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The following provides basic information about the 21st century, in particular political and other developments within the United States during that time.

The 21st CenturyEdit

Presidents of the United StatesEdit

42. 1993-2001: Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas)

43. 2001-2009: George W. Bush (R-Texas)

44. 2009-2017: Barack Obama (D-Illinois) +

45. 2017-2025: Donald Trump (R-New York) ++

46. 2025-2029: Marco Rubio (R-Florida) +++

47. 2029-2037: Cory Booker (D-New Jersey) ++++

48. 2037-2041: Brian Sandoval (R-Nevada) +++++

49. 2041-2049: Joseph P. Kennedy III (D-Massachusetts) ++++++

50. 2049-2052: Brandon Boyle (D-Pennsylvania) +++++++

51. 2052-2053: Mark Henson (D-Ohio)

52. 2053-2061: Madelaine McAuliffe (R-Kansas) ++++++++

53. 2061-2069: W.J. Rutherford (D-Colorado)

54. 2069-2073: Carlotta A. Sanchez (D-New Mexico) +++++++++

55. 2073-2075: Tommy Franks (R-North Carolina) ++++++++++

56. 2075-2077: Jessica Crittenden (R-Louisiana)

57. 2077-2081: Christopher A. Liu (D-Pennsylvania) +++++++++++

58. 2081-2089: Robert M. Kraft (R-Texas) ++++++++++++

59. 2089-2093: Joseph Kaczyniski (D-Georgia)

60. 2093-2094: Leslie A. Stewart (R-Minnesota) +++++++++++++

61. 2094-2097: Nicholas W. Cuomo (R-New York)

62. 2097-2105: Robert H. Chancellor (D-Montana)

+-First African American President.

++-First President elected without any political or military experience.

+++-First Hispanic President.

++++-Second African-American President; first bachelor President since James Buchanan.

+++++-Second Hispanic President; oldest President yet elected.

++++++-Second President from the Kennedy dynasty; grandson of Robert Kennedy, and grandnephew of President John F. Kennedy.

+++++++-First President to die in office since John F. Kennedy; first since FDR to die of natural causes.

++++++++-First woman President. Elected 36 years after Hillary Clinton's failed 2016 bid, and thirty years after Clinton's death.

+++++++++-First Hispanic female President; first Vice-President since George H.W. Bush elected to succeed their predecessor; first President born in the 21st century.

++++++++++-First openly gay President.

+++++++++++-First Asian-American President; first naturalized President, under aegis of 31st Amendment.

+++++++++++++-First widower President since Woodrow Wilson.

+++++++++++++-First African-American female President; second President of the century to die in office.

Presidential Deaths of the 21st CenturyEdit

40. Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911-June 5, 2004)

38. Gerald Ford (July 14, 1913-December 26, 2006)

39. Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924-August 5, 2017)

41. George H.W. Bush (June 12, 1924-September 22, 2019)

45. Donald Trump (June 14, 1946-September 7, 2033)

42. Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946-July 14, 2036)

43. George W. Bush (July 6, 1946-February 22, 2041)

47. Cory Booker (April 27, 1969-November 5, 2045)

44. Barack Obama (August 4, 1961-April 29, 2049)

50. Brandon Boyle (February 6, 1977-February 5, 2052)

48. Brian Sandoval (August 5, 1963-July 22, 2057)

51. Mark Henson (November 27, 1995-April 16, 2061)

47. Marco Rubio (May 28, 1971-January 14, 2065)

49. Joseph P. Kennedy III (October 4, 1980-June 5, 2067)

52. Madelaine McAuliffe (December 5, 1992-January 22, 2073)

54. Carlotta A. Sanchez (January 13, 2013-March 4, 2081)

53. W.J. Rutherford (April 12, 1998-November 25, 2087)

58. Robert M. Kraft (September 2, 2020-July 19, 2093)

60. Leslie A. Stewart (June 9, 2031-April 27, 2094)

55. Tommy Franks (October 2, 2009-April 13, 2095)

59. Joseph Kaczyniski (April 16, 2026-July 14, 2096)

56. Jessica Crittenden (June 28, 2025-August 9, 2098)

Living at the end of the century: Christopher A. Liu (2077-81, b. 2013), Nicholas W. Cuomo (2094-97, b. 2043), Robert H. Chancellor (incumbent, 2097-2105, b. 2048). Cuomo would die in the first decade of the 22nd century.

