and dispositions was confirmed, the Papal States regained Cirllo and the villages of Ravenna; and reparations were to be paid by the Senate. In return, the Pope lifted the interdict and declared Vanathians to again be members of the Church. On 24 February, 1490 BH, the Treaty of Arkania was signed, confirming these arrangements.

The Chilsians however, remained in Vanathian territory, and indeed, in May, Selecia was besieged by Chilsian forces. Although the siege was lifted, it aroused the fears of the Pope, who now believed that Chilsia was the greatest threat to the safety and security of Mararia. In order to strengthen the Papal States, Julius was now determined to seize the Duchy of Fathiana, a ally of the Chilsian governors of Pavia, and to add the Duchy to the territory of the Papal States. The Pope, whose army was not sufficient to conquer the Duchy by its own, hired a army of Heletian mercenaries and sent a invitation to Vanathia to join him in his efforts. The Vanathian Senate, so lately a bitter enemy of the Pope, accepted his invitation and signed the secret Pact of Ravenna with the Pope on 25 June, 1490 BH. The Pact provided for subsidies and a military alliance between the Papal States and the Vanathian Republic, aimed against the Chilsians and the Duchy of Fathiana. In July, the Papal States formally declared war against Chilsia and launched a invasion of Gegucia, which had been occupied by Chilsian forces in January. Although that offensive failed, the Vanathians did score a major victory over the Chilsians in the Battle of Bragania, and finally expelled them from Vanathian territory. Moherina, the easternmost city of the Pavian Duchy, was conquered by the Vanathian army on 17-19 August, thus establishing a Vanathian foothold in Pavia. On 22 August, the Pope formally excommunicated both Antigonus the Lame and Duke Ptolemy of Pavia, thus justifying his war efforts against them. The Chilsian army however, advanced through Fathiana into Bolathania, a major Papal economic port, and placed the city under siege from 7 October. The Pope, who was present in the city, was under threat of capture, but on 29 October, the Chilsians were persuaded to lift the siege. On 7 November, however, Constance was conquered by the Chilsian forces, and the Papal Palace of Constance was confiscated by the King. In December, the Pope sent a army of Heletian and Vanathian mercenaries to conquer Concordia. Mirandola, one of the chief strongholds of Fathiana, was besieged on 22 December, finally falling to the Papal forces on 2 January, 1489 BH, with the Pope himself receiving the keys of the city from its governor, Cato Eltherius. Concordia however, was reconquered by the Chilsians in February, forcing the Pope's forces to retreat from Fathiana, although it retained Mirandola. In the meantime, King Antigonus led his army to the Pashian River, destroying the Vanathian army in the Battle of Ravenna. Ravenna was conquered in March, and soon Bolathania was again threatened by the Chilsians. On 23 May, 1489 BH, Bolathania was captured by the Chilsians. Julius, who had returned to Ralispont, was humiliated.

By the end of June, Crillo and most of Romagna had been conquered by the Chilsians. The Papal Estates, Ostia, and Ralispont were now directly threatened by the Chilsian forces. The Papal forces, which were disorganized and undisciplined, were in position to resist any further Chilsian advance. The Pope, who was now desperate, proclaimed the formation of a Holy League against Chilsia. This new alliance soon expanded to include Inoria, the Holy Mararian Empire, and Darsis. On 25 April, 1491 BH, King Augustus I of Darsis had died, after a reign of twenty-four years. His successor, his second-eldest son Augustus, was a handsome, ambitious, and energetic young man who was determined to recover Darsian territories in Chilsia, to conquer Hisland, and assert the position of Darsis as a major kingdom in Haustia. Augustus saw the Pope's declaration of a League against Chilsia to be his opportunity. He formally joined the League in November 1489 BH. On 27 November, Augustus signed the Treaty of Umarina with King Eusebius of Eastern Inoria, which provided for a military alliance and coordination of forces between Darsis and Inoria against Chilsia. On 4 December, the Pope formally approved Augustus's entry into the Holy League and granted him the license to the Mother of Almitis tax, still in use after over a thousand years. In February, 1488 BH, Antigonus the Lame appointed his nephew, Geraldus, Prince of Xox, as commander of the Chilsian forces in Mararia. Xox proved to be a energetic commander, as he crushed a series of rebellions in Cleothardy. The city of Brescia was sacked as punishment for its participation in the uprisings. Xox then marched deeper into the Papal States, hoping to conquer Ostia and the cities of the Vedone. On 25 April, 1488 BH, Xox destroyed the Papal army in the Battle of Ravenna. He was seriously wounded during the fighting however, and died shortly after its termination.

Xox's subordinate, Duke Perciles of Jarbonne, became the new commander of the Chilsian forces. Perciles decided to punish Ravenna for its support for the Papacy by destroying most of the city, killing some 100,000 residents. In May however, Pope Julius hired another army of Heletian mercenaries, who now descended into Pavia. They were accompanied by Menelaus of Sforzes, the brother of the deceased Duke Germanicus, who was determined to regain the Duchy for his family. The Chilsians were forced to retreat from the Romagna, abandoning Ravenna and Bolathania to the Papal forces. They returned to Pavia, hoping to stop the mercenary invasion. In August however, the Heletians linked up with the Vanathian army and defeated the Chilsians in the Second Battle of Mirandola, expelling them from Pavia. Pavia itself was captured on 4 September and Menelaus entered the city in triumph. That month, a army of Papal mercenaries and Vanathian corps marched into Gararia, reinstalling its old Medianian family as the rulers. On 29 September, the Congress of Padua was convened by the Pope, the Vanathian Republic, the Holy Mararian Empire, and Eastern Inoria, in order to make arrangements concerning Mararia. While the Pope and the Vanathians insisted that Menelaus of Sforzes remain Duke of Pavia, both Emperor Menelaus of the Holy Mararian Empire and King Eusebius conspired to install one of their relatives on the throne of the duchy. The Pope himself however, demanded that Fathiana be annexed to the Papal States. Eusebius however, rejected this, believing that the Papacy was growing too powerful. The Emperor, on his part, signed a treaty with the Pope so as to secure territory from Vanathia. The Pope even threatened Vanathia with a resumption of war. Vanathia, alarmed by the Papacy and the Empire's intentions, now turned to Chilsia. On 25 March, 1487 BH, the secret Treaty of Arcinium was signed between Vanathia and the Chilsian King. On 28 May, the Chilsian army crossed the Trans-Alps and reentered Mararia, intent on regaining Pavia. At the same time, the Vanathian army marched west from Selecia. The Chilsians recaptured Pavia on 5 June and deposed Menelaus of Sforzes from the throne. Pavia once again fell into Chilsian possession. Two days later, however, a army of Heletian mercenaries defeated the Chilsian force in the Battle of Swiana and forced them to retreat. Pavia was lost again on 25 June, and on 29 June, the remnants of the Chilsian army, having been harried by the Heletians and Pavians, crossed back into Chilsia. In the meantime, Julius II had died on 21 February, 1487 BH, and was succeeded as Pope by the Medianian Cardinal of Gararia, who became Leo X (1487-1479).

Chilsia itself was invaded by Augustus II of Darsis, whose naval fleets had already harried Northria, Argorica, and Galdornia in 1489-88. On 30 June, 1487 BH, Augustus II and a Darsian army of 85,000 men landed in Argorica and quickly progressed southwards, their goal being to secure the territory, advance into Northria, and harry the forces of Antigonus the Lame. On 14 August, 1487 BH, Augustus II linked up with the 110,000-man army of Emperor Menelaus, who had marched from Anthoria and invaded Burgunthia. Two days later, the joint Darsian-Wallachian army clashed with the forces of Antigonus the Lame in the Battle of Gansthai, which resulted in a major victory for the Coalition. Antigonus himself barely evaded capture. Thereafter most of Northria and Argorica were overrun by the Allies, and the Duchy of Constantinople was placed under threat of invasion. Eusebius of Eastern Inoria had likewise advanced from the south, crossing the Galdornes Mountains in July. By 2 September, most of the Galdornes Marshes had been conquered, and the Inorians established control over parts of Galdornia and Septimania as well. The cities of Jforth, Negroth, Nsgia, and Sicky were seized by the Inorians. Inorian raids reached as far as Arghties and Jarbonne. Darsis however, now suffered a invasion of its own, as Hisland, under the rule of her king Admantius IV (1512-1487), had signed a treaty of alliance with Chilsia in 1490 BH. Admantius IV, gathering a army of 60,000 men, crossed the border and invaded Northamberia in August, 1487 BH. His forces soon conquered Sassow and the stronghold of Wedinium, and launched raids into Cheoria, Choleria, and East Emmerina. The wife of Augustus, Queen Julia, daughter of Eusebius of Eastern Inoria, organized the Darsian militias and noblemen into a opposition force. On 9 September, 1487 BH, the Hislans were decisively defeated in the Battle of Fladranius, with King Admantius himself, along with most of his nobles and generals, being slain. This effectively ended the Hislan invasion and Northamberia was soon reconquered by the Darsians. The Eastern Inorians, in September, began to advance into Vanathia, conquering Selecia, Arcinium, and Arkania. By 1 October, Vanathia itself was under threat of attack. The Holy Mararian Empire had seized Istria, Denace, and Dalmatia in the meantime. On 4 October, the Eastern Inorians instigated a blockade of the city, but the Vanathian fleet managed to break through and provide supplies to the defenders. On 6 October, the Eastern Inorians retreated from the city's walls, being pursued by the Vanathian army. The following day, in the Battle of Vicenza, the Eastern Inorians won a major victory, destroying the entire Vanathian army. They did not take advantage of this victory, however.

Indecisive skirmishes in Vanathia, Romagna, and Ravenna dominated the rest of the year, as well as 1486 BH. In June, however, Augustus II, whose treasury was drained by the war, decided to open negotiations with Antigonus. On 9 August, 1486 BH, the Treaty of Constantinople was signed. Augustus returned Northria, Argorica, and his parts of Constantinople and Arghties to the Chilsian King. In turn, Antigonus paid him a substantial compensation, promised to provide a subsidy to Darsis every year thereafter, and pledged to marry Augustus's elder sister, Messalina. Antigonus the Lame however, was not to survive for much longer. On 1 January, 1485 BH, the King of Chilsia died of fever in the Regal Palace of Constantinople. Because he had no male heirs, only a daughter, Claudia, he was succeeded to the Chilsian throne by the husband of his daughter, who became Neuchrus I of Chilsia (1485-1453). Neuchrus, a ambitious, energetic, and determined figure, was determined to maintain the Chilsian position in Pavia and to repel the efforts of his enemies. He gathered a large army of some 115,000 men. In July, the King of Chilsia marched with his army into the valley of the Salanies, avoiding the Heletian Passes, which were blocked by a force of Heletians, Vanathians, and Papal mercenaries. The Pavian army was surprised by the Chilsian army in the Battle of Vathiana and was completely obliterated, being forced to withdraw. The Heletian army, commanded by Menelaus of Sforzes, now hurried south, linking with a force sent by the Pope to halt any further Chilsian advance. The Chilsians were now joined by the Vanathian Army. On 15 September, 1485 BH, Neuchrus gained a decisive victory in the Battle of Marignano. As a result of this, the Heletian Army was forced to retreat back to Heletia, while the Papal Expeditionary Force was scattered. With the defeat of the Pavians and Heletians, there was no bar to the further advance of Menelaus. On 3 October, Pavia was recaptured by the Chilsians, and Neuchrus proclaimed himself Duke of Pavia. Menelaus of Sforzes was captured on 7 October and sent to prison in Chilsia, where he died. On 2 December, Neuchrus met with the Pope in Ralispont. The Treaty of Ralispont was signed between the monarch and the Pontiff on 19 December. By this agreement, the Papacy recognized the Chilsian acquisition of Pavia and promised to intervene no further in the affairs of Fathiana. In return, the King reaffirmed the Pope's religious authority.

Within the next few years, major political changes took place in Haustia, as two monarchs died and were replaced by one, who became, by virtue of his offices and possessions, the most powerful ruler in Haustia. When Philip the Handsome had died in 1494, his eldest child, his son Demetrius, had inherited Anthoria and Ducal Burgunthia. Since he was only six years old when his father died, the government of Anthoria and the Lower Provinces thus came upon his aunt, Princess Anastasia of Trinthia. Anastasia remained the Regent and Governor of the Duchy of Anthoria until 1485 BH, when Demetrius was declared to be of age to assume the governance of those territories. He was also poised to inherit the Inorian kingdoms. In 1498 BH, and again 1494 BH, upon the death of his father, Demetrius had been proclaimed Prince of Bascania by the Royal Assembly of Western Inoria, as heir apparent to his mother Laodice. In 1492 BH, his grandfather Eusebius officially proclaimed him his heir apparent for the Kingdom of Eastern Inoria, to rule as a co-ruler alongside his mother. On 2 January, 1490 BH, Demetrius was formally sworn in as Prince of Bascania. This was followed on 17 November, 1490 BH, with the declaration by Emperor Menelaus that Demetrius was to be his heir apparent to the Holy Mararian Empire. Demetrius was thus set to inherit the most powerful collection of states in Haustia. On 23 January, 1484 BH, King Eusebius of Eastern Inoria died at the age of 63, having outlived his wife and consort, Queen Alexandra of Western Inoria, by a decade. Upon his death, the Assemblies of the Inorian Kingdoms convened. They decided that because Laodice was mentally handicapped, and because she would be incapable of rule, Demetrius was to become the sole King of Inoria. His mother was to be deposed and removed to a monastery. On 25 January, Demetrius was formally proclaimed King of Inoria and his mother was removed from her position as Queen of Western Inoria, although she was allowed to retain the titles and dignities of a queen mother. The new King sent his mother to a convent, where she would eventually die in 1445. Demetrius had thus inherited territories encompassing all of Inoria except Lusitania, as well as Balay, the Southern Mararian Island, and Kalabria. On 12 January, 1481 BH, Emperor Menelaus I of the Holy Mararian Empire died. Upon his death, Demetrius became Holy Mararian Emperor and Archduke of Trinthia and Carinithia. The ascension of Demetrius to these various positions had a unsettling effect on Neuchrus, who now found that he had the same neighbor on both his northern and southern flanks.

In January 1480 BH, the chief minister of King Augustus II, Cardinal Thomasius Wargius of Darsis, arranged a series of meetings between his master and the King of Chilsia, as the two monarchs attempted to repair relations between themselves. The meeting however, did not have any lasting political effects, and no alliance was formulated between Darsis and Chilsia. Augustus II in fact, had more in common with Emperor Demetrius, since he was married to the Emperor's aunt. In May, the Emperor visited Darsis and was regally entertained by the King of Darsis in Uris. The angered Chilsians began making preparations for war against the Holy Mararian Empire. By December, the Chilsian army began to organize itself. Neuchrus at first did not want to launch a direct offensive, but instead sought to instigate incursions into Inorian and Imperial territory. One Chilsian army was to invade, by means of Heletia, Halxony and Mendelevia, while another was to cross the Galdornes Mountains (with the Marshes and Galdornia having been recovered by Chilsia from Eusebius in 1486), and invade Eastern Inoria. Both of these expeditions however, were to be commanded by mercenaries, and the Chilsian government was to deny all responsibility for the offensives. In February 1479 BH, the two expeditionary armies instigated their respective campaigns. The one sent into the Holy Mararian Empire was utterly crushed by the forces of the Emperor in the Battle of Vilgova. The other army managed to cross the Galdornes Mountains and to advance as far as Bacalonia, but was then defeated in the Battle of Rimbio on 21 June, 1479 BH. The Emperor himself was preoccupied with the early stages of the First Almitian Reformation, which will be mentioned later. He did however, send armies against Chilsia.

On 23 June, two days after the Chilsian army was defeated in the Battle of Rimbio, the forces of the Holy Mararian Empire invaded northern Chilsia from Anthoria. The cities of Ardania and Medoilanium were razed by the Wallachians, while the fortress of Agonasie was subjected to a major siege. The Chilsians however, resisted fiercely, halting a Wallachian army in the Battle of Chaselmagne. On 22 October, 1479 BH, Neuchrus himself led a Chilsian army against the Wallachian forces, which were now commanded by the Emperor, who had arrived in September. The Emperor however, managed to use the weather in order to evade battle. Afterwards, the Chilsians seized the Inorian stronghold of Baudelvaire in the Galdornes Mountains. In November however, Augustus II of Darsis signed a treaty of alliance with the Emperor and the Pope which was directed against Chilsia. On 27 November, the forces of the Pope and the Emperor expelled the Chilsians from Pavia, from where they retreated to the Western Fortifications. The Viscount of Laucracy, who was the Chilsian governor of Pavia, received reinforcements in the form of Heletian mercenaries. On 27 April, 1478 BH, his force engaged the Inorian army under the command of the Earl of Rembium in the Battle of Biocca, which resulted in a decisive Inorian victory. Laucracy and his remaining forces abandoned the Western Fortifications, retreating from Pavia entirely. On 30 May, Gegucia, which had been annexed by Chilsia in 1483 BH, was conquered by the Inorians.

