The Caladarian Empire, also known as the Empire of Caladaria or simply as Caladaria, and, more rarely, as the Alexandrian Empire, was a major Orthodox Middle Eastern and Balkans power during the later Middle Ages and the early modern era. The empire's last name comes from its founder Alexander I of Caladaria (1302-1326), a prince of the Crusader Principality of Acre, the last remnant of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, who fled from the Fall of Acre in 1291 and went on to seize the throne of Trebizond and conquer the region of Caladaria from the Ill-Khan Empire. At the height of its power in the late 16th century, during the reign of Aurelia I the Great of Caladaria (1556-1603), the Caladarian Empire extended from the Adriatic Sea in the Balkans across the Middle East to the Indus and Hydrates Rivers in India, as far east as the city of Lahore. The empire, which dominated the land routes of the Middle East and the commercial routes of the eastern Mediterranean, became a major center of culture, trade, and commerce. It was far more advanced in these respects then the West, absorbing many Trebezonite and Byzantine customs, as well as Arab ideas and practices.
The Caladarians indeed, embraced much of the art, architecture, political and some religious beliefs, and other customs of their culturally heterogeneous empire, although they also promoted Greek and Byzantine culture, at least in the western portions. There were fervent supporters of Orthodoxy, although they exercised tolerance towards Islam and other religions. Caladarian rulers officially held the titles of "Imperator" and "Autocrator", emphasizing their connection with the Roman and Byzantine Empires. They also held the titles of "Shahanshah of Persia" and "Pharaoh of Egypt", symbolizing on how those states were part of the empire and making ties to the ancient traditions of those regions. Caladarian rulers had a strong emphasis on powerful and centralized government, believing that a state was weak without an effective governing body. The empire had three capital cities over the first 200 years of its existence, including Stratonice (1302-1471), Constantinople (1471-1586), and then Christiania (1586 onwards).
The earliest enemies of the Caladarians were the Rum Seljuks and Mamelukes to the west and south-west, the Ill-Khanate to the south and south-east, and the Georgian and Circassian peoples to the north. However, as Caladaria began expanding in all directions and defeating or weakening these early enemies (as also after a bout of defeat against the Timurid Empire of 1370-1405), she came into contact with the Ottoman Empire, Venice, Genoa, the rump Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, the Danubian Principalities, and other states in the Balkans and Anatolia. Caladaria gradually defeated these western enemies after several wars and border conflicts, extending her reach into Europe. The empire then fought and defeated the Berbers of North Africa, reducing them to vassalage, while also exterminating threats in the Arabian Peninsula and fighting the Crimean Khanate, the Astrakhan and Kazan Khanates, and the north Mongolian Sultanates as well. She also had conflict with first the Delhi Sultanate, and then (after 1556), the Mughal Empire. Despite these wars, Caladaria established herself as a powerful empire.