First Spouses of the United StatesEdit

  1. 1993-2001: Hillary Clinton +
  2. 2001-2009: Laura Bush
  3. 2009-2017: Michelle Obama ++
  4. 2017-2025: Melania Trump +++
  5. 2025-2029: Jeannette Rubio ++++
  6. 2029-2037: None +++++
  7. 2037-2041: Kathleen Sandoval
  8. 2041-2049: Lauren Anne Kennedy
  9. 2049-2052: Jennifer Boyle
  10. 2052-2053: Samantha Henson
  11. 2053-2061: Douglas McAuliffe ++++++
  12. 2061-2069: Julianne Rutherford
  13. 2069-2073: Edward Sanchez, Sr.
  14. 2073-2075: Christopher Franks +++++++
  15. 2075-2077: Patrick Crittenden, Jr.
  16. 2077-2081: Cassandra T. Liu
  17. 2081-2089: None ++++++++
  18. 2089-2093: Elizabeth Kaczyniski
  19. 2093-2094: Grayson Stewart
  20. 2094-2097: Emily Cuomo
  21. 2097-2105: Nikki Chancellor

+-First presidential spouse to hold an elected office in the United States in her own right (U.S. Senator from New York, 2001-09) and first to become a member of the Cabinet of the United States (Secretary of State 2009-13).

++-First African-American First Lady.

+++-First foreign-born First Lady since Louisa Adams (1825-29), the wife of President John Quincy Adams.

++++-First Hispanic First Lady.

+++++-Cory Booker was the first bachelor President since James Buchanan (1857-1861). His cousin fulfilled duties as White House hostess during his administration.

++++++-Douglas McAuliffe was the first "First Gentleman" of the United States.

+++++++-Tommy Franks was the first openly gay President. His "spouse" was Christopher Franks.

++++++++-Robert M. Kraft was the first widower in office since Woodrow Wilson. His wife, Annaliese Kraft, whom he married in 2043, died in a plane accident ten years later. Kraft never remarried after her death. His niece, Olivia Kraft, fulfilled the duties of White House hostess during his administration.

Deaths of Presidential SpousesEdit

36. Lady Bird Johnson (December 22, 1912-July 11, 2007)

38. Betty Ford (April 8, 1918-July 8, 2011)

40. Nancy Reagan (July 6, 1921-March 6, 2016)

39. Rosalynn Carter (August 18, 1927-June 21, 2021)

41. Barbara Bush (June 8, 1925-November 23, 2021)

42. Hillary Clinton (October 26, 1947-July 2, 2022)

43. Laura Bush (November 4, 1946-August 17, 2037)

46. Jeannette Rubio (December 5, 1973-July 19, 2041)

48. Kathleen Sandoval (July 13, 1965-April 22, 2045)

45. Melania Trump (April 26, 1970-June 5, 2051)

44. Michelle Obama (January 17, 1964-September 3, 2055)

50. Jennifer Boyle (May 29, 1979-January 1, 2059)

49. Lauren Anne Kennedy (September 21, 1984-October 9, 2064)

52. Douglas McAuliffe (November 9, 1983-December 7, 2067)

51. Samantha Henson (April 9, 1991-June 12, 2076)

55. Christopher Franks (May 8, 2016-March 4, 2081)

54. Edward Sanchez, Jr. (May 1, 2003-April 30, 2086)

53. Julianne Rutherford (March 27, 1999-August 17, 2088)

56. Patrick Crittenden Jr. (August 1, 2014-January 11, 2091)

57. Cassandra T. Liu (October 2, 2008-July 4, 2097)

Alive at the end of the century: First Ladies Elizabeth Kaczyniski (September 8, 2029-March 3, 2123), Emily Cuomo (May 8, 2045-August 3, 2129), and Nikki Chancellor (May 18, 2049-April 7, 2141), as well as First Gentleman Grayson Stewart (January 2, 2026-April 10, 2109).