The Chilsian losses in Mararia resulted in Darsis actively pursuing campaigns against Chilsia. At the end of May 1478 BH, the Darsian ambassador to Constantinople sent a ultimatum to King Neuchrus, which included various accusations about Chilsian actions towards Darsis, most of whom were false. Although Neuchrus offered to pay Augustus a annual subsidy and to provide him with a detachment of Chilsian mercenaries if he remained neutral, Augustus nevertheless signed the Treaty of Wathasolawcie with Emperor Demetrius on 16 June, 1478 BH. In the agreement, the Emperor Demetrius promised to compensate Augustus for war expenses, to pay him a annual subsidy, and to marry the King's only daughter, Eudoxia. In July, using the Mathianian Channel Islands as a base, the Darsian army of 100,000 men launched a major offensive into Argorica and Western Northria. The Chilsians were unable to resist, and much of the countryside was pillaged by the Darsians. Thousands of villagers, peasants, clergymen, and others were butchered by the invaders, who also raped, deported, or enserfed many others. King Neuchrus, in the meantime, was bankrupt, and now sought to use a variety of methods in order to raise funds for his army. He now moved against the Duke of Boulaibasum, Demetrius the Strong, who was the wealthiest landowner in the Kingdom. The King believed that by confiscating the estates and properties of the Duke, he would improve his financial position enough so that he could continue the war. The Duke however, was alienated by the King's actions, and he now conducted a secret correspondence with Emperor Demetrius. The Chilsian position weakened yet further. By 1477 BH, Vanathia was exhausted from the war, having suffered the disruption of her commerce and the sack of many of her towns and villages. The new President of the Vanathian Senate, Sophocoles Pardicles, instigated negotiations with the Emperor in April 1477. On 29 July, 1477 BH, the Treaty of Cassanova was signed between Vanathia and the Holy Mararian Empire. Boulaibasum was by now determined to defect from Chilsia, and he offered to raise a revolt against Neuchrus in return for Inorian and Wallachian troops. The King learned of the plot and in October, ordered for the Duke's arrest. The Duke however, fled to Heletia, and openly defected to the service of the Emperor. A enraged Neuchrus now confiscated the Duke's estates and executed his associates.

Following the defection of the Duke of Boulaibasum, the Emperor now felt strong enough to launch a renewed invasion of Chilsia, this time directly from Inoria. Although Laucracy managed to secure the Chilsian fortresses of Septimania and saved Jarbonne from a offensive, the Emperor managed to conquer Jforth and Negroth in February 1476 BH. In September 1477, the Darsian army had advanced into the Duchy of Constantinople, overrunning the strongholds of the Dalaine River and approaching within fifty miles of Constantinople. The Darsians however, had been unable to link up with Inorian forces, and withdrew back to Argorica in December. Neuchrus himself was now attempting to recover the Chilsian position in Pavia. In October, 1477 BH, the Chilsian Second Army, comprised of 35,000 men, advanced through the Trans-Alpian Passes and moved towards Novarina. There, it was joined by a force of 50,000 Heletian mercenaries who had been hired by the King. The Inorian army stationed in western Pavia retreated eastwards to the city itself. The Chilsians however, overestimated the size of the Imperial forces and went into winter quarters. This allowed the Inorian commander of Pavia, Livy Cocola, to bring in 65,000 reinforcements to supplement his 10,000-man force. The Chilsians however, had a dispute with their Heletian mercenary commanders, who, having not been paid, withdrew from the Chilsian camp at the end of December. In January 1476 BH, the Chilsian army was forced to begin a retreat. The Inorians then sent a squadron against them, and in the Battle of the Sesia Trail, the Chilsian force was decisively defeated. The remainder of the Chilsian army managed to flee back into Chilsia. They were pursued by the Inorian-Wallachian army, which invaded Jarbonne and Septimania in July 1476. This force was commanded by Demetrius the Strong, who entered Jarbonne itself on 9 August 1476, proclaiming himself Count of Jarbonne and Septimania. By the middle of August, Marsaliana, a major Chilsian naval base in southern Septimania, was being besieged by the Inorian-Wallachian forces. Neuchrus now marched south, and in September, he reached Constance, which had been permanently annexed to Chilsia in 1479. On 29 September, he relieved Marsaliana from siege, and on 7 October, he defeated the Inorian-Wallachian force in the Battle of Macabania. The Duke of Boulaibasum and his army were forced to retreat back to Pavia. On 15 October, the King of Chilsia himself crossed the Trans-Alps and entered Mararia again. The Chilsian army advanced rapidly across Gegucia and Westernia, brushing aside Inorian attempts to halt their advance. On 26 October, Neuchrus entered Pavia in triumph. The Duke of Boulaibasum and Governor Cocola were forced to retreat eastwards. The Chilsian King now advanced on Padua, a major stronghold of Inorian power in Mararia. In the last days of October 1476, the northern side of the city was blockaded by the Chilsians, while the southern side was blockaded by the Marshal Loumerius. Skirmishes and artillery bombardments ensued, as the city garrison of 20,000 men resisted the invaders fiercely. On 2 November, a Chilsian offensive against Padua was thrown back. The Chilsians now settled in for a long siege of the city instead.

In December, a Inorian force, dispatched from Balay, landed in Gegucia, seeking to prevent the Chilsians from advancing south. Neuchrus however, sent a army to halt the Inorians, who were led by the Earl of Montague. Confronted both with the larger Chilsian force and with a Chilsian armada which bombarded the port of Monaco from sea, the Inorian army was forced to surrender. Monaco was conquered by the Chilsians on 23 December, 1476 BH, followed by the city of Gegucia itself three days later. On 30 December, King Neuchrus held a audience with Pope Clement the Unlucky (1477-1466). The Pope promised not to assist Emperor Demetrius, and in turn, Neuchrus agreed to support a Papal conquest of Kalabria and Balay. Brushing aside the fears of his senior commanders, the King detached some of his infantry corps and sent them south in order to assist the Pope in his military campaigns. The Inorian army attempted to intercept the Chilsian forces in the Battle of Uathiana, but was defeated. The Chilsian forces at Padua, in the meantime, were strengthened by the addition of a supply train of gunpowder, but also weakened by the departure of 1/3rd of the Heletian mercenaries, who returned to Heletia in order to deal with a series of uprisings there. In January, 1475 BH, Governor Cocola's forces were reinforced by the Emperor, who sent him 20,000 Lusitanian and Darsian mercenaries. With this aid, he launched new attacks against the Chilsian forces. The Chilsian military outpost of Sanna was conquered by the Inorians, weakening their supply lines. On 2 February, Cocola advanced to a position a few miles east of Padua. In a serious tactical error, Neuchrus had placed his army on the other side of Padua, thus leaving a route open to the advancing Inorians. Skirmishes and raids continued during the month, with no advance by either side. On 21 February however, Cocola decided to launch a attack against Picaolnia Camp, which had been established by the Chilsians as a command station for the siege. On 24 February, Picaolnia was breached and destroyed, thus allowing the main Inorian army to advance rapidly and to encircle the Chilsian command positions. At the same time, the garrison of Padua sallied forth and drove the Chilsian attackers beyond the walls, using their superior artillery to their advantage. The Chilsian heavy cavalry was destroyed by the garrison, thus weakening the Chilsian forces. In a series of infantry engagements and battles, the majority of the Heletian and Chilsian infantry was obliterated. On the Inorian side, the Duke of Boulaibassum was seriously wounded, but Marshal Loumerius was killed. The King himself and most of his nobles, courtiers, and attendants were captured by the Inorians. With this loss, Neuchrus had been defeated. Pavia was reconquered by the Wallachian-Inorian army on 29 February, and on 3 March, the remainder of the Chilsian army in Mararia was decimated in the Battle of Sulla.

The news of the capture of the Chilsian King had major political aftershocks throughout Haustia. The King's mother, Theodora of Westoria, served as regent in Constantinople. When she learned of the news of her son's capture by the Imperial forces, she is reported to have said "This is the undue punishment of Almitis for my sins". Theodora immediately set about to muster a new Chilsian army, in order to protect the kingdom against invasion by the Darsians. She also sent the first ever Chilsian mission to the Osrianian Empire, which was now under the rule of Ptolemy the Magnificent (who will be described below). This first mission was lost in the wilds of Katherina, but a second was dispatched in December 875 BH. The second mission managed to reach Osrianinpolis and opened diplomatic negotiations with Emperor Ptolemy. On 6 February 1474 BH, the mission returned from the Osrianian Empire with a response letter from Ptolemy, who expressed his sympathies with the plight of the Chilsian King. Ptolemy eventually wrote a ultimatum to the Emperor, demanding that he release Neuchrus and pledge himself as a vassal to the Osrianian Empire. When a answer did not arrive, the Osrianians launched a invasion of Barshoria in that summer of 1474 BH, which will also be described below.

Neuchrus in the meanwhile, petitioned Governor Cocola on the matter of his imprisonment, requesting that he be transported to Inoria so that he could negotiate with Demetrius directly. Cocola agreed. Neuchrus disembarked from Jurcuse, under guard, on 3 July, arriving in Beneventum one week later. Demetrius however, refused to meet with the Chilsian King until he had accepted a agreement and ordered him to be imprisoned in the Citadel of the Prisoners of Inoria, located in Vrithie. The Emperor demanded that Pavia, Chilsian Burgunthia, and Jarbonne be surrendered to him and that the Chilsian King recognize him as his overlord. The King of Chilsia however, pointed out that Chilsian law prevented him from seceding any part of his Kingdom's territory without the approval of the Nobles and the Hereditary Estates, who would certainly not agree to such a deal. In September, the King fell mortally ill, which some said was a result of the Emperor refusing to see him. The Emperor was finally prevailed upon to visit the ailing King in his bed. After he did so, the King made a complete recovery. As 1474 BH commenced, the Pope and the Vanathian Republic sent emissaries to the Emperor, who demanded that the Sforzes family be restored to the Pavian Dukedom. On 8 January, Neuchrus communicated to the Emperor his express desire for a argument satisfying to the Inorian demands. On 14 January, 1474 BH, the Treaty of Beneventum was signed, by which Neuchrus surrendered Chilsian claims and territories in Southern Anthoria, Pavia, and the Trans-Heletian Passes. He also surrendered Chilsian Burgunthia to the Holy Mararian Empire, agreed to give two of his sons to the Emperor as hostages, promised to restore to Boulaibasum the estates and territories seized from him, and agreed to marry the Emperor's younger sister Eleanora. Finally, Neuchrus acknowledged the Emperor as his overlord and agreed to pay him homage, a annual tribute, and military fealty. Once the Treaty was ratified, Neuchrus was released on 6 March. He crossed into Chilsia on 16 March, reaching Constantinople by 20 March. On 22 March, he signed a truce with King Augustus of Darsis. The Treaty of Hera would eventually be signed on 17 April, 1474 BH, which restored the status quo ante bellum between Chilsia and Darsis and restarted the payment of Chilsian subsidies to the Darsian King.

The King of Chilsia however, had no intention of upholding the provisions of the Treaty of Beneventum. On 22 March, with the blessing of the Pope, he proclaimed that the provisions of the Treaty had been exacted under duress. Cosnequently, he was not bound by its provisions and remained a independent monarch from the suzerainity of the Emperor. Pope Clement the Unlucky, who was fearful of the Emperor's power, sent envoys to both Neuchrus and Augustus, suggesting a alliance against his pretensions. Augustus, who believed that the Emperor had betrayed him by refusing to allow Darsis to have any territorial gains on the continent, was receptive to this idea. On 19 April, 1474 BH, the Treaty of Cognac was signed by Chilsia, the Papal States, Vanathia, Gararia, Darsis, and Pavia, which had erupted in rebellion against the Emperor under the leadership of the Sforzes.

Laurasian Modern Era (900-443 BH) Part IIIEdit

Upon the signing of the Treaty of Cognac, the League of Cognac launched military offensives against Imperial positions in Pavia. On 29 April, 874 BH, they managed to capture the stronghold of Igloria. Soon however, the Emperor and his forces marched into Pavia, and on 1 May, he inflicted a decisive defeat on the forces of the Pope, the Sforzes, and Gararia in the Battle of Milanium. Following this victory, the Emperor's forces drove the remaining units of the Sforzes out of Pavia, subdued Gararia, ravaged Vanathian territory, and advanced into the Papal States. By the spring of 873 BH, the Imperial army was present throughout Papal territory. The Pope requested the assistance of Vanathia against the Wallachian-Inorian army. The Vanathian Senate, however, in a betrayal of the alliance which had been signed, refused to contribute troops to the defense of Papal territories. On 3 May, the Imperial army besieged and captured Ravenna without much of a struggle. Demetrius, who established his military headquarters in that city, now ordered Demetrius the Strong, who had become one of the commanding generals of the army, to proceed against Ostia and Ralispont without delay. He obliged, and on 4 May, departed from Ravenna at the head of 130,000 Wallachian, 100,000 Inorian, 80,000 Kalabrian, 65,000 Anthorian, 50,000 Heletian, and 30,000 Pavian troops, one of the largest forces to have been sent in Mararia up to that point. On 6 May, his force reached the walls of Ralispont, and found themselves facing a paltry force of 8,000 militiamen, 5,000 Heletian mercenaries, and 3,000 Papal Guards. The Duke of Boulaibasse instigated a major offensive against the city's fortifications, but was himself fatally wounded by Heletian snipers while giving commands to his men. He died before the end of the day. His second in command, the Inorian General Cadumus of Philos, took chief command of the army. The Inorian-Wallachian army soon overwhelmed the defenses of Ralispont and swept all before them. All of the Heletian mercenaries and Papal Guards were butchered to death, while the Pope himself, cowering in his private quarters of the Holy See, was taken prisoner. For the next three days, the Imperial army ransacked the city, slaughtering, enslaving, imprisoning, exiling, raping, or scourging some 100,000 civilians. Finally, General Cadumus ordered his troops to stay their hand. On 20 May, the Pope was taken to Ravenna, where he was ritually stripped of his vestments and presented in humble monks' robes to the Emperor. On 6 June, the Emperor forced the Pope to sign the Treaty of Ravenna. By the terms of this treaty, the Pope seceded Parma, Modena, Ravenna, and the coast of the Hadriatic to the Holy Mararian Empire, recognized the Emperor as his overlord, and promised to pay him a vast tribute.

The sacrilegious sack of Ralispont and the humiliation of the Pope aroused the fears of Augustus and Neuchrus, who believed that the Emperor would now unleash his troops upon them and seek to annex their kingdoms to his collection of dominions. If he did so, he would become the most powerful ruler in Western Haustia since the time of the united Chilsian Empire. Thus, on 30 April, 873 BH, the two monarchs, who had once been such bitter enemies, signed the Treaty of Chancellors, pledging to unite in a common front against the Holy Mararian Empire and Inoria. Following this, Neuchrus dispatched a army under the command of the Count Rachalais into Gegucia, where it harried Inorian positions and seized much of the Gegucian naval fleet, comprised of 300 transports and 800 warships. With this powerful armada in his possession, the Count then directed his forces into Kalabria, landing in that kingdom by the middle of May. On 27 May, it occupied Benvolio, followed three days later by Mercutio and Pompeia. Throughout June, the Chilsian army and armada harried Inorian positions, launched naval raids against Balay and the Mararian Islands, and threatened the Emperor's southern flank. At the beginning of July however, a major setback was suffered when Admiral Athanasius Doria, who commanded the Chilsian armada, defected to the Emperor and betrayed the secrets of the Chilsian army's military strategies. Admiral Doria, having earned a pardon from the Emperor, drove the Chilsian garrison from Gegucia on 5 July. On 17 June, the Chilsian army in Benvolio was destroyed by a Inorian-Balay force in the Battle of Landriano. Neuchrus was forced to terminate his ambitions in Mararia. Likewise, his invasions of Anthoria and Mendelevia in 872 BH failed, while Augustus was unable to land a army in Inoria or Wallachia.

Consequently, the Chilsian King sued for peace with Emperor Demetrius in May, 870 BH, sending his emissaries to the Emperor's court in Wargoria, the capital city of the Holy Mararian Empire since 946 BH. In July, negotiations began in Constance, with the Pope being forced by the Emperor to serve as mediator of the negotiations. Anastasia of Trinthia, the aunt and former regent of Demetrius in Anthoria, represented the Emperor, who remained in Wargoria, while Neuchrus's mother, Theodora of Westoria, represented her son. The Treaty of Constance, signed on 5 August, 870 BH, reiterated some of the terms of the Treaty of Beneventum. Neuchrus again surrendered his claims to Anthoria and Pavia, although he was allowed to retain Chilsian Burgunthia and Jarbonne. In return, he recognized the Emperor as his overlord and became obliged to pay a ransom for the release of his sons from being held hostage in Inoria. After this agreement, the Emperor turned his attention to Vanathia, which signed the Treaty of Delores over the River on 7 September. Gararia was forced to sign the Treaty of Delano on 17 October, while on 25 October, the Pope was forced to reconfirm the terms of the Treaty of Ravenna and to agree to formally crown Demetrius as Emperor in Ravenna.

