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January 13, 1889

Dear Diary,

Today I have come to my final decision, after much contemplation, I have decided that the best decision at this time would be to join the revolution. I can admit that Pedro the second did good things for my country, which is why it was so hard to make this decision. Pedro helped to end the civil wars that plagued our country, and he expanded the economy, but I based my decision on the issues of the present rather than Pedro’s past accomplishments. Worrying about what is going on now will further benefit the way things currently are. I believe that a Parliamentary Republic would greatly help our country, and ultimately help me due to the fact that I’m one of the working class, I’m the foundation of our country, and I am entitled to representation. With a monarchy the decisions are fast and sometimes effective, but a government that has more legislation would make better decisions that are for the people like me who work hard everyday. The policies that Pedro the second restricted have the individualism that the people of Brazil deserve. The fact that we are completely isolated from any political affairs whatsoever is very unappealing, because the poor and working class are not treated with respect in some of Pedro’s policies, and under a parliamentary government this would change. My decision is clear and supported and therefore I am joining the revolution because of the lack or representation for the lower class people, the restricted individualism in our country under Pedro the second, and the laws that harm the lower class and show a lack of respect. If people like me show so much support for Brazil then we should have a leader that treats us the way we deserve to be treated.

In a parliamentary government representatives are elected by the people (this includes me), and make decisions to help the nation’s people. Pedro II definitely doesn’t show the same responsibility to the people as these officials that are obligated to represent us do. He has not addressed a multitude of issues that affect the lower class. Our people are plagued by illiteracy and I do not have the opportunity to learn the very useful and necessary art of reading. This would help me significantly, if I were ever to move up in this brutal world. Without the ability to understand important documents it becomes almost impossible to increase my income. I can't provide more and do better for myself only because I don't have the opportunity to learn to read like people higher in society do. Pedro also hasn’t made enough effort to help another part of the lower class like the farmers. They suffer from a lack of modern agriculture, and little to almost no advancement has been made to help our farmers, it seems as if Pedro II thinks of them as unimportant. Clearly more than one group of low class citizens are getting the bad end of the deal with Pedro II's policies. Lastly, another failure in Pedro’s reign is the low level of industrialization for the people of this nation. We live in a world that is constantly growing and becoming more advanced. Without industrialization how will we compete with each other? By working the insignificant low class people harder? I completely disagree with this thought so I base my decision on the fact that the lack of respect shown in Pedro II’s policies involving the lower class is astounding and detrimental to me personally.

Individualism is very important for a growing nation, which was proved and discovered first during The Renaissance where people finally broke away from the authority of the Catholic Church. What those great thinkers and philosophers did is a similar component to what will have to happen in this nation. We have our ability to be individuals, compete, and achieve social mobility restricted by, dowries, arranged marriages, nepotism, godparenthood, and clientelism. Freedom of speech and expression are important but in order to achieve a state of complete individualism, Brazilian citizens like me shouldn’t be held back by inconveniences like that. We need to change our policies for individualism regarding the people, and a parliamentary government that is for the people will clearly do a better job then Pedro II at resolving that. Having a leader that is not on your side in a sense, could just lead to another revolution after him trying to control the freedoms that we have.

Lastly, and most importantly, the main deciding factor in my decision to join the rebellion is the fact that with Pedro II as a government official, I have to fear for my life. Pedro has ignored the Squatters rights of frontier dwellers, because of this people like me who have not sworn fealty to an elite family can be taken to serve in the military. This is basically like giving me the death sentence even though I have not committed a crime. Not only is it inhumane but it shows the consistent lack of respect from Pedro the second, this is a critical issue that makes the parliamentary republic seem very appealing. These outrages have caused uprising and rebellion throughout my nation, these men are justified in fighting for their right to survival, and I will join them in their cause because of that.

The policies of Pedro the second are outrageous regarding the rights of the middle/lower class. We are just as human as the higher class citizens of this nation and we deserve the same human rights as them. A parliamentary government is for the people because of its legislative branch would be chosen by the people. Those representatives are obligated to serve the people and because of this, my position as a lower class worker can be made easier with the removal of the inhumane and harmful policies of Pedro II. This ensures that lower class citizens like me can enjoy the same freedom of not being taken forcefully into the army and executed by violent enemies. With the parliamentary government that the revolution ensures, I will be able to be an individual without the social restrictions implemented by Pedro II. The only threat to this revolution is if Pedro II is able to regain control of his military. My greatest fear if he is able to accomplish this, is the fact that he may increase the unjust laws regarding the lower class as an act of rage against our insubordination. But my hopes are still up because this revolution was sparked by the military, and it is very unlikely that the military officials will betray their own cause. Now my decision is official it is clear that because of Pedro the second’s failed policies that hurt me and other lower class citizens I will join the Revolution.