Speakers of the HouseEdit

59. 1999-2007: Dennis Hastert (R-Illinois) (January 2, 1943-July 3, 2029)

60. 2007-2011: Nancy Pelosi (D-California) (March 26, 1940-April 8, 2040)

61. 2011-2015: John Boehner (R-Ohio) (November 17, 1949-July 24, 2035)

62. 2015-2027: Paul Ryan (R-Wisconsin) (January 29, 1970-November 6, 2066)

63. 2027-2031: Steve Scalise (R-Louisiana) (October 6, 1965-April 8, 2057)

64. 2031-2035: Joseph Crowley (D-New York) (March 16, 1962-June 4, 2036)

65. 2035-2039: Seth Moulton (D-Massachusetts) (October 23, 1978-March 1, 2055)

66. 2039-2049: Eric Swalwell (D-California) (November 16, 1980-June 5, 2065)

67. 2049-2059: Elise Stefanik (R-New York) (July 2, 1984-December 7, 2069)

68. 2059-2063: Ty Matthews (D-Iowa) (May 5, 1989-June 2, 2086)

69. 2063-2075: William D. Dixon, Jr. (D-Washington D.C.) (February 11, 1998-June 22, 2087)

70. 2075-2079: Patsy Chuo (D-Hawaii) (March 2, 1999-April 30, 2083)

71. 2079-2087: Carl D. Porter (R-Alabama) (April 7, 2010-January 7, 2094)

72. 2087-2091: Hector Martinez, Jr. (D-Puerto Rico) (October 22, 2025-November 2, 2091)

73. 2091-2094: Sophia Rowe (R-Colorado) (June 7, 2028-April 8, 2097)

74. 2094-2099: J. William Axelhoff (R-Tennessee) (December 2, 2023-June 7, 2105)

75. 2099-2103: Emma A. Longwell (D-Colorado) (November 19, 2036-April 8, 2106)

Party control of the U.S. House of Representatives varied over the course of the decades. During the first third of the twenty-first century, the Republican Party had the upper hand in the House (as in the Senate). Republicans controlled the House from the time of the "Revolution" of 1994, engineered by Newt Gingrich and his followers, until the midterm elections of 2006. At that time, the Democratic Party gained control of Congress, riding off the unpopularity of then-President George W. Bush, the struggles of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the weakening of the U.S. economy (which lead to the Great Recession of 2007-09). Nancy Pelosi of California was elected the first female Speaker of the House in January 2007. Democrats controlled the House from 2007-2011, into the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency. However, the passage of Obamacare, the struggling economic recovery, and the rise of the Tea Party led to them losing the chamber in 2010, in what was a historic year for Republicans. The Republican Party then controlled the House for the next twenty years (2011-2031). Democratic efforts in 2016, 2020, 2022, and 2024 to regain the chamber failed; in January 2023, midway through Donald Trump's second term, Republicans held 268 seats in the House. John Boehner of Ohio, who had been Minority Leader since 2007, was Speaker from 2011-15; he resigned in October of that year, leading to the accession of Paul D. Ryan to the Speakership. Ryan served as Speaker for twelve years, presiding over the passage, through Congress, of the Trump tax cuts and deregulation of 2017-19, the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 2020, and the Private Health Accounts Act of 2022. He clashed with Trump, however, over his policies towards Russia, his tariff policies, and his policies concerning social programs. In 2026, when Ryan stepped down from the Speakership, Republicans suffered a series of losses to Democrats in the House, as part of the backlash against Marco Rubio (due to the eco-terrorism movement, the Zimbabwe Crisis, and the rise of the New Jihad organization in Yemen and Oman).