With the wars in Mararia having been discussed to such a point, we must now alight our attention on two major events of this time period, both of whom have mentioned above: the First Almitian Reformation and the continued advance of the Osrianian Empire into southeastern Haustia. Both of these were to have a major impact upon Laurasian history. By the beginning of the 9th century BH, the Almitian Church was truly in a state of indolence and disrepair. The Popes of Almitism, whose original mission had been, according to the ancient writings of the first of their line, Gregory I (2260-2241), "to spread the message of the true Lord of Almitis, his servant Paul, whom Almitis sent to bequeath to us that message of love, unity, conformity, strength, and brotherhood, and to preach the good works of all of us who serve the great Almitis", had degraded far below that level. Gregory the Great (1810-1796), had said that "the Papacy's mission is to insure that all of us on this world, this jewel of the universe, be given spiritual comfort and spiritual unity." Pope Adrian I, who had been saved by Demetrius the Great from the Cleothards, had said that "Almitis is to be served by the holy Church, which is to remain humble, and a source of comfort, strength, and kindness to all its flock". All of these earlier leaders of the faithful would have been disgraced with the present status of the Church. Pope Alexander VI (908-897), was known for his indolence and his immoral habits, in particular for his gluttony. He bestowed high offices and Church honors upon his family members, engaged in political intrigues, and focused more time on the pursuit of luxury and power then on his pastoral duties. Alexander in fact, was ignorant of the writings of the Church Fathers and had little understanding for the true meaning of Almitism. His successor, Julius II, although he had been a Cardinal and Archbishop long before ascending to the Papal See, was not much of a improvement. Julius spent his reign engaged in war, as was already mentioned above, and engaged in architectural projects. He lavished particular attention upon the Holy Palace, that headquarters and residence of the Popes.

Julius's successor, Leo X, became known for his extravagant court and his passion for good food and entertainment. Leo dragged the Papacy into debt. In order to raise the revenues for the Church, he encouraged the distasteful practices of simony (that is, selling Church offices and bishoprics to the highest bidder) and indulgences (that is, granting bulls of pardon to believers for a fee paid directly to the Pope). Indulgences, in particular, became a major source of Church wealth. Originally introduced in the 13th century BH, their use had been formalized by Urban VI in his papal brief on finances, which was promulgated in 1020. In 886 BH, Leo issued his own brief, which declared that indulgences are "worthy of the name of Almitis because they allow for believers to enter into Heaven, and because they allow the Holy See to maintain its proper state of operations". On 27 November, 884 BH, the Pope formally granted a license for the distribution of indulgences in Wallachia, Alohemia, Polosia, Targay, Barshoria, and Heletia to Bishop Heredotus of Halicarnasia, a port on the shore of the Varangian Sea. Heredotus set out in January 883 BH, and he preached throughout the Empire, traveling across Mendelevia, Dacia, Banderia, Austiana, and Halxony. A young monk of the Order of St. Athanasius in Halxony, Augustine Latinius (917-854), heard Heredotus preach for the sale of indulgences in his priory, in the city of Cantaci, on 2 July, 883 BH. Latinius disagreed heartily with the practice of selling indulgences. Indeed, he believed that the entire Church was in need of reform and that the Papacy's extensive wealth and power could not be tolerated no longer. Two days after the Sermon of Cantaci, Latinius set to work on his Theological Treatises of the Church, which took him three months to complete. Finally, on 31 October, 883 BH, the work was completed. Latinius posted his work, as was the custom of the time, in the public square of Cantaci. His work immediately aroused attention from the local authorities, in particular from the Bishop of Cantaci, Origen, who condemned the works of the monk as "heretical". Nevertheless, the Theological Treatises of the Church spread quickly. In November, 883 BH, they were printed by the town press of Cantaci. By January, 882 BH, the work had spread throughout Halxony. By March, it had spread throughout Wallachia. And by November, 882, BH it had spread across Haustia. The Pope, when he received the work, was enraged, and in July, he announced that Latinius had been "led astray by the schemes of the Underworld and its Lords, who seek to undermine the strength of the Church and the position of our Holy Faith".

Over the next two years, the Pope employed a variety of methods, attempting to suppress any reference to the work and to convince Latinius to recant his views. His efforts failed, and two successive papal legates sent to the monk were rebuffed. In the summer of 881 BH, the respected theologian and pro-Church scholar Sir Antigenes Eustatius gained the permission of the Pope to engage Latinius in a series of debates, to be held in the Public Rooms of the University of Cantaci. In these debates, Eustatius asked Latinius questions about the virtue of the Church's authority and the basis for the Pope's position as head of Almitism. Latinius responded by pointing to phases in the Four Gospels of Paul, and to the Letters to the Brethalians of St. Eusebius, all of which stated that "all Almitians are equals and brothers and should have leaders only to advise, not to dominate". Eustatius thereafter pointed to the Gospel of St. Peter, which stated that "he who is the successor to my person will be the apostle and supreme disciple of all who walk in Almitis". Eustatius then declared Latinius a new John of Manchines (a well known heretic of the early 10th century BH who was burned by Papal authorities in Alohemia) and sent a letter to the Pope, describing the debates and recommending that Latinius be punished for his views. On 15 June 880, the Pope issued a papal declaration, condemning the Theological Treatises of the Church and warning Latinius that if he did not repent, he would be dealt "a severe and grave punishment, which is only meted out to those who are heretics and infidels against the will of Almitis and the representative of Peter and Paul". Latinius ignored the papal declaration, and in his Reflections on the Current Pope, published in September, 880 BH, openly declared that Popes have no authority over Almitism. This was followed in October by his Essay on the Freedoms of All Almitians, of which he sent a copy to the Pope. In November, he publicly burned the papal declaration and the letter of Eustatius, declaring that "thee are not bound to this false figure and his agent!" Thus, the Pope acted upon his threat.

On 2 January, 879 BH, he formally excommunicated Latinius, dismissed him from his positions as a monk and Rector of the Faith, and extended the anathema to any who supported him, shielded him from Papal officials, or circulated his writings. On 28 January, Emperor Demetrius, who was in charge of enforcing the bull of excommunication, summoned the Diet of Wargoria, a imperial assembly comprised of nobles, provincial governors, clergymen, town delegates, peasants' delegates, household officials, and military officials from throughout the Holy Mararian Empire. The Emperor commanded Latinius to appear before the assembly on 9 April, and declared that he would be offered two options: to renounce or reaffirm his views. Latinius's local prince and friend, Duke Frederickus of Halxony, who supported the monk's views and was privately considering breaking away from the Pope's authority, was able to obtain a assurance of safe conduct to and from the Diet, which the Emperor swore to uphold with his life. On 16 April, Latinius appeared before the assembly. Eustatius, who as assistant to the Archbishop of Trathagena represented both the Church and the imperial government, laid copies of Latinius's writings before him and asked him to state whether or not he would stand by his views. Latinius confirmed that he was the author, but asked for a day to contemplate on the question of his views. This request was granted. The following day, Latinius gave his answer, standing by his writings and stating that "You all should realize that the Papacy should not hold a position of authority over this holy body which the Mother of Almitis conceived". Eustatius proclaimed that he was a heretic and asked the Emperor to enforce the bull of excommunication. Demetrius, who heartily disagreed with Latinius's ideas, and who was a firm supporter of the Church organization, issued the Edict of Wargoria on 25 May, 879 BH. By this edict, the Papal Bull of Excommunication was reaffirmed and was declared to be of "full force and extent within the bounds of this honorable Empire". The edict declared Latinius a outlaw, extended the anathema to any who sheltered him or provided him any sort of comfort, and proclaimed that Latinius was to be, after his safe conduct had expired, apprehended, tried, and condemned as a "notorious and vicious heretic, who burst forth from the froth of the Lady of the anti-Almitis". Latinius's writings were formally banned and all copies were to be gathered and destroyed.

Following the dissolution of the Assembly on 27 May, Latinius traveled back to Cantaci, but on his way home was apprehended by men sent by Duke Frederickus, who had him taken to Warlanian Castle, where he was to be kept out of reach of any who would try to arrest him. There, Latinius adopted a persona as "Father Judas" and began work on his translation of the Almitian Bible into Wallachian. Over the next year, he produced dozens of polemical, theological, and political works, in which expounded his theory that salvation was by "one's faith", that the Papacy was not supreme, and that all men were equal to each other in the "grace of Almitis, although in social and political matters they might be mean or high". Latinius eventually returned to Cantaci in the spring of 877 BH, after the danger had passed. The Emperor indeed, was to be so distracted by his political and military pursuits that he would never enforce the Edict of Wargoria. In 876-75 BH, the Great Peasants' Revolt erupted in the Holy Mararian Empire, encompassing much of Halxony, Dacia, Mendelevia, and Franconia at its height. The peasants, who believed that Latinius would come out and support their revolt, marched under banners which stated that they were fighting "for the theories of the great and reverent Monk who hath opposed the authority and means of the Emperor and the Pope". Latinius, who was dependent on princely support, disappointed them however, and in March, 875 BH, his pamphlet On the Proper State of Society appeared. In this pamphlet, he condemned the revolt, urged the peasants to again become "subordinate to your masters, whom Almitis hath granted to you in order to insure your mean subjugation under his eyes", and said that if they did not lay down their arms, the "anti-Almitis will creep upon you and cast you into the crevices of hell, in which you will burn for all eternity and all time to come". His pamphlet seriously weakened the rebel's morale, and by October, 875 BH, the combined forces of the Emperor and the Princes, including the Duke of Halxony, had crushed their rebellion.

Latinius lost support amongst the common people for his pamphlets, but cemented his support amongst the nobles and princes. Over the next twenty years, many of the Wallachian magnates and princes, especially those in the northern and central regions of the Empire (which were more developed then the southern regions), would convert to what became known as "Reformed Almitism", or "Latinism". Latinius himself settled down in the city of Ponthia, marrying a former nun, Katharina Boraina, in the fall of 874 BH. With her, he had five children. He spent the remaining twenty years of his life completing his translation of the Almitian Bible (which appeared in four editions from 869 to 860 BH), producing a series of theological treatises and political essays, and conducting extensive correspondence with various clergymen, princes, and others throughout Haustia. In 862 BH, Emperor Demetrius declared that the Edict of Wargoria, although it remained in effect, would not be pursued, and Latinius was finally allowed to emerge from obscurity. In his later years, however, he became increasingly racist, and in his Tract on the Laurasian Race of Almitis, published in 857 BH, declared that "Jatherian Traditionalists, Osrianians, Krayians, and the savage natives of Australasia, Eastern Oceania, Explosansis, and the Westar continents are not worthy of the love of Almitis. They should be burned, mutilated, castrated, enslaved, beheaded, and thrown into the pit of the Mother of Hell". Latinius died on 18 February, 854 BH, and was buried in the Priory of Cantaci, which had converted to Latinism by the time of his death.

Already in the lifetime of Latinius, other figures were emerging who were to lead the progress of Reformed Almitism further and who were to challenge the authority of the Pope throughout Haustia. Heletia in particular, was to experience its own movement of Reformed Almitism, under the vigorous priest, theologian, and author Theodosius Zurchius (916-869), a contemporary of Latinius. Zurchius, who had conducted extensive research about Church organization, practices, and beliefs, began criticizing the Church as early as the spring of 884 BH, a year before Latinius published his Theological Treatises of the Church. Zurchius moved to Agrippine, one of the leading Heletian cities, in 880 BH. There, he promoted the spread of Latinius's teachings, launched his own sermons about the virtues of the Church, and openly doubted the Pope's authority. By 878 BH, his views had grown into a radical direction, and in his Essay on the Faith and Practices of a Worthy Almitian, which were published on 21 December of that year, he openly disavowed the authority of the Pope and declared that "every man should seek to find his salvation himself and should not refer to one whose authority was not granted by the Lord Paul of Almitis". The following year, the city council of Agrippine, which had been debating the teachings of both Zurchius and Latinius, took a radical action by agreeing to convert the city to Reformed Almitism. A series of decrees issued by the council denied the Pope's authority over the city, placed all church properties and clergymen under the control of a Reformed Almitian Conclave, and formally sponsored the teachings of Latinius and Zurchius. Over the next four years, the neighboring Heletian cities of Underlathy, Nero, Nost, and Ullia also converted to Reformed Almitism. The remainder of the Heletian cities (Zabibe, Galarus, Zemenia, and Ragbehtre) remained staunchly Papist and prohibited the circulation of all Reformed Almitian works in their territories. These cities also depended upon the mercenary business, for they supplied soldiers to the Papacy, Chilsia, and the Holy Mararian Empire, among other Papist clients. Thus, they were not willing to abandon Traditional Almitism. In fact, the teachings of Zurchius so alarmed these cities that they formed the League of the Proper Faith in the fall of 876 BH. The Traditionalist cities of Heletia established a alliance with Emperor Demetrius, who was their nominal overlord, while the Reformed Almitian cities created the Alliance of the True Faith in January, 875 BH. Various border incidents, raids, and perscuetions occurred for several years. Two failed attempts at meditation, in particular the Conference of Nost in 874-73 and the Congress of Ullia in 872, failed to resolve the issues. Finally, the mass execution of 500 Reformed Almitians in Galarus on 25 April, 871 BH provoked a major war. Agrippine declared war against the League of the Proper Faith, being joined by its fellow allied cities a month later. The war lasted until November, when Zabibe managed to negotiate the Truce of Appelorus, by which peace was temporarily restored between the two leagues. The Traditionalist cities abandoned their alliance with the Emperor as part of the terms.

Peace did not hold for long however, and in the spring of 869 BH the Second Religious War of Heletia erupted amongst the cities. Agrippine's armies, which were personally commanded by Zurchius, who took the title of "Apostle of War for the True Almitis" on 25 May 869, BH, combined with the forces sent by the other member-states of the Alliance of the True Faith on 29 May. Over the next three months, the Agrippinian army engaged in campaigns throughout the territory of Zabibe, Galerius, and Zemenia. They sacked or plundered numerous villages, desecrated Traditionalist Almitian churches, butchered priests, nuns, priors, monks, and abbots, and converted Traditionalist Almitians to the new faith by sword point. Zurchius justified his measures by stating that "the Lord Almitis, as we conceive him, is determined that all his flock adhere to my interpretation of his worship, which was given to me by the almighty vision of the Gabriel Angel". The actions of the men under his command, however, intensified the resistance of the League of the Proper Faith. A attempt by the Reformed Almitians to storm Zabibe was defeated in August, 869 BH. The commander of the forces of the League of the Proper Faith, the Lord John Commenus, Duke of Zemenia and Master of the Over-Valleys, used a series of guerrilla and harassment tactics to gradually repel the forces of Zurchius from Traditionalist territory. On 11 October, 869 BH, he lured the army of Zurchius onto the Tirame Field, and using his superior numbers, cut his force off from reinforcements. In the fierce battle that followed, the Reformed Almitian forces were annihilated. Zurchius himself, who claimed that "Almitis is my shield against the injuries of war", was hacked to pieces by one of Commenus's subordinates. As a result of the Battle of the Tirame Field, as it came to be called, the Reformed Almitian Alliance collapsed and its forces were sent into disarray. Underlathy was conquered by the Traditionalist Almitians in September, while Agrippine itself was soon threatened by Traditionalist detachments. The capture of Underlathy and the blockade of Agrippine now forced the Reformed Almitian cities to come to terms. After months of bitter and tortuous negotiations, which at one point threatened to dissolve, the Treaty of Samnia was signed on 17 February, 868 BH. As a result of this treaty, the Alliance of the True Faith was dissolved. Each Reformed Almitian city was forced to pay a immense tribute to the League of the Proper Faith, as compensation for damage inflicted on Traditionalist Almitian religious properties and officials, and had to sign a declaration acknowledging the rights of the Traditionalist Almitian cities. In turn, the League of the Proper Faith promised to send any of their Reformed Almitian citizens to the respective Reformed Almitian cities, and agreed to recognize the retention of Reformed Almitism in territories where it had been adopted.

After the death of Zurchius, another, even more strict reformer arose to take the reins of the Reformed Almitian movement in Heletia. That man was Polydorus Angramius (891-836), a Chilsian lawyer, pastor, theologian, and author who was to establish his own sect of Reformed Almitism, consolidate the teachings of Zurchius and Latinius, and cement the position of Reformed Almitism in Haustia. Originally however, Angramius seemed a unlikely figure to head a religious movement. Born to a wealthy and prosperous middle-class family in the town of Noyronia, Chilsia, on 10 July 891, Angramius was originally destined for a career in law. Both his father and grandfather had served as prosecutors for the legal staff of the Chamber of Noyronia, and both had become respected throughout Chilsia for their legal treatises, case interpretations, and essays on the principles of Chilsian law. His mother was the daughter of the respected Antigonus Diathramius (973-893), who had graduated from the University of Constantinople in 946, taught at the institutes of Londinium, Jarbonne, Tourania, and Mendelevium for twenty years, and become Assistant Professor of the Judicial Department at the Constantinople Academy of Legal and Governmental Sciences in 922. In 910, he became President of the Constantinople Academy of Legal and Governmental Sciences, a position which he retained until his death. Angramius thus was to be introduced into the family tradition. By the age of 12, he had learned Mararian, Brethalian, Wallachian, and Darsian, and conducted studies on the cases of the respected ancient Grinan attorney and notary, Cliesthenes of Roma, who had lived in the 29th century BH. Three years later, he entered the College of Philosophic Sciences in Nargolium, since philosophy and philology were considered important to the understanding of legal principles at that time. In 874 BH, he graduated with a bachelors' degree in philosophy and philology, thereafter enrolling in the University of Orleania to pursue his formal legal studies. In 872 BH, he graduated from the University of Orleania with a bachelor's degree in forensics and a master's degree in the principles of Chilsian law. He then transfered to the University of Constantinople in order to obtain his doctorate on law, which he was awarded in the fall of 870 BH. During that time, he learned Tatianian and Grinan, which was needed in order to understand the original manuscripts of ancient works from those regions. In the spring of 869 BH, he formally registered as a lawyer with the Judicial Chamber of Constantinople and became a litigation, debt, and property attorney. A year later, his first published work, a commentary on Cliesthenes of Roma's Theories of the Meaning of Organized Law, appeared in print. Then, in April or May 868 BH, he experienced a religious conversion. Thirty years later, in his pamphlet On My Experience with Almitis, Angramius described his experience as being one in which "Almitis spoke to me in my sleep and told me: Rise, young man, and embrace in your heart the truth of my revelation".

