The Beginning Edit
In the 1820's, the Brazilian Revolution had unofficially started, as Brazil gained its independence. Portuguese rebels ousted regions in Lisbon and convoked liberal parliament. The new government tried to strengthen its ties to Brazil, which had weakened when the royal family moved to Rio de Janeiro. The British now feared losing their influence over Portugal and Brazil, so the British advised João VI  to return to Europe, which he did in 1821. Before leaving for Europe, João left his 23-year-old son, Pedro , to accept the local throne. However, the Parliament demanded that Pedro must accompany his father to Europe, but Pedro refused, and after seeking the counsel members, Pedro threw his sword to the ground and shouted, "Independence or death." On December 1st, 1822, Dom Pedro was crowned emperor of Brazil, and impacted the country with his own ways. From then on, Brazil had a small population. Others were surprised that Brazil didn't follow the revolutions of other countries like Colombia. There were strong pressures for regional autonomy in Brazil, as well as Republicanism . But throughout the years, Brazil stayed strong and held it together under an imperial monarchy.
Causes and Outcome of The Brazillian Revolution of 1889 (Continued)Edit
The cause of the Brazilian Revolution of 1889 was due to the people wanting to modernize political and social life that was originally filled with illiteracy, in addition to the low levels of industrialization and non modern agriculture. Specifically, When Pedro II removed the liberals from power, they reacted to form a Republican party with opposite ideas of what they had before. Their ideas included Comtian positivism, secularism, social Darwinism, opportunism, and decentralization of government. The most important of these ideas was the decentralization of government because it applies to the revolution where Pedro II is removed from power. They insisted on dividing the power of the emperor into separate states that governed the country. However, Pedro had every intention to keep his power therefore he declined their request.
Another cause of the Brazilian revolution was a religious issue between Pedro II and the Republican Party. The republicans wanted a separation of church and state but Pedro II opposed their ideas. He had made Catholicism the official religion of Brazil, and non Catholics had suffered because of his taxation policies against them. This caused tensions in the non Catholic portion of Brazil, and caused Pedro II to loose their support.
Lastly, Pedro’s policies toward the lower class citizens caused him to loose all support from them, because his laws were directly hurting them. If they didn’t swear loyalty to an elite family, they could be taken and forced to serve in the military which was basically the same thing as a death sentence. They also received almost no representation and were excluded from any political affairs, and because they were ignored by Pedro he became even less popular with the lower class citizens. Pedro II was removed from office and exiled from Brazil by his own people; their intents were to form a parliamentary republic. They acheived a separation of church and state and slavery was finally abolished. However, because of corruption and greed the government representing the people that the Brazilian people had in mind, actually turned out to be a corrupt oligarchy that was mainly helping the upper class.
Timeline of Revolution
1888- Slavery is abolished in Brazil
1889- Brazil commoners start a revolution to overthrow monarchy
1889- Revolution is successful; Dom Pedro II is overthrown
1889- Military officers establish a republic