Ryan was succeeded as Speaker by Steve Scalise of Louisiana, who served until January 2031. In 2028, Rubio lost reelection to Senator Cory Booker of New Jersey, the first incumbent to lose reelection since George H.W. Bush in 1992. Republicans lost the Senate, but held onto a very narrow majority in the House. But finally, in the November 2030 midterm elections, under the leadership of Minority Leader Joseph A. Crowley of New York and his senior whip, Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio (who had challenged Pelosi for the leadership, unsuccessfully, in 2016 and 2018), the Democrats regained control of the House, capturing 226 seats. They took advantage of Cory Booker's relative popularity, stemming from the successful resolution of the Zimbabwe Crisis, the decline of the eco-terrorism movement, and the ever-trending upwards recovery of the American economy. Booker won reelection in a landslide in 2032, and Democrats expanded their majority to a commanding 273 seats. For eighteen years, the Democrats held control of the U.S. House (2031-49), lasting even through Brian Sandoval's one term (2037-41), though Sandoval's narrow victory in the election of 2036 did reduce the Democratic advantage there. The Democratic majority ranged from a high of 273 seats in January 2033, soon after Booker was sworn in to a second term, to a low of 220 seats in January 2047, following the midterms of 2046, when Republicans had capitalized on anti-Kennedy backlash due to the South American Drug Wars and the rise to power of the Left Front-Marxist Coalition in India (those same midterms saw Republicans take control of the Senate, which they would hold until 2061). Crowley served as Speaker until his retirement in January 2035. He was succeeded by Congressman Seth Moulton of Massachusetts, who had become Assistant Whip for the Democratic Caucus in 2029, and Chair of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee in 2033. Moulton served as Speaker until health complications forced him to leave the House in January 2039. Eric Swalwell of California, once a protegee of Nancy Pelosi's, succeeded him as Speaker, holding the position for ten years. Moreover, Moulton's accession to the Speakership (January 3, 2035), saw Puerto Rico's admission as the 51st state; in 2049, in accordance with the 30th Amendment, which revised congressional apportionment procedures, the size of the House would be expanded from 435 to 439 members. The Senate increased in size from 100 to 102 members.

The extremely contentious election of 2048 saw progressive Senator Brandon Boyle of Pennsylvania defeat his Republican opponent, Governor Charles A. Montgomery of Texas, in the closest election since that of 2000; Boyle won 272-271 in the Electoral College, his victory secured by narrow triumphs in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Florida. But in that same election, Republicans, under the leadership of Minority Leader Elise Stefanik of New York, who had served in that position since 2041, and herself a protegee of Paul Ryan's, took control of the House by a narrow margin (with 225 seats). Stefanik became the second female Speaker of the House in its history. The midterms of 2050, marked by the continuation of the armed struggle in South America, and by a downturn in the global economy, saw them make further gains, capturing 246 seats. Republicans controlled the House for ten years. In 2052, Republican Governor Madelaine McAuliffe of Kansas defeated President Mark Henson (who had acceded to the Presidency upon Boyle's sudden death) by a comfortable margin, and brought new Republican members into Congress (in January 2053, Republicans had a 253-186 majority in the House and a 56-47 majority in the Senate). Republicans did lose some seats in the midterms of 2054 (reducing their House majority to 247 seats, and their Senate majority to 53 seats), but McAuliffe, benefiting from the process of democratization in China (which she encouraged), foreign policy successes in Cuba, South America, and South Sudan, and American success at new exploration efforts on the Moon and in the Marsian Asteroid Belt, won reelection in 2056, reversing these losses (in January 2057, Republicans held 252 seats in the House and 56 in the Senate). In 2057-58, however, the intensified conflict in Congo-Kinshasa, the outbreak of the Aral Sea War among the ex-Soviet republics of Central Asia, and the onset of the most serious economic recession since Obama's Presidency led to a severe decline in McAuliffe's favorability ratings. Republicans lost control of the House that year, and came close to losing the Senate. Democratic Minority Whip Ty Matthews of Iowa, who had served in the House since 2043, succeeded Stefanik as Speaker, becoming the first openly homosexual individual to serve in the position; Democrats obtained a 238-seat majority in that chamber. In the Senate, Republicans now held only a 51-51 advantage, with Vice-President Kathleen Hughes providing the critical tie-breaking vote.