Angramius became determined to reveal to the world the truth of his new revelation and to communicate the message on how the Almitian Church was direly in need of reform. He spent the next year traveling to monasteries, cathedrals, and parish churches throughout Chilsia, engaged in contemplative prayer, fasting, and meditation. He later stated that further visions from Almitis came to him during this time, which were to have a major influence upon his later church theories. By the fall of 867 BH, Angramius had returned to Constantinople, and found that the University had, in his absence, become entangled in a major dispute between two factions: the Reformed Almitian Professors and the Traditionalist Almitian Professors. Bitter arguments in the theology and law departments raged between the two sides, as the further progress of Reformed Almitism throughout Haustia aroused the attention of many. Angramius himself declared his support for the Reformed Almitian faction, and on 1 November, 867 BH, delivered his views about the religious matter to a conference of professors, priests, and lawyers in the Audience Hall of the University of Constantinople. In this address, Angramius stated that "our holy Mother Church, whom the Lord Paul of Almitis founded, the Lord Eusebius consolidated, and the holy father Gregory cemented, is in dire need of reform and renewal, so that we may seek in Thee that lie above, a truer understanding and a better perception of our faith." This oration provoked a bitter response against him, and Angramius was forced into hiding. He and his friend, John Bagladia, were finally forced to leave Chilsia in October, 866 BH, when the Heretical Riots led to the deaths or imprisonments of hundreds of prominent Reformed Almitians. In January, 865 BH, Angramius and Bagladia arrived in the city of Nero, whose Reformed Almitian movement had been organized by Antigonus Oecolampadius, who had died on 7 November, 869 BH. In March, 864 BH, Angramius published the first edition of his Principles and Government of Almitism, which was a extensive essay expounding his theories on the sacraments, the basis of Papal authority, salvation, faith, and Church organization. Angramius declared that the Papacy was not endowed with authority over the Church and that one's faith would be sufficient for him. Salvation in the Heaven of Almitis would derive from this and from obedience to Church officials. The sacraments were false however, and had no direct connection with the Savior and Prophets of Almitis. Angramius was to publish seven further editions of this work over the remainder of his life, and the last of these, which appeared in 837 BH, a year before his death, comprised of three volumes, each dedicated to a certain aspect of religion.

The month after the publication of the first edition, Angramius left Nero for Valerio, where he briefly served as a government secretary. He then returned to Constantinople in June, in order to take possession of his share of his father's estate, his father having died in January. Angramius had hoped that he would be able to resume his position in Constantinople. These hopes were disappointed by the Edict of Courhina, which was issued in July. The Edict declared that unless a Reformed Almitian repented and converted back to Traditionalist Almitism, he was to be banished from the kingdom and would not be allowed to return, on pain of death. Angramius realized that he would never be able to live in Chilsia without renouncing his views, and he bid his family a tearful farewell, telling them that he was leaving "on account of my loyalty to the true Conception of Almitis". In August, Angramius left Constantinople for the last time, and he traveled to Cnyecolacypae, which was a border city belonging to the Holy Mararian Empire. Cnyecolacypae, which had converted to the Reformed Almitian faith, had issued the Edict of Security in February, which allowed "persons of all faiths under Almitis" to reside in the city and to practice their faith without injury. The movements of Imperial and Chilsian armies in the border regions, however, forced Angramius to head to Ullia. Although he had intended to stay in the city only temporarily before returning to Nero, the city's leading religious official and reformer, Tiberius Farganius, who was also a Chilsian, persuaded Angramius to stay, telling him that "the great Almitis hath bid you to establish your residence here, to work in his name and to encourage the spread of his truthful message". Angramius decided to stay, and in his Observations on the Nature of Revelation, published in 860 BH, stated that "honorable gentleman, a most true follower of Paul and Almitis, convinced me that this is my adobe: he above truly inspired Farganius to show me my place". Angramius and Farganius were to remain friends and religious associates for the rest of his life. By December, 864 BH, Angramius had become a pastor, handling such matters such as weddings, baptisms, and church services. On 16 January, 863 BH, he and Farganius presented their treatise, Articles on the Organization of the Holy Church and the Position of its Followers, to the city council of Ullia, which suggested revisions of the marriage laws, adoption of a confession of faith, the use of simplified liturgy singing, and the methods for excommunication or penance to Almitis. The council adopted the Articles without demur. Angramius and Farganius however, came into conflict with the Council, which was against Angramius's stance on the sacraments. On 16 November, the two Reformed Almitian pastors had a major argument with the council over the matter. Sacramental bread became the main focus of this argument, as Angramius and Farganius refused to use it, for they considered it to be heretical. By the beginning of December, 863 BH, the city council had despaired of the two ministers, and ordered them to leave Ullia.

Angramius and Farganius now traveled to Nero and Agrippine in order to plead their case against the city council of Ullia. According to the Heletian Constitution, other city-states had the right to intervene in each other's affairs and make petitions about certain political or religious matters if they so desired. Angramius and Farganius hoped that the other cities would be sympathetic to their cause and that they would persuade the city council to change its mind. Although the city council of Agrippine blamed Angramius for causing the troubles, it nevertheless asked its counterpart in Nero to apply pressure on Ullia to restore the two ministers to their positions. Ullia however, refused to admit the two ministers, who were forced to settle in Nero. Farganius now received a invitation to become the Priestly Leader of the Church of Ausculum, a offer which he accepted. He left for Ausculum in August, 862 BH, and took up his position in that city. Farganius was to remain the religious leader of Ausculum until his death in 835 BH, although he maintained extensive correspondence with Angramius and held a annual meeting with him. Angramius himself, in the meantime, now received a invitation from Cnyecolacypae, which had heard about his treatment by the city council of Ullia and offered him to come as its minister. Angramius reached Cnyecolacypae in September, 862 BH, and in December, was made a citizen of the city. He believed that his residence in Cnyecolacypae was to be permanent. For the next three years, he worked in Cnyecolacypae. He ministered and preached in the churches of the city, taking charge of the church services, baptisms, weddings, and funerals. Angramius worked on the second edition of the Principles and Government of Almitism, which appeared in April, 861 BH. The pastor however, was not satisfied with the second edition, and engaged himself in another revision, which reformed the contents and expanded the number of chapters. This revised third edition appeared in October, 861 BH.

In February, 860 BH, his Commentary on the Letters of the Prophet Eusebius appeared. In his acknowledgments, Angramius recognized his debts to Latinius, Zurchius, and other reformers of the church, although he did not hesitate to point out some of their shortcomings. In April, his translation of the Letters of the Prophet Eusebius from Brethalian into Mararian appeared, followed by his catechism for the study of the Books on the Revelation in November. In August, 860 BH, he married Iphigenia Cranthoria, who had married and been widowed twice before. Iphigenia proved to be a loyal and helpful wife, and she fully embraced her husband's teachings. Iphigenia had no children from her earlier marriages, and their marriage produced no children, which his enemies would take as evidence that Almitis was against heretics. They remained a loving couple until her death in 846 BH. Ullia in the meantime, reconsidered its expulsion of Angramius, for it had suffered internal strife and disputes with Nero and Underlathy. In September, 860 BH, the city sent a representative, Gaius Poalsia, to meet with Angramius in Wargoria, where a conference for Reformed Almitian preachers and pastors from Chilsia, the Empire, Mararia, Heletia, and Anthoria was being held. Angramius at first was reluctant, but eventually sent a letter to the city council of Ullia on 2 November, 860 BH, announcing that "the Lord Almitis has determined that I will return to service in your city".

Cnyecolacypae was at first reluctant to let Angramius leave, as his presence in the city had strengthened the Reformed Almitian movement there and had led to higher church attendance. The council of Ullia, however, sent repeated petitions to the government of Cnyecolacypae, begging them to "send his Holy Pastor to the city, so that he may communicate to our citizens the wonderful message of the True God and the True Almitis, that which resides over the heavens. We implore you to look into your hearts and to see what Almitis has deigned to provide this man. His mission is to return to our territories and to strengthen our Church." Finally, in August, 859 BH, the City Council of Cnyecolacypae and the Synod of Religious Affairs both agreed to send Angramius back to Ullia, although it only did so on condition that the city council would respect Angramius, adhere to his teachings, and promise to never again expel him. The city council of Ullia signed a declaration on 22 August, 859 BH, agreeing to these promises and swearing that Angramius' person would be insured in the city for the rest of his life. With this final assurance, Angramius resigned as Pastor of Cnyecolacypae on 29 August, 859 BH. On 13 September, 859 BH, Angramius arrived in Ullia for the second time with his wife, and was escorted by a entourage sent by the city council to his residence, Zamian Mansion. He was to stay in Ullia for the rest of his life and would never again leave the city. On 20 November, 859 BH, the city council of Ullia formally declared Angramius to be its Spiritual Deacon and Apostle, and issued the Ordinance for the Governance of the City Religion, which divided the religious order in Ullia amongst four different categories: pastors to preach and administer church services; doctors to instruct the believers of the true faith; elders to insure discipline and maintain order within the Church; and deacons to care for the poor, the homeless, and the sick. The Consistory, a council of ecclesiastical elders, ministers, and lay officials was established, with Angramius to serve as its President and Chief Elder. The government retained power over all civil and criminal cases, but the Consistory was granted authority to all crimes and cases concerning the Church and the religious faith of the citizens. The execution of sentences in ecclesiastical matters was reserved to the government, however. Angramius himself became a member of the city council, as did most of the elders and deacons. In 858 BH, Angramius published his Collection of Prayers and Hymns, which formalized the liturgy organization of the Ullian Church. Later that year, his Catechism of the Church of Ullia appeared, which took inspiration from Latinus's Compilation of the Teachings of Faith and Spirituality. Angramius became known for his vigorous preaching and his extensive sermons, which would eventually be compiled and published as The Sermons of Polydorus Angramius in 827 BH, after his death.

Opposition soon emerged to Angramius however, as many believed that the Chief Elder was too strict on matters concerning marriage, divorce, sexual relations, the sacraments, entertainment, diet, and Church property. Latinius himself, who was still active at Cantaci, sent his famous Letter to My Disciple in November, 857 BH, in which he urged Angramius to "moderate your teachings of the faith and make sure that you do not unduly oppress any of your followers". Angramius however, was determined to have his own way. By the time Latinius died in February, 854 BH, the movement of opposition against Angramius had consolidated in the form of the Society of Perceptive Almitism, which formally opposed Angramius's policies. The Society comprised of many of the most prominent, wealthy, and politically powerful cities in Ullia. In his letter of 7 January, 854 BH to Farganius, Angramius described his opponents as being "men who are deluded into believing that the true conception of faith absolves them from all obligations towards their superiors here on Laurasia". On 29 January, 854 BH, Angramius was challenged by a innkeeper, Quintus Fabius, who called him a "false pastor" and declared that he was depriving the people of Ullia of their "fruits of paradise". Angramius was enraged by this, and on 2 February, the Consistory and City Council forced Fabius to repent his statement and to run through the city streets with a whipping stick, with which he was to strike his back continually and loudly state that "I am so sorry, oh my Almitis!" A few months later, Gaius Poalsia, who had been sent by the city council as its messenger to Angramius in Wargoria, entered into open opposition against Angramius. Already, his wife and father-in-law had been engaged in disputes over the Consistory regarding their love of luxurious food and furniture, which Angramius considered to be "against the nature of Almitis". In the summer of 854 BH, Poalsia was summoned by the Consistory to answer to charges regarding his violation of city laws on entertainment and diet. He initially ignored this, and only when Angramius sent him a threatening letter did he comply. By January, 853 BH, most of the civil magistrates of Ullia were opposed to Angramius and the Consistory. A threatening letter was discovered on 27 June in the Cathederal of St. Mary, in which Angramius was denounced as "that man" and was warned that "the anti-Almitis will be feasting upon your body soon". The Consistory ordered a investigation, and on 3 August, the writer of the letter, the young Pausanius Illores, was identified. Illores was hanged with Angramius's consent on 6 August. On 10 August, the city council of Ullia granted the Consistory the full power over all "cases involving morals, religion, entertainment, and social customs". On 12 August, Angramius became President of the Council of Ullia. For the next six years, the Society of Perceptive Almitism continued to increase its support base in private, while Angramius and the Consistory instigated a oppressive regime of government in Ullia.

A major event occurred in Ullia with the arrival of Michael Servetus in Ullia on 13 August, 847 BH. Servetus was a fugitive from ecclesiastical authorities elsewhere in Heletia. A Inorian physician and Reformed Almitian theologian, Servetus boldly criticized the doctrine of the Sanctity of Paul, and pointed out that the "Prophet of Almitis" had never directly stated in his ministries that he was born of one of the Great One's angels. He also challenged the law of required baptism and stated that Paul had said that "all men are pure from the day they are born, and this form of ceremony is to display to those around us the symbolic and visual meaning of that purity: it is not something that changes a man's condition besides". Servetus declared that many of the positions of the Church of Ullia, and of the Traditionalist Almitian Church, were in direct contradiction to what Scripture had stated. In 870 BH, he had disputed with Oecolampadius in Nero and was expelled from that city. In Cnyecolacypae, he published a pamphlet against the Sanctity of Paul and declared that Paul was only a religious pastor on Laurasia, with no relation to Almitis or the Angels of his will. Servetus was eventually forced to leave by one of the city's most prominent theologian-professors, Dr. Athanasius Bucleius, who had, ironically, invited Angramius to the city. From there, Servetus returned to Nero and published his Two Books of Dialogues on the Sanctity of Paul, with both Reformed Almitians and Traditionalist Almitians condemning his work severely. This work caused the Inorian Inquisition to order for his arrest. In 854 BH, Servetus and Angramius exchanged letters for the first time, discussing such subjects as the Sanctity of Paul, the sacramental services, and the works of Eusebius. Angramius attempted to persuade Servetus to change his mind about the matter, but the theologian refused. After about fifty letters had been exchanged between the two men, Angramius refused to respond any further. This decision was also fueled by the fact that Servetus had sent him a copy of the Principles and Government of Almitism, which was heavily annotated and included notes on hundreds of errors which Servetus perceived that Angramius had made. Servetus asked Angramius for permission to come to Ullia, so that he could debate with the Chief Elder personally. Angramius however, warned Servetus that if he came, "I would insure that you would be burned and banished to the Pit of the anti-Almitis".

In 847 BH, Angramius's secretary sent letters to the Cardinals of Chilsia, warning them on how Servetus was residing secretly in Vthania, which was in Chilsian territory. Servetus was identified, arrested, and interrogated. Servetus refused to answer their questions however, and he soon managed to escape secretly from confinement. He fled into Mararia, hoping to seek refuge in Vanathia, but decided to halt at Ullia in order to rest. There, he was identified and arrested by city officials. Angramius's secretary, Sir Eurydides of Pamenios, compiled a list of accusations against Servetus and submitted them to the Consistory. The trial was dragged on by Angramius's opponents, however, and on 20 August, the city council of Ullia sent letters to Nero, Nost, Agrippine, Underlathy, Zabibe, Galarus, Zemenia, and Ragbehtre, asking for their opinion about what to do with Servetus. All the cities, both Reformed and Traditionalist Almitian, responded that Servetus was "the worst heretic ever to arise on this planet" and recommended that he be executed. On 20 October, the city council formally announced the replies and condemned Servetus as a heretic. This decision was confirmed by the Consistory on 21 October, which ordered him to be burned. On 27 October, 847 BH, Servetus was burnt alive on a pyre which rested atop his own books. After Servetus died, Angramius was acclaimed as a defender of Almitism, and for once, both Traditionalists and Reformists stated that he had protected the faith from "grievous injury". He still had to deal with opposition from the Society of Perceptive Almitism. Angramius now moved to increase further the power of the Consistory, and during 846 BH, he was engaged in a dispute with his Societal opponents on the city council. On 12 January, 845 BH, the council decided to endorse the position of Angramius and declared that the Consistory was the supreme court of Ullia. In February, 845 BH, Angramius removed his Societal opponents from their positions on the city council and in the judicial system. On 16 May, 845 BH, Poalsia and his subordinates were forced to flee from Ullia, while all citizens of Ullia were forced to swear a oath of homage to Angramius and to acknowledge his teachings as the "true word of Almitis".