Sincerely, Juan Ramon

January 20, 1889 Dear Diary,

As long as Pedro II has had his empire over us Brazilians, the elite class of people like landowners have been the only ones that had a chance to take part in social and political matters. [1]Due to this, I think it would be best if I joined the revolution against this existing monarchy. We need a revolution in order to reform social and political life, as well as to lower the illiteracy rate that I happen to contribute to as a lower class man in Brazil. [2]The policies that Pedro II has for citizens like me are definitely not in my favor which leads me to give no support to him at all. My opinion in politics is not heard at all in this monarchy but they would be if we were able to change our government into a Parliamentary Republic. This would give us more modern approaches to things that affect me, or that I could be a part of. Industrialization is currently low as is the agriculture in Brazil but these would have a chance at being reformed with that new government, which would then improve on the amount of jobs given to people like me. [3]Before Pedro, we did not have a centralized government and there were liberals in power that could potentially come back if we all support a revolution.[4] I would see more equality in my life with a new government especially because the low class people wouldn't be forced to serve in the military and risk my life for a leader that I do not support, and a leader that gave me no benefits to begin with. As many of the low class citizens are, I am worried about what will happen if a revolution does break out and Brazil fails to get Pedro II out. His response to so many of us supporting a revolt might be worse than the policies he already has given us. High class people probably aren't as anxious to find out the outcome as I am but the revolution definitely has my support either way, in hopes of a new republic.

Sincerely, Juan Ramon

March 5, 1889 Dear Diary,

Things in Brazil have changed since the last time I wrote. Today I know for sure that there is definitely a revolution happening. As I see more and more people starting to side with the revolution the way I did, I see that maybe there is more hope for Brazil to experience change in the near future. I am starting to become less hesitant about the fact that we are trying to overthrow our own ruler. Many people like me, and even people of the middle class, have already began to join together. The revolution in general was sparked by the military who has its own great power against the ruler. [5]It seems that a coalition of officers and civilians has already been created, in hopes of reform. [6]Currently people of higher classes have more say than I do so this leads me to believe that they will be able to make this reform happen. Their ideas are similar to those that republican politicians had for positivism, and they were looking for a federalist political system. [7]Thankfully the supporters in our country are already somewhat grouped especially due to the forces that shared the common interest of abolishing slavery, which happened last year with Pedro II. This ruler is becoming less popular among the many citizens in Brazil and it looks like we will be able to achieve the republic government that we want instead of the current monarchy that favors the upper class. I am hoping that our revolution will be successful in order to get the changes in my life that many people want.

Sincerely, Juan Ramon

November 15, 1889

Dear Diary,

It excites me to finally say that this monarchy is officially over with and we have won the revolution! On this exact day, our republic has officially been founded and Pedro II is no longer in power. [8]After the support of the many people following the revolution, it seems that we were successful mainly due to the abolition of slavery which created a threat of interests of the economic and political oligarchy. [9] Since this small group did have some control even with Pedro in charge, they gave the final push after their economic and political views did not agree with Pedro's action. The empire is over and the things I hoped for will slowly start to become true. Eventually large landowners will try to preserve their social, political, and economic dominance but now lower class people like planters will also because to reform the structure of the social and economic system so that one person doesn't have a huge advantage over the other. [10]This will help my ability to have a voice in government no matter how much poorer I am than other Brazilians. Our country can now prosper with the Empire ending and a republic acting to serve to all of us. Not joining the revolution would have been a huge mistake because we would never have gotten the chance to start modernizing the many aspects of the country, and improve on whatever the monarchy led us to change. The military that already existed during the monarchy, was able to gain some control to make this revolution successful. At this point, we are all looking for a reformed and better Brazil without Pedro II.

Sincerely, Juan Ramon

  1. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 20 Nov. 2008 <>.)
  2. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 20 Nov. 2008 <>.)
  3. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 20 Nov. 2008 <>.)
  4. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. 2008. ABC-CLIO. 20 Nov. 2008 <>.)
  5. (“Brazil.” CultureGrams Kids Edition. ProQuest, 2010. Web. 29 Nov 2009. <>)
  6. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.)
  7. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.)
  8. ("independence of Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.)
  9. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.)
  10. ("Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.)

“Brazil.” CultureGrams Kids Edition. ProQuest, 2010. Web. 29 Nov 2009. <>

"independence of Brazil." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.

"Brazilian Revolution of 1889." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. <>.

"Brazil: Brazil 1808-1889." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. 5 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.

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