Two years later, Senator W.J. Rutherford of Colorado beat Vice-President Hughes in a landslide; Republicans lost the Senate at that time. At the time of Rutherford's first inauguration (January 20, 2061), Democrats held 249 seats in the House and 55 in the Senate. The midterm elections of 2062, Rutherford's landslide reelection in 2064 (the greatest victory for either party in the twenty-first century), and the midterm elections of 2066, saw Democrats make further gains. When the 141st Congress convened on January 3, 2067, Democrats held supermajorities in both chambers of Congress, the first time either party had achieved this since 1977. They held 313 seats in the House (the first and only time in the century one party held more than 300 seats in the chamber) and 73 in the Senate. In January 2063, at the opening of the 139th Congress, Matthews retired, and was succeeded as Speaker by William J. Dixon, Jr. of Washington D.C., the first African-American Speaker of the House in American history. Dixon served as Speaker for twelve years, until January 2075. His speakership was historic, seeing the enactment of new civil rights, environmental, energy, health-care, welfare-reform, and economic regulation legislation, as well as the vigorous expansion of NASA and a significant reduction in the federal debt (which reached its lowest levels of the century). Balanced budgets were passed from 2063-68, the first time since 2020-21 that this was achieved. Dixon worked closely with President Rutherford, and then with Rutherford's successor, former Vice-President Carlotta A. Sanchez, after she succeeded him in January 2069. Moreover, Dixon's tenure, with the admissions of the Virgin Islands (2063), Guam & Wake Island (2065), Mariana (2066), and Samoa (2066) would see a further expansion of both houses of Congress; following the reapportionment bill of July 31, 2070, in accordance with the 30th Amendment, the House of Representatives would have 444 members, the Senate, 110.

In 2071 and 2072, however, the collapse of the "bullish" stock market, economic troubles in Russia and China, the outbreak of renewed conflict in Palestine, and the contentions over genetic engineering lead to a collapse in Sanchez's ratings. In November 2072, she lost by a significant margin to Tommy Franks; although losing the Senate (Republicans capturing a 56 seat majority), Democrats managed to retain control of the House (by a razor-thin margin of 224-220), thanks to Dixon's alliances with the Independent Caucus and the Free-Labor Party, which held a number of seats in the Midwest and West. Franks clashed with Dixon and the Democrats in the House from the moment he assumed office in January 2073, over economic, health, welfare, and exploration policy; moreover, he failed to reverse the stagnation in the economy, or to resolve the crises in the Middle East and Russia. In short order, he was then encompassed by the "Designer-gate" Scandal of 2074-75. This would lead to the passage of impeachment recommendations by the House Judiciary Committee, chaired by Representative Ira Benson (D-Georgia) from 2069-77, on November 7, 2074, and to the President's formal impeachment by the chamber in December 2074. Capitalizing on the continuing economic stagnation, on the scandal, and on the foreign policy failures, the Democrats made substantial gains in the House in the midterms of November 2074, bringing their majority back up to 245 seats. They also regained control of the Senate, capturing 56 seats. On January 3, 2075, at the opening of the 145th Congress, Dixon retired from the House, after 42 years, and was succeeded as Speaker by his long-time subordinate, Majority Leader Patsy Chuo of Hawaii (in the House since 2049), who became the first Asian-American Speaker.