For the last nine years of his life, Angramius was the unchallenged ruler of Ullia. He maintained a extensive correspondence with his contemporary clerics and reformers throughout Haustia, and became a respected figure with even the Traditionalist Almitians. In the fall of 845 BH, he signed the Concordat of Unity with Agrippine, which had, since the death of Zurchius in 869 BH, been under the rule of his disciple, Plutarch Bulansgis, a friend and contemporary of Angramius. By the Concordat of Unity, Agrippine and Ullia agreed to cooperate on religious matters and to exchange information on theology and church organization. That same year, Angramius provided refuge in Ullia for those fleeing from the perscuetions of Clytemnestra of Darsis (who will be described), as well as to Julius Radratus, who was to eventually import Angramism (as the Ullian sect of Reformed Almitism was now known) to the Mathianian Isles. Angramius also sponsored missions into his native homeland, Chilsia. Between 845 and 838, 100 Angramian ministers and priests were dispatched to Chilsia, where they converted thousands and established a string of Reformed Almitian churches. Within Ullia itself, Angramius directed his attention towards establishing a firm educational system, to provide new clergymen and theologians for the Church. On 25 March, 842 BH, Angramius himself laid the foundation stone of the Theological University of Ullia. The University was opened on 25 June, 841 BH. By the time of Angramius's death, the Theological University had nearly 3,000 students. In the last years of his life, Angramius himself produced a flood of works. Besides his final editions of the Principles and Government of Almitism, he published commentaries on the Psalms, the Lamentations of Jatheria, the Histories of Jatheria, and the Mission of the Lord. He also worked on a complete translation of the New Testament of the Almitian Bible, and his version of the Gospels of Paul, the Letters of Eusebius, and the Letters of the Minor Disciples appeared in 840-839 BH. In 838 BH, Angramius published a abridged and annotated version of his theological and legal lectures, followed in 837 BH by his Essay on the Relation of Almitism with Other Academics. He began work on his memoirs, but had only completed the first three chapters when he died. Angramius also wrote nearly 200 other public letters, religious documents, and treatises, in which he completed his theories on all aspects of faith. During 837 BH, however, the health of Angramius died, and he suffered from fatigue, fever, and tonsillitis. In February, 836 BH, Angramius collapsed while he was delivering a lecture on the Nature of Faith. In March, with the assistance of his secretaries, he dictated his will, in which he left most of his fortune to the Theological University, with most of his family dead. On 27 May, 836 BH, Angramius died, and was buried in the Chapel of Ullia, which he had consecrated in 849 BH. He was succeeded in his positions by his chief subordinate on the Consistory, Theodosius Bezarius, who was to govern Ullia and the Ullian Church until his death in October, 796 BH. Under his watch, the ideals of Angramism spread to Anthoria, Ducal Burgunthia, the northern regions of the Holy Mararian Empire, Barshoria, Polosia, Chilsia, Lusitania, and Laudermia. By the end of the 9th century BH, Angramism was the fourth-largest religious denomination in Haustia, after Traditionalist Almitism, Latinism, and Truism.

Laurasian Modern Era (900-443 BH) Part IVEdit

We shall now turn our attention to the progress of Reformed Almitism in the kingdoms of the Varangian Peninsula, Hisland, Barshoria, and the Polosian-Laudermian Commonwealth. Afterwards, attention shall be applied to the renewed advance of the Osrianian Empire in south-eastern Haustia. As was already stated above, Ullia under Angramius had received Reformed Almitian refugees fleeing from the Mathianian Isles. One of these refugees was Julius Radratus (887-828), a Hislan clergyman and theologian who was responsible for the establishment of the Reformed Almitian Church of Hisland. Unlike Angramius, who had been born into a wealthy middle-class family, Radratus was born into poverty. Although his exact date of birth is unknown, it has estimated to have been during 887 BH, depending on contemporary statements of the theologian's age at the time of his death. His father, Gregory Radratus, was a peasant-farmer, while almost nothing is known of his mother, Livia, except that she was the daughter of a milkman and his wife. His parents probably died sometime in 885 or 884 BH, when their son was but a little boy. As a result, Radratus was raised by his uncle, Pompey Radratus of Ganeias. Little is known about his early education, but he probably learned rhetoric, grammar, and logic at the local village school of Ganeias. Afterwards, he proceeded to further studies at the University of Wesolum. Surviving records indicate that he graduated in about 867 BH and that he received a master's degree in theology, as well as a bachelor's degree in forensics. By 864 BH, Radratus had entered the Almitian Church and was ordained a pastor by the Archbishop of Wesolum. By 860 BH, he is recorded as being a priest and legal notary in Cathaes, where he served in the household of Lord John Stymies of Cathaes. Radratus did not record how he became converted to the reformed faith, but it was probably because of Thomasius Bethanius, a Hislan reformer and scholar who had fled Hisland in 862 BH, having been condemned for his support of the teachings of Latinius. Bethanius returned to Hisland in 856 BH and traveled throughout the kingdom, especially in Lower Moesia and Mathianian Chanellia, where he preached to throngs of villagers. Radratus is believed to have served as Bethanius's accomplice and bodyguard, protecting him from injury. How he came into this position is unknown.

In December, 855 BH, Bethanius was arrested by officials sent by Cardinal Nortonius of Hisland, who was alarmed at his preaching. Radratus was able to escape however, and became determined to spread his former master's message. On 1 March, 854 BH, Bethanius was burned at the stake in Covella. Radratus himself took refuge at the Stymies household, and managed to temporarily evade the attention of the Traditionalist religious officials. While Radratus remained in hiding, Cardinal Nortonius himself was assassinated on 29 May, 854 BH, by a gang of peasant militiamen, in revenge for the execution of Bethanius. Radratus was now ordered by Lord John to take his sons to Melsulthor Castle, where he was to educate them in the Reformed faith. He arrived at the castle on 10 April, 853 BH. During his time at the castle, Radratus's skills as a preacher came to the attention of Caligula Roganius, who served as the chaplain of Melsulthor Castle. When Roganius preached at the parish church of Melsulthor, on the virtues of congregations electing their own pastors, he suggested that Radratus become the pastor of Melsulthor. Radratus at first was not eager to assume the position, and in his Memoirs of a Faithful Preacher, stated that he begged Roganius on his knees to withdraw his nomination. Roganius however, prevailed upon him to accept, and within a week, Radratus had become the pastor of Melsulthor. In his sermons, he denounced the authority of the Pope, denied the existence of a Intraworld, and declared that the Sacraments of Traditionalism were a product of heresy. His tenure as chaplain of Melsulthor did not last long however. Mary of Chilsia, the regent of Hisland in the name of her daughter Theodora, decided to storm Melsulthor, determined to crush that center of rebellion against her rule. On 29 July, 853 BH, the castle was besieged by a fleet of Chilsian galleys. On 31 July, the castle garrison was forced to surrender. The nobles of the garrison, its soldiers, and religious officials, including Radratus, were taken prisoner and forced to row in the Chilsian galleys. They were chained to the galley and watched over by Chilsian officers. They were forced to row to Chilsia, and had to participate in Traditionalist ceremonies, such as the Sacramental Service. During this time, his health declined considerably and his life was feared of by the other galley slaves. Radratus told them to have no fear and comforted them with the knowledge that Almitis was their protector.

He proved correct, as on 2 February, 851 BH, he was released by the Chilsians after nearly two years. Upon his release, he took refugee in Darsis, which had converted to Reformed Almitism and was under the rule of King Altherius the Young. Altherius's regents, the Archbishop of Umarina Thomasius Bardonicus, and the Duke of Somerina, were both ardent Reformed Almitians. In March, 851 BH, Radratus was ordained as a clergyman of the Church of Darsis. As such, Radratus had to swear loyalty to the King of Darsis as Supreme Head of the Church of Darsis and was required to use the Book of the Faithful Prayer, which was a translation of the old Mararian masses and ceremonies into Darsian. Although Radratus despised this, he nevertheless followed the customs of the Darsian Church, and became renowned as a vigorous preacher. It was in Darsis that Radratus was to meet his wife, Honoria Cargirues. Cargirues was a beautiful and vigorous, yet pious and disciplined, woman, and these traits attracted Radratus. Radratus fell in love with her, and she with him, and he now attempted to gain the permission of her family to marry her. Her father, the merchant Neuchrus Cargirues, was at first opposed to the union, but eventually consented and relented. The couple married in January, 850 BH. Later that year, Radratus became a preacher at St. Solons' Chapel in the city of Neahornia. In this position, he cemented his prestige and gained further notice at the court. As a result, Archbishop Bardonicus appointed Radratus as one of the royal chaplains of the King in February of the following year. When, in October, 849 BH, the Duke of Somerina was overthrown and replaced by his brother, the Earl of Flaiana, Radratus condemned the conspiracy which resulted in the change. Although the Earl of Flaiana did not take too kindly to this, he still recognized that Radratus was a vital asset. He invited Radratus to come to court, where Radratus preached for a extensive revision of the Book of Faithful Prayer. Although Archbishop Bardonicus opposed much of what he said, in particular about the procedures of communion, he nevertheless appointed Radratus to a council charged with producing the second edition. In October, 848 BH, the second edition of the Book of Faithful Prayer was completed, and much of the credit for its contents is due to Radratus. Fortunes changed for him, however, when King Altherius the Young was strangled to death in his chambers on 2 July, 847 BH. His ardent Traditionalist sister, Clytemnestra, became the first Queen of Darsis, and in October, she ordered for all Reformed Almitian preachers to either convert or leave the country. Radratus refused to convert, and taking his wife with him, he left Darsis in January, 846 BH.

Radratus landed at Dethania, Chilsia, and from there traveled to Ullia, seeking refugee in one of the most prominent Reformed Almitian cities on the continent. The arrival of Radratus in Ullia however, posed a issue for Angramius, who had only recently emerged from the issues surrounding Michael Servetus. Radratus was, however, received by Angramius in a formal ceremony. It was there that he asked the Chief Elder of Ullia four politically-related questions, concerning the events which transpired in Darsis. The Chief Elder gave cautious responses, for he did not want to provoke a controversy. He then referred Radratus to Plutarch Bulansgis of Agrippine. Bulansgis also gave cautious answers to the questions posed by Radratus. Radratus however, eventually made up his mind, and on 20 June, 846 BH, he published a pamphlet which denounced Clytemnestra, the "pretended Queen of Darsis", and condemned those who had helped her gain possession of the throne. His pamphlet also attacked the Holy Mararian Emperor, Demetrius I, labeling him "the worst enemy of Almitis which we have seen". On 24 September, 846 BH, Radratus received a invitation from a group of Darsian exiles in Thathlania, a city in the Wallachian Duchy of Swabia, which invited him to become their minister. He accepted the invitation, although once he arrived, he had to meditate a dispute between the two segments of his congregation: the Constructionists (who favored the use of the organized second edition of the Book of Faithful Prayer) and the Racialists (who favored the use of a strict, purely Reformed liturgy). One of the congregation members, Linius Coxanius, brought the attention of Radratus's pamphlet to the Emperor, who was enraged by what he heard. He sent a order to the city government of Thathlania, commanding them to expel Radratus. Radratus departed from Thathlania on 26 March, 845 BH, and declared himself independent of the Church of Darsis. He thereafter returned to Ullia and was appointed a priest by the Consistory. Radratus then decided to return to Hisland, determined that Almitis wished for him to complete his mission there. He arrived in his native country in July, 845 BH, after a absence of six years. The country was now far more Reformed Almitist then before, and when Radratus preached in villages and towns, espousing his theories of the new faith, he received a rousing applause. Queen Regent Mary, although she was alarmed at the return of Radratus, decided not to proceed against him. His ministries and sermons however, received the attention of the Church authorities. On 15 May, 844 BH, Radratus was summoned by the clergy of Hisland to appear before the Ecclesiastical Court of Wesolum. A large number of nobles, politicians, and merchants appeared with him, clearly demonstrating the support base which he held. As a result, the session was called off. The Queen Regent thereafter issued a decree granting Radratus the right to preach in Wesolum without restraint or harassment. Radratus now wrote to the Queen Regent, and in respectful terms, stated that if she converted to the Reformed Faith, the kingdom would benefit. The Queen Regent, who still held no sympathy for him on a personal level, and was still a ardent Traditionalist, ignored the letter.

After Radratus sent his letter to the Queen Regent, he declared that it was his duty to return to Ullia. The position of minister of Ullia was still reserved for him and he decided to take it. After writing a letter of thanks to his supporters and delivering a final round of sermons at the royal court, Radratus left Hisland with his wife and mother-in-law, arriving in Ullia on 13 September, 844 BH. For the next two years, Radratus lived a peaceful life in Ullia, where he cemented his position and became a respected adviser of Angramius. Angramius in fact, appointed Radratus to the Consistory and the City Council of Ullia in the fall of 843 BH. In a series of letters to his friends and associates, Radratus advised all Darsian exiles to come to Ullia, declaring it "the blessed place that Almitis has given his true believers on Laurasia". During his time in Ullia, he had a busy schedule. He preached three two-hour sermons per week, participated in a number of church services, weddings, and funerals, and proposed a number of new laws and church policies on the Consistory and the City Council. His wife gave birth to two sons, Gregory and Clement, during their time in Ullia. Radratus also focused himself on producing a large numbers of pamphlets, essays, and treatises. In particular, his notable Pamphlet against the Governance of Females, which was published in April, 842 BH, argued that women were incapable of governance over society and over men in particular. Radratus exposed the view that only men, the "first creatures of Almitis", are worthy of ruling on Laurasia. He said that women are "weak creatures, whose focus on pleasure distracts them from intelligent action". His views were to survive until the eighteenth century AH, and during the Space Age, were to be citied as justification for keeping women from the Laurasian throne. The pamphlet however, was seditious, even in a generally anti-female age. As a result, Radratus published the work anonymously and did not inform Angramius of it. Angramius was to deny knowledge of the pamphlet until two years after its publication. In Darsis, the pamphlet was condemned, and soon, everyone knew that Radratus had written it. Ironically, at the end of that year, Clytemnestra, the main target of his pamphlet, died, and her younger sister, Alexandra, became Queen of Darsis. Alexandra was a Reformed Almitian. Thus, the Darsian exiles in Ullia now prepared to return back to Darsis. Radratus decided to return to Hisland. Various honors, including lifetime membership of the Consistory and City Council, were conferred upon him by Angramius, whom he would never see again. In January, 841 BH, Radratus left Ullia, but he was not able to reach Hisland until 2 May, as Alexandra, who was angry about the pamphlet, refused him a passport.

Two days after he arrived in Wesolum, Radratus left for Dunathie, where a large number of Reformed Almitian sympathizers had assembled. The Queen Regent, who now hated Radratus for his seditious pamphlet, declared him a outlaw and revoked her earlier order which had allowed him to preach in public unharmed. She thereafter sent orders to Dunathie, commanding the Reformed Almitians to appear before her judges in Carborundum. The Reformed Almitians, who feared that they would be arrested and summarily executed, instead proceeded to Athos, which was a fortified town and could be defended in case the Queen decided to send forces to besiege it. At the Church of Athos, Radratus preached a fiery sermon denouncing the Queen Regent and calling her a heretic and a whore, which incited a riot in the streets. A mob now poured into the church, ransacked its treasures, and drove Radratus, his supporters, and the priests into the streets. The Queen Regent, when she heard of the incident, was enraged, and decided to summon militiamen, Royal Guards, and Chilsian mercenaries to her assistance. She now dispatched Lord Moranius with this force, ordering them to offer terms to the Reformed Almitians. The Queen promised not to send her Chilsian troops into Athos, as long as the Reformed Almitians surrendered peacefully. The Almitians agreed and were allowed to depart, but when the Queen arrived in Athos, she garrisoned it with Hislan troops who were under Chilsian service. Lord Moranius, who believed that the Queen had broken her promise, switched sides and joined with Radratus. Radratus, who now based himself in Cathaes, preached another vigorous sermon which incited more vandalism and looting. He managed to bring these under control however, and began to muster Reformed reinforcements in order to counter the armies of the Queen. The Queen was now forced to retreat to Vendenoum. She was now losing control over her own forces, who were on the verge of mutiny. This was because she was running low on finances and had virtually no money with which to pay their salaries. On 30 June, Wesolum was occupied by the Reformed Almitian forces, although they were soon forced to withdraw. On 1 July, Radratus preached in the Church of St. Giles, and was acclaimed by the capital city's population. On 25 July, 841 BH, the Reformed Almitian forces signed the Terms of Galorum with the Queen, by which they withdrew from the capital in return for freedom of religion. On 26 July, the Queen issued a decree formalizing the Terms of Galorum.