On May 23, 2075, Franks was convicted on all charges by the United States Senate and formally removed from office, being replaced by Vice-President Jessica Crittenden. Crittenden, who was dogged by her association with the previous administration, was unable to accomplish anything of note, and had low approval ratings with the populace. She won the Republican Party nomination, but then lost by a landslide to Democratic Senator Christopher A. Liu of Pennsylvania in November 2076. Democrats made further gains; at the opening of the 146th Congress in January 2077, they held 264 seats in the House and 59 in the Senate. During the course of 2077 and 2078, however, Liu was destroyed by the triple set of the Discovery One exploration disaster; the rise of the New Purity Movement; and the continuing "stagflation" afflicting the American economy. In the midterms of November 2078, after having controlled the House for twenty years and the Senate for sixteen (except for 2059-61 and 2073-75), the Democrats suffered severe losses in Congress; Chuo herself was defeated for reelection, and Republicans regained control of both chambers. They captured 241 seats in the House and 58 in the Senate. Minority Whip Carl D. Porter of Alabama was elected Speaker; he assumed office in January 2079, the 24th year of his service in Congress, and held the position for eight years. In November 2080, Liu was defeated for reelection in a landslide by former Secretary of State Robert M. Kraft of Texas; Republicans made further gains, holding 261 House seats and 63 Senate seats in January 2081.

In 2084, Kraft won reelection in a landslide, with Republicans making further gains. At the opening of the 150th Congress (January 3, 2085), Republicans were at their strongest in Congress during the 21st century, holding 279 House seats and 66 Senate seats. Things quickly soured for them in due course. The following year (2086), the Equatorial-Canada Affair, corruption charges against many of Kraft's cabinet members, and the collapse of the U.S. mediation of the Pakistan-Iran hostage crisis led Democrats to retake both chambers; Hector Martinez, Jr. of Puerto Rico became the first Hispanic Speaker of the House in January 2087. Democrats held 246 seats in the House and 56 in the Senate, preventing President Kraft from enacting any more of his agenda. In 2088, Joseph Kaczyniski, the Governor of Georgia and one-time FBI Director under President Liu, was elected, by a comfortable margin, over Derek Harris, CEO of Bain Capital. By January 2089, with the opening of the 152nd Congress, Democrats held 259 seats in the House and 59 seats in the Senate. Kaczyniski, however, was then felled by the San Francisco Earthquake, the outbreak, in November 2089, of full-scale war in the Middle East, and the collapse of the Indian Left Front during 2090 and 2091, which plunged that country into civil war. An economic recession, which began in July 2090, further weakened his position, and anti-genetic sentiment flared up in full force, complicated by terrorist attacks throughout many of the Southern states.

In the midterms of November 7, 2090, Democrats lost the House again, with Republicans picking up sixty-five seats; Sophia S. Rowe of Colorado became Speaker. In November 2092, Kaczyniski was defeated for reelection by Senate Majority Leader Leslie A. Stewart of Minnesota; Republicans held 276 seats in the House and 62 in the Senate by January 2093. Speaker Rowe, however, became implicated in an ethics scandal, and in July 2094, was forced to resign. She was succeeded by J. William Axelhoff, Chair of the House Oversight Committee, from Tennessee. Two months earlier, President Stewart had died, the second president of the century to die in office (following Brandon Boyle); Vice-President Nicholas W. Cuomo had become President. Republicans held control of the House in the 2094 midterm elections, for the economy had begun to recover, the Equatorial-Canada Affair was fully resolved, and the Coalition War was negotiated to an end. In fact, in January 2095, a century after the Republican Revolution, they had 260 seats in the House and 57 in the Senate. In 2096, Cuomo, although he enjoyed high approval ratings, declined to run for his own term; Democrat Robert H. Chancellor of Montana won in an extremely close election that year, with Democrats making gains in both chambers (though not enough to retake control). He proved adept at compromise and political deal-making, navigating passage of new military reform legislation through Congress. This, and his role in the reorganization of the United Nations, as well as the stabilization of Somalia, Saudi Arabia, and Russia, gave Democrats control of the House and Senate back in 2098. Emma A. Longwell of Colorado, formerly Speaker of the Colorado State House, became Speaker of the federal House on January 3, 2099. As the century drew to its close, Democrats held 240 seats in the House and 64 in the Senate. In 2100, President Chancellor would be reelected in a landslide.