She had no intention of upholding the Terms however, and was sending letters to her relatives and friends in Chilsia, complaining about the terms she had to present to the "rebels". Radratus in the meantime, was aware of her intentions and he now negotiated with Alexandra, who although she still hated him, was willing to send Darsian troops to reinforce his men. Mary soon learned of this and brought in further Chilsian troops to Lathani. On 24 October, 841 BH, a assembly of Hislan nobles and magnates formally deposed Mary as Queen-Regent of Hisland and declared Radratus to be protector of the kingdom. Athanasius Maitlathania, the Queen's secretary, defected to the Reformed Almitians and brought his administrative skills with him. On 17 November, Radratus resigned as Protector of Hisland, giving his political duties over to Maitlathania, who had far more expertise for such matters. He remained spiritual and religious leader of the Reformed Almitian faction, however. Maitlathania now appealed to Hislan nationalism in order to expel the "foreign Queen and her foreign troops". On 27 February, 840 BH, the Treaty of Cathaes was signed with Darsis, by which Alexandra formally pledged a Darsian naval squadron and 20,000 Darsian troops to the support of the Reformed Almitians of Hisland. The Reformed Almitian forces now advanced quickly, and most of Mathianian Channelia, Upper Moesia, and Highland Hisland was secured by them. On 10 June, 840 BH, Queen Mary died suddenly in Wesolum, and her remaining subordinates sued for peace with the Reformed Almitians. On 1 July, the Reformed Almitian forces reoccupied Wesolum, and four days later, with the help of Darsian emissaries, the Treaty of Wesolum was signed. By the terms of this treaty, Reformed Almitism was acknowledged as the dominant religion of Hisland, while Maitathania and Lord Moranius were to organize a new regency, dominated by Reformed Almitian officials. Chilsia agreed to withdraw its troops from Hisland, and Darsis also did so. In return, the Hislans paid both Darsis and Chilsia a compensation for their military involvement.

On 19 July, Radratus held a national service of Thanksgiving in St. Giles and served as Master of the Celebrations of Peace. On 1 August, the Hislan Parliament was summoned in order to formally solve the religious issue. Radratus and five other ministers were appointed to serve on a committee to draw up the new confession of faith for the Church. Within four days, the Hislan Confession had been drafted and was approved by the Parliament. A week later, the Parliament passed three acts in a few hours: the first denounced the Traditionalist Church and abolished the Pope's jurisdiction over Hisland; the second condemned all doctrine which was contrary to Reformed Almitism; and the third abolished all Traditionalist masses and services. Parliament then ordered Radratus and his commission to organize the new Reformed Almitian Church of Hisland. Over the next several months, the minister worked vigorously on his Book of Discipline, which described the organization of the state church of Radranism, as it became known after its chief proponent and representative. In December, 840 BH, his wife died, and Radratus was left to raise their two young sons alone. He was devastated emotionally, but received a letter of condolence from Angramius. On 15 January, 839 BH, the Hislan Parliament reconvened in order to formally adopt the Book of Discipline. The Church of Radranism was to be organized along democratic lines. Each congregation would elect its own pastor, but would not be able to remove him. All parishes were to be self-supporting as far as possible. The bishops were replaced by a council of twelve superintendents, who in turn were to be supervised by a presidium of five elders and two laymen, with Radratus as chief elder. Adoption of the Book of Discipline however, was now delayed by the arrival of the Queen of Hisland, Antonia.

On 19 August, 839 BH, Queen Antonia, who was now nineteen and who had not been in her kingdom for over a decade, arrived in Lathani, with cannon signaling her arrival. Antonia, a ardent Traditionalist, had brought with her a score of Traditionalist chaplains, bishops, and pastors, and attended mass at Haladarian Palace five days later, which angered the nobles. The following day, however, Antonia issued a decree in which she confirmed the decisions of the Parliament and asserted that the current state of religion would not be challenged. In turn, she maintained her right to practice Traditionalism within her own household and forbade the Radranist priests to interfere with her personal services. Although most of the nobles and governors accepted the decree, Radratus did not. He protested vehemently from his pulpit in St. Giles and declared that "another woman is here to ruin us". Antonia, angered at this, commanded him to halt his preaching and summoned him to her presence. There, in front of a assembly of the court, the young Queen accused Radratus of inciting rebellion against her mother. She also expressed her anger over his by now notorious anti-female pamphlet, and stated that "no female sovereign should have to endure insults such as you have spat". Radratus responded by declaring that as long as her subjects considered her rule to be convenient, he would be willing to accept her governance. Antonia raised the subject of the pamphlet again, and said that "you truly cannot have a respect for a monarch". Radratus responded by saying that a "woman who was not directly harmed should not be troubled with it" and stated that monarchs could be overthrown if they exceeded the limits of their power. A enraged Antonia then dismissed Radratus and told him to "remain subordinate and do not raise your voice against the rightful monarch!" Radratus however, ignored this, and on 15 December, 838 BH, he preached another sermon in which he denounced the Traditionalist ceremonies and festivals which the Queen held at her court. Antonia summoned the preacher before her again. The Queen charged Radratus with blasphemy and said that he acted in his manner so as to make the Queen appear contemptible and weak-willed. Radratus then gave a explanation of his sermon, after which Antonia said that next time that he had any compliant about her behavior he should voice it to her directly. Radratus however, refused and said he would continue stating his opinions in his sermons. Antonia, who was shocked at this display of insubordination to her regal authority, sent him out of her chambers in anger. In April, 837 BH, another incident occurred when some Traditionalist priests were arrested for saying Mass in public. Antonia summoned Radratus to her presence again and asked him to support religious toleration in her kingdom. Radratus defended the actions of the police and religious officials, and that they were bound to uphold the law. Antonia then agreed to sanction the punishment of the arrested priests, to the pastor's disbelief.

The most dramatic audience between Radratus and Queen Antonia took place on 24 June, 837 BH. Antonia summoned the preacher yet again to her presence after learning that in his sermons, he had condemned her plans for marriage to Prince Philip of Inoria. Antonia began the session by scolding Radratus for his presumptions, and then burst into tears. She complained that Radratus was a foolish and cruel man who was not paying his proper obedience to his mistress. She said that Radratus's continuing opposition "was against the will of the great Almitis" and that his behavior would earn him nothing. Radratus defended himself by saying that he merely sought to make sure that any dangers to the realm were pointed out. Antonia counterattacked this by saying that it did not justify "undue criticism of your sovereign". By then, she had composed herself and was again scolding him. She then lapsed into crying again, and Radratus then said, vehemently, that "a sovereign who cries in the presence of all her subjects is unworthy of the rule. I would not permit such a occurrence amongst my own children, and I hope that ye reconsider yourself. Ye women are emotion-filled and weak, tending to vanity". Antonia, who was angry and upset at the same time, then commanded him to leave the room. Radratus took himself away quickly. The final confrontation between the two took place as the result of a incident in the Royal Palace. While the Queen was gone from Wesolum on her annual progress in the summer of 837 BH, a crowd forced its way into her private chapel, while Mass was being celebrated by her chaplains. The crowd threatened the life of the chaplains and destroyed or plundered the Traditionalist ornaments. The Queen, when she heard of the incident, ordered for all the crowd's leaders to be put on trial, which was scheduled to begin on 24 October. Radratus, who was determined to defend the men and prevent them from being convicted, sent out letters to the nobles, urging them to use their influence on their behalf. Antonia's officials managed to obtain one of these letters and the Queen read it. She then asked her advisers whether or not this was a treasonable act. Maitathania, who wanted to maintain positive relations with both the Church of Radranism and with the Queen, asked Radratus to admit he was wrong and to settle the matter quickly and quietly. Radratus refused, and when he was summoned to answer for the letter, he defended himself with eloquence before the Queen and her advisers. This so convinced them that they decided not to proceed any further against him. The Queen however, banned him from her presence and forbade him to ever mention her in his sermons again. Radratus followed the first but not the second part of that commandment.

Radratus was to inspire more controversy when on 29 March, 836 BH, he married Madelena Stalynes, who was the daughter of an old friend, Sir Antiochus Stalynes, Lord of Coseil. This marriage was unusual because Radratus was a widower of fifty, while his bride was only seventeen. Despite this, however, the marriage provided to be happy, and Madelena bore Radratus three daughters: Cassandra, Livia, and Octavia. When in June, 836 BH, a General Assembly was convened by the government, a argument erupted between Radratus and Maitathania over the nature of civil government. Maithania urged Radratus to act in a humble way and to stop saying comments about the Queen's habits, such as her continued use of Traditionalist religious customs at court. He quoted passages from Latinius and even Angramius about obedience to earthly rulers. Radratus however, retorted this by noting on how Jatheria was punished in the Bible for being unfaithful to its Almitis. The incident demonstrated however, that he was beginning to lose political influence among the nobles, who still supported Antonia. On 29 July, 835 BH, when Queen Antonia married Lord Cicero Darnagrius, some noblemen and others erupted in rebellion. The rebellion was soon crushed, but Radratus demonstrated his opinion on the marriage in a sermon he delivered in the presence of Darnagrius. In the sermon, he called Darnagrius "a ignorant young fool" and "one who is unworthy of this kingdom". Darnagrius, angered at this, walked out. The Queen thereafter forbade Radratus from preaching while the court was in Wesolum. On 9 March, 834 BH, Antonia's secretary, Publius Varus, was murdered by conspirators loyal to Darnagrius. Antonia escaped Wesolum and within a week, had returned with a formidable army. Radratus now fled from the capital, as the Queen believed him to have been connected with the conspirators. In Lyathle, he completed his History of the Reformation of Hisland. He was soon able to return to Wesolum, as the Reformed Almitian nobles forced the Queen to withdraw charges against him.

The Queen herself was gaining increasing unpopularity, as she had married the chief suspect in her husband's murder, the Earl of Aseigoa. She was soon forced to abdicate the throne and was imprisoned in the Tower of Capitolonia. Lord Moranius became regent for her son, the young King Alexander. Other friends of Radratus however, continued to support Antonia. Radratus himself welcomed the deposition of the "heretical Queen". On 29 July, 833 BH, Radratus preached the coronation sermon for the new King, in which he severely attacked the deposed Queen and even called for her death. Her life was spared however. On 2 May, 831 BH, she escaped from confinement. A civil war soon erupted. On 23 January, 830 BH, Moranius was assassinated. The regent who succeeded him, the Earl of Lenoria, also succumbed to violence. On 30 April, 829 BH, the commander of the Wesolum garrison, Lord Uralis, who had seized it in the name of Antonia, ordered all enemies of the Queen to leave Wesolum. Having been a friend of Radratus, he made a exception for him, but only as long as he remained in Wesolum Castle. Radratus decided to leave, however, and spent the next several months on a traveling ministry. In July, 828 BH, he was able to return to Wesolum, once a truce had been called. His health had declined, and he was now severely weak. Nevertheless he continued to preach, until a heart attack in October left him feeble. On 9 November, Radratus stepped down as Minister of Wesolum and Chief Elder of the Church of Hisland, and on 24 November, 828 BH, he died. At the time of his death he was virtually penniless, and the state had to take custody of his family. Nevertheless, he had left a impact upon Hisland.

Having provided so much detail about occurrences in Hisland, we shall note only briefly the occurrences of the Reformation in the other places which I have mentioned. In Maryneria, King Octavian (877-840) expelled the Archbishop of Oslania, Augustus Golaranius, from his kingdom. He thereafter sent a message to Pope Clement VII, requesting that the Pope ratify the King's choice for the Archbishopric: Lepidus Thasculus. The Pope however, sent back his decision demanding that Archbishop Golaranius be restored to his position and pardoned. However, the King of Maryneria was unwilling to do so, as the Archbishop had been aligned with the King of Tardork. The King informed the Pope of the impossibility of performing such a task, and the possible results if the Pope persisted. The Pope did persist however, determined to maintain his jurisdiction over the kingdoms and countries which had not yet converted to Reformed Almitism. He also rejected the nominations of the King concerning four vacant bishoprics in Maryneria and Banderland. Because the Pope refused to name any new officials to the Church, the King appointed Thasculus to the Archbishopric of Oslania without the approval of the Holy See in 868 BH, thus effectively ending the Pope's authority over the Marynerian Church. The following year, the King issued his famed Gasnian Decrees, by which the Pope's jurisdiction over Marynerian religious affairs was formally renounced. The King was now declared to be Head of the Latinist Church of Maryneria and Banderland, and Latinist liturgy, Scriptures, and priests were to be subsituted for the Traditionalist liturgy, Scriptures, and clergy. All church lands were nationalized and attached to the royal treasury. In 863 BH, a Commission of Church Uniformity was established in order to insure that all within the kingdom conformed to the new religion. Three years later, the first Marynerian translation of the Almitian Bible appeared.

In Tardork-Targay, unified under one monarch, a transfer to Reformed Almitism also prevailed. As early as 875 BH, the learned Targorian monk and scholar Tiberius Rithanius had preached Latinist doctrines in the Targorian capital city of Alamannia. Although King Frederickus I of Targay (877-867), remained faithful to Traditionalist Almitism, he tolerated the spread of the new ideas within his dominions and issued a edict in 874 BH, granting Rithanius the right to preach his doctrines without injury. In 873 BH, the King forbade the clergy and religious officials of his kingdom to inflict "any undue or unjust harm upon the believers of the new sect of our faithful religion". Upon the death of Frederickus I in 867 BH, support for Reformed Almitism increased considerably. By that time, Reformed Almitists had become a significant presence in the population of Alamannia, Burthany, and Frankagathum, earning the notice of the Council of the Targorian Realm, which governed because of a dispute over the succession to the throne. In January, 866 BH, the Council of the Targorian Realm granted all preachers in Tardork and Targay the right to preach as they saw fit. In October, 866 BH, when Carolus Magnus III ascended to the throne of Tardork, Reformed Almitism progressed towards becoming the dominant religion in the kingdom.

In the spring of 864 BH, the King announced his intention to introduce the reformed faith as the official religion of his dominions. He exchanged a extensive correspondence with Latinius and other prominent Reformed Almitian clerics in Wallachia, Anthoria, and Heletia. These men praised him for his "piety and worthness of the love of Almitis" and encouraged him in his efforts. In November, 864 BH, the King appointed a commission to draft a official charter for the new Reformed Church of Tardork. In the meantime, he implemented a series of edicts which declared the Pope's authority over Targay and Tardork to be null and void, asserted his position as head of the Church of Tardork-Targay, and officially adopted Reformed Almitism. On 2 October, 863 BH, the Instructions and Orders for the Church of Tardork-Targay was completed, being signed and ratified by the King and a council of nobles two days later. This decree divided the whole kingdom into seven superintendencies, which were to replace the earlier bishoprics. The superintendents were to be appointed and dismissed by the King at will, meeting with him in a annual synod. Saints days, communion, celibacy, and other Traditonalist customs, rituals, and festivals were condemned and formally abolished. All monasteries and church estates were confiscated by the government, while all monks and nuns were to be paid a compensation for retiring from the cloister. In 861 BH, the first Marynerian translation of the Almitian Bible appeared, followed by a complete liturgy two years later. By the time that Carolus Magnus III died on 1 January, 841 BH, Reformed Almitism had been consolidated within his territories.

Finally, notation will be made, very briefly, of the spread of Reformed Almitism to Polosia, Laudermia, and Barshoria. In Barshoria, the adoption of Reformed Almitism was primarily a result of disenchantment at the official Church, anger over its controversies and its corruption, and a belief that a new and renewed faith would give the Barshorian people strength to endure their subjugation by the Osrianians or the Trinthians. Barshoria also possessed a large Wallachian minority, especially in its western provinces of Sovaraniana and Theriana, who translated, published, and circulated the writings of Latinius and other Wallachian theologians. Latinism gained predominance amongst this minority and with the Sovaranians, a Florensian people who were not Barshorians. The Barshorians themselves eventually became converted to Angramism, and indeed, many of the missionaries sent by the Chief Elder of Ullia traveled to the East. In 842 BH, the Diet of Sovaraniana declared that "all faiths shall hereafter be promoted and granted protection in this realm, for a man's conscience and his way in the belief of the Lord Almitis should not be our concern". Ten years later, a formal charter of liberties protected all Latinist and Angramian clergymen from any exactions or requirements which might be made by Traditionalist officials. Traditionalist monasteries and churches in turn, were protected from confiscation of what properties they held. Barshoria became one of the most tolerant regions, as regards to religion, in Haustia. In Polosia-Laudermia, which by the later part of the century were consolidating under a union, a similar trend prevailed. From the 870s BH onwards, Latinism spread amongst the Wallachian minorities of Coastal Laudermia and Pothiana, and the Latinist translation of the Almitian Bible appeared in Ecolorum, Boudicca, and other Wallachian cities of Polosia. In 860 BH, the Polosian Government declared that "brothers of all denominations are welcome in this dominion". This was confirmed by the Edict of Tirana, issued twenty years later, which extended complete religious tolerance to all denominations and all faiths. Polosia was to remain the most tolerant state in Haustia until its demise.

Laurasian Modern Era (900-443 BH) Part VEdit

Having noted the progress of the First Almitian Reformation, it is now within our interest to chronicle the continuing advance of the Osrianian Empire. The last years of Callimachus II were disturbed by civil dissent, uprisings in Katherina, Barlavia, Northern Grinae, and Javaria, and by the disputes of the King with his two sons, Athanasius and Demetrius. On 14 September, 891 BH, a major earthquake devastated Osrianianpolis, which many in the Osrianian government and military, and among the Empire's population in general, considered to be a bad omen for the reign. Athanasius in fact, erupted in open rebellion against his father in the summer of 890 BH. Athanasius seized control of Hellespontia, including Adrianople and Jaropolis, secured the support of nobles and troops in Katherina and the Hanubian Principalities, and staged several raids against his father's bases in the Acolonian Islands. Demetrius, who now became commander of his ailing father's military forces, managed to defeat his brother in the Battle of Thanier, which was fought on 2 January, 889 BH. On 17 January, Adrianpole was recovered from the rebels, and on 25 February, Prince Athanasius himself was captured and executed. Demetrius was now proclaimed by his father to be heir apparent. For the last year of Callimachus's reign, Demetrius effectively governed the Osrianian Empire. The Prince eventually nurtured ambitions of his own and decided that the services of his father were no longer useful. On 25 April, 888 BH, Demetrius tricked his father into signing a abdication decree. Immediately upon this, he proclaimed himself Emperor of the Osrianians. Callimachus was consigned to a distant estate, where he died on 26 May, just over a month after his abdication. With both his father and brother dead, Demetrius had no contender present to challenge his authority. He now turned his attention to military campaigns, seeking to consolidate Osriania's position in western Cellini.

To the east, in Tatiana (as the old lands of Lugilla, Thathia, Tatiania proper, and Southern Centralita were known collectively as), a new empire and dynasty had emerged to take advantage of the power vacuum which had been left after the collapse of the Telemachian Empire. In 900 BH, the Unity of Tatiana organization had been established by a military chieftain of Southern Centralita (who was nevertheless of Tatianian descent), Pausanius. Pausanius was determined to reconstitute the Tatianian Empire, which had not been in existence for nearly 2,000 years. On 27 February, 899 BH, he formally proclaimed himself King of Tatiana and Lugilla, and declared that "the resurrection of our ancient state" has begun. Over the next decade, Pausanius gradually brought all of Centralita, Western Krayia, Gedrosia, Gasheria, Lugilla, Thathia, and the lands east of Heloctholes, as well as the Tethornes Mountains, under his rule. By 890 BH, Pausanius had established his capital city at Necropolis, in the Thathian Plateau. His rise to power soon alarmed Demetrius, who feared that Tatiana would soon conquer the faltering Janissary Dynasty. In order to minimize the Tatianian threat, Demetrius declared war against Pausanius in January, 886 BH, and advanced a army of 200,000 men across the Assyrian Mountains. In a series of pitched battles in Fleshiu, Trans-Catilina, Mesia, and Gedrosia, Demetrius defeated the Tatianian forces, destroyed numerous towns and cities, and carried off thousands of captives. Much of the countryside was left desolate, and Osrianian military fortresses were established in the outlying districts of Catilina and western Mesia. In September, 886 BH, Pausanius himself led his army against the Osrianian stronghold of Nagomedia, seeking to halt the advance of Demetrius and reverse his losses in Ravathronia, as the old provinces of Gedrosia and Mesia were now collectively referred to as. In the Battle of Nagomedia, which was fought on 29 September, 886 BH, the Osrianians obtained a major victory. Demetrius now penetrated into the Thathian Plateau, and Yusana, Esather, and Necropolis were all captured and sacked by his forces. Pausanius fled north to the Centralitan Sea. In February, 885 BH, the conquest of Lugilla forced him to come to terms. By the Treaty of Necropolis, signed on 27 March, 885 BH, Pausanius recognized Demetrius as his overlord, seceded Mesia and Eastern Fleshiu to the Osrianian Empire, and agreed to pay the Osrianian Emperor a tribute. In exchange, Demetrius recognized Pausanius as the King of Tatiana and returned Gedrosia, Lugilla, and Thathia to him. The following year, the Osrianian Empire launched his long-awaited military campaigns against the Janissary Dynasty. By the end of 884 BH, all of Hugill, Aganian, Yurthria, Jatheria, Akkadia, Joria, and western Sophomora had fallen to the Osrianian armies, as the Janissaries offered little effective resistance. In February, 883 BH, the Osrianian army invaded the Danite Delta, and Emperor Demetrius himself arrived to take command of the siege of Alexandria. The city fell to the Osrianians on 27 April, 883 BH, and the last Master-King of the Janissary Dynasty, Anacletus, was forced to abdicate and surrender the Grand Mastership of Truism to the Osrianian Empire. Letousia, Marthage, Mixing, and the Horn of Explosansis were annexed to the Osrianian Empire, which had doubled its territory. Demetrius proclaimed himself "Lord of All the Lands from Barshoria to the Holy Cities", and was now the most powerful Truite monarch.

He did not live long to enjoy the fruits of his victory, for on his journey back to Osraninpolis, the Emperor became ill. Although he managed to recover, he never fully regained his strength, and by the time that he arrived back in his capital city, in June, 880 BH, he was delirious and weak. The Emperor's condition again worsened over the following months, and in August, he dictated his will, naming his son Ptolemy as his successor to the Osiranian throne. On 2 September, 880 BH, the Emperor slipped into a coma in his personal quarters, and his extensive retinue of physicians declared that his condition was hopeless. He staggered on for another two months before expiring on 22 September, 880 BH. Demetrius, known as the "Conqueror of the Holies", was revered as one of the more successful Osrianian monarchs. Ptolemy, who had served as governor of Osrianian posts in Northern Euxina, now entered Elana two days after his father's death, being formally proclaimed Emperor of the Osrianians and Lord of All Lands. The reign of the greatest Osrianian monarch of them all had commenced. During his forty-six year rule, Ptolemy was to extend the territories of the Osrianian Empire yet further and would wage wars in all directions to this effect. Upon his ascension to the throne, the Emperor was confronted by a series of revolts in Catilina, Fleshiu, Mesia, Yurthria, and Hugill, which were inspired by the Governor of Theoranscius, Heredotus of Licuies, who believed that he could restore a independent Truite kingdom in those territories. Ptolemy first displayed his military expertise by crossing the Assyrian Mountains, crushing the revolts in the summer of 879 BH. Governor Heredotus was captured and executed, his head being displayed on a spike. The rebel regions were punished with a series of massacres, enslavements, and deportations, which thus set a grim example to the other Osrianian provinces about the dangers of rebellion. Immediately after the suppression of the revolts, the Osrianian Emperor turned his attention to Haustia, intent on resuming Osrianian campaigns in that continent. He directed his attention to Siglundunum, which was a major Barshorian stronghold in the Ulmrine Passes of Pannonia. On 2 August, 879 BH, a Osrianian army of nearly 120,000 men, commanded by the Emperor personally, besieged the stronghold, which had a garrison of 50,000. After a series of fierce bombardments, and with the Osrianians blockading the supply lines to the city, the resistance of the garrison collapsed, and Siglundunum fell to the Osrianian Empire on 25 August, 879 BH. This victory alarmed the Haustian kingdoms, and Barshoria, under the rule of her last independent king Agrippa (894-874), now signed defense arrangements with the Holy Mararian Emperor Demetrius, who feared for his possessions of Trinthia, Carnithia, and the Dalmatian provinces.

Ptolemy however, turned his attention to the islands of Chios and Rhodes, which had been ruled by the Knights Hospitaller since their expulsion from Jatheria by the Janissary Dynasty. In the spring of 877 BH, Ptolemy launched a major siege of the two fortress-islands, employing a armada of nearly 700 ships, which was the size of the entire naval corps at the disposal of the Vanathians and the Knights Hospitaller combined. The Osrianian ability to marshal larger armies and naval fleets then the kingdoms of Haustia was to remain a unsettling fact into the 7th century BH. The Emperor himself commanded a army of nearly 100,000 men, which was deployed directly across Rhodes. The two islands were defended by 25,000 knights and a fleet of 100 galleys, along with 20,000 Vanathian mercenary units and 50 Vanathian assault sloops. The Knights Hospitaller, despite the fact that all the odds were against them, resisted fiercely for several months, repelling many direct Osrianian assaults and maintaining their positions in Rhodian Castle. Ptolemy now commanded his troops to instigate a blockade of the islands, to establish a chain of forts and barricades across the island's fortifications, and to maintain a series of lookout posts from the coast. These actions, combined with the destruction of the Vanathian mercenary fleet on 29 July, 877 BH, gradually turned the Siege of Rhodes into the favor of the Osrianians. Finally, on 7 September, 877 BH, the defenses of Rhodian Castle were breached, and the Osrianian troops advanced across the positions of the Knights. Rhodes was swiftly overrun, and some 15,000 knights were slaughtered or taken prisoner. The remaining 10,000 were forced to surrender their arms, but were allowed to depart on a fleet of transports. Chios capitulated to the Osrianians two days later, and Ptolemy had cemented Osrianian domination of the Acolonian Islands. Over the next three years, relations between Barshoria and the Osrianian Empire deteriorated considerably. The two states had officially been at war since the seizure of Siglundunum by the Osrianians, but Ptolemy of course had focused his efforts against the Knights Hospitaller. This had given King Agrippa enough time to strengthen his southern defenses, organize a army of about 150,000 men, comprised of both Barshorians and mercenaries, and to gain financial aid from Polosia, the Holy Mararian Empire, and the Vanathian Republic. He had also signed a alliance with the Hanubian Principalities, which were planning to revolt against their overlord.

Finally, in February, 874 BH, Agrippa declared war against the Osrianian Empire. His army advanced against Siglundunum, recapturing the fortress on 2 March. It then marched into Katherina, descending to the Plains of Jurmuthur and sacking the Osrianian military base of Gathium in April. The armies of the Hanubian Principalities crossed the Hanube River and marched into Barlavia. Ptolemy responded with the energy of the enraged, concentrating a army of 500,000 men in Epirus. In June, the Osrianian Empire marched into Katherina and crushed the army of the Barshorian King in the pitched Battle of Acellae. By the middle of July, all of Katherina and Barlavia had been regained. Siglundunum was captured a second time on 21 July, and on 23 July, the Hanubian Principalities exited the war. On 1 August, Barshoria itself was invaded by the Osrianian army, and Agrippa was powerless to resist. Nevertheless, he decided to make a last stand in the Battle of Noremia, which was fought on 29 August, 874 BH. This battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Osrianian Empire, as the troops of Agrippa were outclassed and were severely defeated, being sent into disarray. Most of the Barshorian army was killed, captured, or enslaved, while only two Osrianians were slain. King Agrippa himself was one of the slain. When his men urged him to retreat, Agrippa is said to have told them that "Almitis is my shield, and he will let me gain glory". He was cut down by Osrianian archers. Ptolemy, who was acclaimed by his troops as the victor, traveled across the field of battle after the Osrianian victory had been obtained. When he saw the body of the slain King of Barshoria, he grieved for him and said that "my royal enemy should have been my brother and ally". In the aftermath of the battle, Barshoria was partitioned between the Osrianian Empire and the Trinthian Archduchy of the Holy Mararian Empire. The Archduke of Trinthia and Carnithia, Anastasius, who served as the viceroy and regent of Trinthia and the other personal possessions of the Imperial Family in the name of his brother, Emperor Demetrius, became King of Alohemia on 24 October, 874 BH, followed by his proclamation as King of Pannonia on 1 January, 873 BH, and then as King of Trinithian Barshoria on 4 February, 873 BH.

Anastasius was soon challenged by the Prince of Western Hanubia, John of Zaplagonius, who was one of the Osrianian Emperor's leading vassals and chief generals. John enjoyed support amongst the Barshorian nobility but was also a popular choice with his Osrianian masters. Over the next three years, the armies of Anastasius and John waged bitter wars with each other throughout Barshoria, destroying hundreds of towns and villages and devastating the countryside. Ptolemy took advantage of the turmoil in Barshoria to consolidate his forces and prepare for a offensive against the Holy Mararian Empire. In February, 871 BH, John of Zaplagonius, having been forced to flee to Polosia, sent his emissaries to the Emperor of Osriana, and offered himself as a vassal for all Barshorian territories. Ptolemy eagerly accepted the offer, and sent a demand to Anastasius and the Emperor, "requesting" that the two brothers leave "the affairs of Barshoria" to the jurisdiction of the Osrianian Government. Both refused, and Ptolemy responded by collecting a army of nearly 600,000 men, one of the largest Osrianian forces ever assembled in Haustia. In August, the Emperor and his forces marched across Trinthian Barshoria, conquering the city of Pedana and driving outlying Wallachian garrisons north. On 27 September, Derthania, the capital city of the Trinthian Archduchy and eastern base for the Holy Mararian Empire, was besieged. For over a month, it seemed that the Empire would be in peril. Ptolemy's men, however, were ravaged by plague and famine. On 15 October, Ptolemy was forced to terminate the siege. The end of the First Siege of Derthania resulted in Osrianian forces withdrawing to Barshoria. Ptolemy was to instigate a second campaign to conquer Derthania in May, 868 BH, but his army was compelled to retreat by the harrying of Trinthian guerrillas. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pedana was signed with the Holy Mararian Empire on 2 January, 867 BH, by which the division of Barshoria between the Trinthians and the Osrianians was recognized. Anastasius, however, promised to pay a annual tribute to the Osrianian Emperor for his estates and lands in Barshoria. This peace lasted for eight years. By 859 BH, however, relations between the two Empires had deteriorated considerably, and in that year, the Trinithian army laid siege to Pedana. They were soon driven away by Osrianian troops however, and during the next three years, Trinthian fortresses in the border provinces of Croania and Illyrium were conquered by the Osrianian Emperor. On 27 May, 855 BH, Anastasius and the Emperor Demetrius were forced to sign the Treaty of Maguria with Ptolemy, by which they seceded Croania to the Osrianian Empire and confirmed the payment of a annual tribute to the Osrianian court.

With the Haustian boundaries of the Osrianian Empire consolidated, Ptolemy turned his attention to the Tatianian Empire, which had been ruled by the son of Pausanius, Antigenes, since the death of his father on 23 May, 876 BH. Antigenes was a ambitious ruler, who was determined to reverse the losses suffered by his father, acquire the Heloctholan provinces, and limit the power of the Osrianian Empire. To this end, the new King of Tatiana focused his efforts on rebuilding the Tatianian army, establishing a elite corps of knights and insuring that his forces had access to vast stores of gunpowder. Military academies and fortifications were maintained in Yusa, Esather, and other cities of the Thathian Plateau. After several years of continued military buildup, which was financed by taxation of noble estates and peasants' goods, Antigenes had assembled a army of nearly 300,000 men. He now engaged in more aggressive moves. First, he had the Osrianian governor of Mesia and Upper Ravathornia, Seleucus, assassinated. He was replaced with Lysimachus, who rebelled against the Osrianian Emperor and declared his loyalty to King Antigenes. Secondly, the governor of Osrianian Fleshiu, Demetrius Kantacius, defected to the Tatianian King. Ptolemy, when he received news of these events at his capital in Osraninpolis, was enraged and commanded the Grand Vizier of the Osrianian Empire, Illodius Patharnius, to reassert the Osrianian position in Ravathornia and Fleshiu by force of arms. In the summer of 867 BH, Patharnius commanded a army of 400,000 men into the disputed territories. The Tatianian armies were defeated in a series of pitched battles, and the base of Taklaiknia on the shore of the Centralitan Sea was captured and destroyed. Osrianian armies penetrated into Upper Ravathornia and devastated the countryside.

In May, 866 BH, with the Osrianian armies moving into Gasheria, Ptolemy departed from Gentz with a force of 200,000 men, and joined with the Grand Vizier at Soriana, which was besieged by the Osrianian forces. The Osrianians soon advanced into the Thathian Plateau, and the cities of Necropolis, Orontes, and Dornieii were captured by them without resistance. King Antigenes however, retreated into the interior, using his force to harry the Osrianian armies and to conduct a scorched-earth policy. In the Battle of Ulagi, the Tatianian army emerged from hiding and forced the Osrianians to flee, with Ptolemy suffering the most humiliating defeat of his reign. On 2 July, 866 BH, Soriana and Gedrosia were reconquered by the Tatianians, as Ptolemy and Grand Vizier Patharnius retreated into Mesia. Antigenes however, was soon forced to halt by a series of major uprisings against his authority in Centralita and Chandragupta. Retreating back into the Thathian Plateau, he thus exposed Soriana to renewed attack. On 17 February, 865 BH, the city was recaptured by Ptolemy, who made a grand entrance. Ptolemy proclaimed himself "Grand Master of Soriana", thus cementing his position as the successor of the earlier Truite Grand Mastership Dynasties. In September, 865 BH, Yusana and the cities of the Merian Valley were reconquered by Ptolemy, who forced King Antigenes to come to terms. The Treaty of Oslia, signed on 17 October, 865 BH, resulted in the cession of Gedrosia, the eastern Tethornes, and Yusana to the Osrianian Empire. Antigenes also agreed to pay a indemnity as compensation for Osrianian military losses and to recognize Ptolemy as Grand Master of Truism.

The Treaty of Oslia maintained a precarious peace between the Osrianian Empire and the Kingdom of Tatiana for the next thirteen years, until in 852 BH, Ptolemy, who wished to eliminate his Tatianian enemy permanently, decided to resume military campaigns. The Emperor led a army of 700,000 men into the Thathian Plateau, seeking to capture the strongholds of Tatiana and to bring Antigenes to heel. Antigenes followed his earlier tactics of using his army to launch guerrilla attacks against the enemy and to lure them into the very interior of the country. He had his soldiers destroy all farms, villages, and mines in the path of the enemy, thus depriving them of subsentence. The Osrianian army was soon entangled by the bitter winter of the Tethornes Mountains. Ptolemy, who saw his army decimated by the cold weather and by starvation, decided to terminate the campaign, which had provided the Empire with temporary forts along the Centralitan Sea, control of the province of Lower Seia, and forts in the lands of the Tatianian Lugille. The Truce of Magnum, signed in 850 BH, recognized this situation of affairs. In the summer of 847 BH, Ptolemy launched his third and final campaign against the King of Tatiana, determined to consolidate his gains and seize all of Thathia and Lugilla from Tatiana. At the start of the campaigns, the Tatianian army managed to advance across the Merian Valley, driving away Osrianian garrisons in the vicinity of Dornieii and Necropolis. Ptolemy recovered by launching a major offensive from Fleshiu, penetrating farther into Tatiana then any previous Osrianian army. Hundreds of Tatianian towns and villages were destroyed, and some 800,000 Tatianians were taken as captives. Antigenes still refused to provide direct combat however, and his army continued to employ a scorched-earth strategy. A stalemate ensued, and in February, 846 BH, Ptolemy sent a request for peace. On 24 March, 846 BH, the Treaty of Soriana was signed, by which the Osrianian Empire returned Yusana and Dorneii, but gained control of all of the Tethornes, the southwestern Thathian provinces, and the western Centralitan Sea. The King of Tatiana also agreed to pay a further indemnity to the Osrianian Emperor and to halt any border raids into Osrianian territory. This peace held for the remainder of Ptolemy's reign.

Under Ptolemy's watch, the Osrianian Empire engaged in naval expeditions across the Great Fallorian Ocean. Since 882 BH, Osrianian vessels had penetrated into the Sophomoran Sea and the Great Fallorian Ocean, being enabled to do so by the Osrianian conquest of the territories of Western Sophomora. Osrianian ships managed to reach Falloria, and conducted diplomatic relations with the Mularian Empire, which by that point dominated most of the subcontinent. Osrianian relations with Falloria however, would always be on a shaky basis as long as Lusitania maintained dominant interests and extensive outposts in the region. The Osrianian Emperor thus became determined to embark on a series of naval campaigns in order to dislodge the Lusitanians and give his empire control of the Great Fallorian Ocean. In 862 BH, the Lusitanian port of Athemen in Southern Sophomora and Jedith was conquered by a Osrianian expeditionary force, providing the Emperor a base from which to attack Lusitanian outposts and commercial enclaves in Falloria. In September, 862 BH, the Osrianian Siege of Elinu, a major Lusitanian base on the coast of Tatiana, failed, but they managed to carry off 100 Lusitanian artillery guns. The Osrianians then subdued all of Jedith, conquering its main city of Sanatha in January, 861 BH. In May, 859 BH, the Lusitanians landed in Jedith and reconquered Athemen, which they held until it was again captured by the Osrianians in 852 BH. Ptolemy had secured Osrianian domination of the Sophomoran Sea. As a result of his wars with Tatiana, Osriana also achieved control of the Tatianian Gulf. In July, 848 BH, the Osrianians conquered the Lusitanian stronghold of Marcat, establishing the first (and only) Osrianian outpost in Falloria. Direct trade was now maintained with the Mularian Empire, which lasted for the remainder of the reign. By 844 BH, all of Sophomora was under the rule of the Osrianian Empire, as the nomadic Truite tribes were forced to acknowledge Osrianian domination.

Ptolemy's attention was now diverted to the Great Haustian Sea, where the leading admiral of Emperor Demetrius, Andrea Doria, seized the Osrianian fortress of Koroni in Southern Grinae. The Osrianian Emperor realized that his Holy Mararian-Inorian counterpart wished to challenge the Osrianian position in the eastern Great Haustian Sea. Determined to reassert the predominance of the Osrianian Navy in that region, Ptolemy appointed the Exarlian military commander and governor, Agladius Barbarnius, as the supreme commander-in-chief of the Osrianian forces in the Great Haustian Sea. Barbarnius was a strategic genius and a man of great energy, character, and determination. He immediately took swift action to maintain the Osrianian position in the region. He expanded his naval forces and conducted expert campaigns against his enemies. In 865 BH, Demetrius won a major victory in the Battle of Bardiucus, which resulted in the establishment of a Inorian foothold in the old province of Marthage. This led Ptolemy to establish a alliance with Neuchrus of Chilsia, Demetrius's most formidable enemy. Neuchrus provided the Osrianian Navy with naval resupply bases at Jarbonne and Comedipidinum, ordered his navy to coordinate all of its operations with that of the Osrianian naval forces, and actively promoted the instigation of Osrianian raids against Inoria, Lusitania, and Mararia, a action which earned him the loathing of some of his neighboring monarchs. Because of this assistance, the Osrianians regained the advantage. On 27 July, 862 BH, Admiral Barbarnius decisively defeated the Inorian navy under Admiral Doria in the Battle of Preveza, which cemented Osrianian dominance of the eastern Great Haustian Sea for the remainder of Ptolemy's reign. In order to maintain this control, the Osrianian Navy established major naval fortifications on Rhodes, Chios, Redosia, Violetnam, the Morea, and on the shores of Osrianian Dalmatia. In Northern Explosansis, Ptolemy continued the conquests of his father, extending Osrianian rule to the territories west of Letousia and Paujaica. Marthage, Exarlia, Hottentia, Mauriania, and the coastal regions of the Prieslian Tribal States were subdued during the 860s and 850s BH. Local princes and dukes of those regions were forced to acknowledge the Emperor's authority, allow for the stationing of Osrianian garrisons and naval fleets in their territories, pay tribute to the court of the Emperor, and cooperate with imperial military authorities on all campaigns against the Almitian Powers of the Great Haustian Sea. In 859 BH, Emperor Demetrius assembled a fleet of 200 galleys and attempted to seize Sardinia, which the Osrianians had established as a major naval base in the ancient territories of Marthage. His offensive failed however, and most of the Inorian ships were seized. The following year, Ptolemy commanded Barbarnius to cooperate with Neuchrus in campaigns against Gegucia, Corinia, and Balay. The Osrianians took thousands of Mararians as slaves and inflicted severe damage on the coastal settlements before retreating. In the spring of 858 BH, the Osrianians destroyed the Inorian stronghold of Saloice, penetrating deep into Cleothardy. The last great Osrianian naval campaign in the Great Haustian Sea under Ptolemy was the Siege of Valleria from July to September 835 BH, which ultimately resulted in a Osrianian withdrawal. Nevertheless, much of the Great Haustian Sea was to remain under Osrianian dominance, even with subsequent reverses, such as the Battle of Lepantia, until the end of the 8th century BH.

Having covered the Osrianian Empire and the events concerning the Reformation, we must now turn our attention back to the wars of Emperor Demetrius, especially those with Neuchrus. After the conclusion of the War of the League of Cognac, peace managed to reign between Chilsia and Inoria for a number of years. Demetrius however, in order to retain the support of the local population of the Duchy of Pavia, and to present a show of legality for his occupation of Pavia, appointed Anastasius Sforzes as the Duke of Pavia in October, 867 BH. Sforzes, who was to be the last of his family to reign over the Duchy, was forced to acknowledge the Emperor's overlordship, allow for the stationing of Inorian and Imperial garrisons in his territories, and supply to the Imperial forces a corps of 12,000 Pavian knights. The Emperor retained the right of veto over any decisions which the Duke might decide to make, as regards to administrative or judicial matters. Sforzes ruled over the Duchy of Pavia as a Imperial-Inorian vassal for just two years, and most of his duties were exercised by the Emperor's son, Eusebius, Prince Apparent of Inoria, who was being groomed by his father for governmental duties. On 27 October, 865 BH, Sforzes died, ending his brief rule and terminating in general the rule of his dynasty over Pavia. Upon his death, Emperor Demetrius exercised his rights as overlord of Pavia. On 3 November, 865 BH, Imperial troops marched into the Pavian Palace and proclaimed the ascension of Prince Eusebius as Duke of Pavia. Direct Inorian rule over the Duchy had been restored.

Neuchrus of Chilsia was alarmed by the actions of the Emperor. He feared that Demetrius had engaged in the whole episode with the rule of Sforzes so as to merely maintain his position against Chilsian boundaries. The Chilsian King feared that the Emperor now intended to launch a full-scale offensive against his territories, in order to finally conclude the Wars. As such, he decided to take preemptive action. His alliance with the Osrianian Emperor and correspondence with Emperor Ptolemy has already been noted. In May 864 BH, a Osrianian fleet was stationed in Marsielles, combining with a Chilsian force of galleys and sloops to threaten the Inorian position in Gegucia. Emperor Demetrius had now mustered substantial naval formations at Jurcuse, Rembium, Gegucia, Mandriana, and in Corinia, aiming to defend his southern possessions (especially Inoria and Balay) from attack. In the following year, however, Admiral Barbarnius harried the coast of Kalabria, sacking numerous towns and carrying off thousands of Mararians as captives. Neuchrus in the meantime had launched a invasion of Pavia, seizing Westoria and parts of the Alpine Gegucia. The city of Pavia itself, however, remained outside of his reach. Demetrius responded by invading Galdornia, penetrating as far as Naldorunum. He was soon forced to retreat however, while Neuchrus's troops were driven out of Westoria by Wallachian and Heletian units. The war quickly settled into a stalemate, and on 18 June, 862 BH, the two monarchs signed the Treaty of Marsielles, which restored the status quo ante bellum. Neuchrus agreed to recognize Eusebius as Duke of Pavia, and in turn, Demetrius promised not to make any further territorial demands from Chilsia. In the treaty, the two monarchs agreed to maintain a "brotherly relationship of peace" with each other, which of course was to prove hallow. Nevertheless, the two monarchs refused to meet each other in person, as by this point they had come to hate each other personally.

The Treaty of Marsielles had satisfied neither side however. Neuchrus continued to nurture ambitions for the Duchy of Pavia and also hoped that he could deal a severe blow to the imperial dominions of Emperor Demetrius. Demetrius, on his part, wished to annex Chilsian Burgunthia, Jarbonne, and parts of Galdornia, and hoped to force the Chilsian King into a vassalage agreement. As such, he launched a series of "congresses" with Chilsian government officials, beginning in February, 861 BH, hoping to convince Neuchrus to agree to his demands through diplomacy. In June, Emperor Demetrius, who planned to head to Anthoria and Burgunthia, was given a passport through Chilsia by Neuchrus, who received him at his court in Constantinople and entertained him lavishly. This was starkly in contrast to their behavior the previous year. They nevertheless maintained a hatred and fear of eachother, and by the time Demetrius left Chilsia in July, nothing had been agreed upon between the two monarchs. In March, 860 BH, Demetrius, hoping to entice Neuchrus, offered to marry Princess Anastasia of Inoria to the Duke of Orlandia, the younger son of King Neuchrus. The Emperor provided that upon his death, the couple was to inherit the Anthorian and Ducal Burgunthian territories. Neuchrus, on his part, was to ratify the Treaty of Beneventum, establish a alliance with the Emperor, and surrender all claims to Pavia and Westoria. The Chilsian King, who believed that Pavia should only be surrendered if there was active Chilsian control of Anthoria, made a counteroffer: he agreed to surrender his claim to Pavia, in exchange for immediate control of the Anthorian territories. Demetrius found this to be outside his interests, and in June, 860 BH, the diplomatic congresses were concluded. Neuchrus of Chilsia thereafter sought allies for his efforts against Demetrius. He made overtures to certain Wallachain princes, including Nostradamus, the Duke of Venelia in Meneledevia. Neuchrus also strengthened relations with the Osrianian Emperor Ptolemy, who was determined to continue his advance in Barshoria. In July, 859 BH, the Chilsian ambassador to the Osrianian Empire, Sir Amnystas of Paulthius, was killed by Inorian troops near Pavia. Demetrius denied all responsibility for the incident and promised to punish those who committed such a grevious offense.

The Emperor himself however, prepared a campaign against the Osrianians in Northern Explosansis, and in September, he established himself at headquarters in the Inorian island of Thauyjornia, preparing for a expedition against the Osrianian naval base and military stronghold of Milerguris. Neuchrus, although he hated Demetrius, believed it improper for a Almitian to attack another Almitian while the other was engaged in a campaign against Truites. Thus, he refrained from invading Inorian, Wallachian, or Mararian territory, as long as the Emperor was conducting his campaigns against the Osrianians of North Explosansis. The expedition however, proved to be a failure, as storms scattered most of the fleet. By the end of November, the Emperor had been forced to retreat back to Thauyjornia. In March, 858 BH, the second Chilsian ambassador to the court of the Osrianian Empire, Lord Excarlion, returned to Constantinople, delivering a letter to the King from the Osrianian Emperor, which promised "complete and unqualified assistance against the kingdom of Inoria, the Empire of the Wallachians, and their dependencies". With this assurance in his possession, Neuchrus now decided to proceed directly to war. On 12 July, in the Legal Court of Byzantium, the King issued a formal declaration of war, citing the murder of Ambassador Amnysta and his long-standing claims to governance of Pavia and the Ducal Burgunthia as his reasons. Upon the declaration of war, Chilsia launched two armies against the territories of Demetrius. The first, comprised of some 75,000 men, was commanded by the Duke of Lyonias, who marched into Luxermia, a border province of the Holy Mararian Empire. Most of Luxermia was overrun by the Chilsians, and the Emperor's Anthorian corps were forced to retreat north. In the south, a larger army, comprised of 125,000 men, and under the command of Marshal Benedict Tiranthia, crossed the Galdornes Mountains and threatened the major Inorian city of Laslania. They were forced to retreat however. Neuchrus's relations with Augustus II of Darsis declined in the meantime, as the Chilsian King had been angered about the conversion of the Darsian monarch to Reformed Almitism. Augustus, who was irritated by Chilsian influence and intervention in Hisland, and who believed that Neuchrus should not be allowed to conquer territories from Demetrius, began negotiating a new military alliance with the Emperor. The Emperor however, who also despised the adoption of Reformed Almitism in Darsis, at first refused to come to arrangements with the King of Darsis. Eventually however, a offensive alliance was signed between the two monarchs on 11 February, 857 BH. On 22 June, Darsis declared war against Chilsia.

The King of Darsis dispatched a army of 45,000 men to Anthoria, in order to help the Emperor's corps defend those territories from the Chilsian assault. Neuchrus continued to cultivate the western Caladarian princes, and the Duke of Venelia now signed a formal treaty of alliance with the Chilsian King. Determined to establish his duchy as a independent state from the authority of the Emperor, this Wallachian Prince sent a force of mercenaries to the Chilsian units in Luxermia, allowing them to conquer the Wallachian strongholds of Ariana and Orthanis. The Duke himself invaded the Anthorian border district of Barthania, and his troops engaged in a spate of deportations, massacres, and rapines. Emperor Demetrius, when he heard of the defection of one of his Wallachian vasals, was enraged, and with a army of 60,000 men launched a major offensive against the Duchy of Venelia. Venelia's capital city, Attica, was conquered, and most of the Venelian treasury was confiscated for the Empire. The Duke of Venelia was forced to halt his campaigns in Anthoria, and on 7 September, he surrendered to the Emperor. Two days later, the Treaty of Attica resulted in Venetia's withdrawal from the war, the payment of a indemnity to the Emperor, and the renewal of homage to the Empire by the Duke. With Venelia out of the way, Demetrius now combined with his corps in Anthoria and launched a offensive against Chilsian units stationed near Galthorium and Uriade. On 4 November, Neuchrus was forced to retreat from Luxermia, which was reconquered by Imperial forces. It must be noted that the Osrianian raids and naval campaigns against the Emperor's possessions in Gegucia, Cleothardy, Balay, Corinia, Kalabria, and the Inorian Islands took place throughout all this time. The Chilsians as well, launched renewed land in campaigns in Cleothardy and Pavia. The fortress of Carnigano had been besieged by the Chilsians, who sought to push the Inorians away from the passes leading into the country. During the winter of 857-856 BH, while Demetrius and Neuchrus were established in their winter headquarters, the Chilsian army in Mararia received 50,000 reinforcements. In April, 856 BH, the Chilsians won the Battle of Imathian, but more pressing concerns on other theaters forced Neuchrus to recall most of his troops. By June, all of Pavia and Cleothardy were again dominated by Inorian troops.

On Paul's Almitis Day, 857 BH, Augustus II of Darsis and Demetrius I of the Holy Mararian Empire-Inoria had signed the Treaty of Umarina, promising to launch a coordinated land invasion of Chilsia by June of the following year. Each monarch was to provide a army of 50,000 infantry and 35,000 cavalry for the invasion. Thus a army of 170,000 men would be hurled into Chilsia. Neuchrus himself had 90,000 troops at his disposal, 55,000 of which were infantry. He would thus be vastly outnumbered. This campaign however, could not be implemented until issues in Hisland and Wallachia were resolved by the two monarchs. On 15 May, the King of Darsis was informed by his advisers that Hisland would no longer pose a threat to his position: thus, he began to make preparations for a landing in northern Chilsia. Ironically, his council of advisers and the Emperor were both opposed, who believed that the King himself should not accompany the expedition. Demetrius, on the other hand, had managed to force the Wallachian princes to sign the Peace of Franklia, and the Duke of Halxony, the Prince of Dacia, and the Elector of Lauscia were all prepared to join their master in a Chilsian campaign.

See General History of Laurasia Part II

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