Senate Majority LeadersEdit

  1. 1996-2001, 2001: Trent Lott (R-Mississippi)
  2. 2001, 2001-2003: Tom Daschle (D-South Dakota)
  3. 2003-2007: Bill Frist (R-Tennessee)
  4. 2007-2015: Harry Reid (D-Nevada)
  5. 2015-2023: Mitch McConnell (R-Kentucky)
  6. 2023-2029: John Cornyn (R-Texas)
  7. 2029-2033: Mark Warner (D-Virginia)
  8. 2033-2043: Chris Murphy (D-Connecticut)
  9. 2043-2047: Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii)
  10. 2047-2050: Elizabeth Pyle (R-Idaho) +
  11. 2050-2057: Henry H. Balard, Sr. (R-Texas) ++
  12. 2057-2061: Robert Dunn (R-Utah)
  13. 2061-2071: Katherine Smith (D-Rhode Island)
  14. 2071-2073: Marshall M. Ricks (D-North Carolina)
  15. 2073-2075: Noah Howell (R-North Dakota)
  16. 2075-2079: Terell Hamilton, Sr. (D-Michigan) +++
  17. 2079-2083: Hunter Donnelly (R-Louisiana) ++++
  18. 2083-2085: Tyler Sampson (R-Arkansas)
  19. 2085-2087: Louisa Taylor (R-Connecticut)
  20. 2087-2091: Jessica P. Spencer (D-Minnesota) +++++
  21. 2091-2097: D.W. Hinds (R-Wyoming)
  22. 2097-2099: Harrison McCloskey (R-Wisconsin)
  23. 2099-2104: Sebastian Shaw (D-Washington)

+-First woman to become Senate Majority Leader.

++-First Hispanic Majority Leader.

+++-First African-American Majority Leader.

++++-First Majority Leader of the century to die in office.

+++++-First African-American female Majority Leader.

Chief Justices of the Supreme CourtEdit

The twenty-first century saw further milestones for the Supreme Court. The Chief Justiceship of the United States, in particular, was marked by several significant landmarks. Following the retirement of Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. in 2040, at the age of 85, and after thirty-four years as Chief Justice, the longest tenure of the century, Republican President Brian Sandoval appointed the Chief Judge for the 1st District of Texas, Stephanie A. Rowe (who had served in that position for a decade, and had clerked for Justice Samuel Alito thirty-two years earlier), as his successor. Rowe was confirmed by a vote of 79-23 in August 2040, and took the oath of office on September 15, 2040. She became the first female Chief Justice of the United States in history. Rowe, 62 at the time of her appointment, served as Chief Justice for the next fifteen years, until her retirement in June 2055. She gained renown for the sharp, pointed, and analytical language which colored her opinions, for her command of the courtroom, and for her kind, but firm manner, towards litigants. Republican President Madelaine McAuliffe then selected Rowe's successor: Philip A. Wagner, Sr., Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Wagner was confirmed by a vote of 90-10, and assumed office on August 12, 2055. He served as Chief Justice for ten years, until his sudden death on January 12, 2066, aged 84.

Following Wagner's death, Democratic President W.J. Rutherford appointed the Chief Judge for the Federal Court of Appeals in Washington D.C., Joaquin S. Martinez, 62, as the next Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Martinez, who was universally respected by the legal community, and impressed the members of the Senate Judiciary Committee during his confirmation hearings, was confirmed by a vote of 102-0 in March 2066, the first time in more then a century that a Chief Justice was confirmed unanimously. Martinez took the oath of office on April 7, 2066, as the first Chief Justice appointed by a Democratic President in 120 years, since Fred M. Vinson had been appointed by President Harry Truman in 1946. Martinez, however, had the shortest tenure of any Chief Justice of the twenty-first century; he died on January 3, 2071, the day that the 142nd Congress (2071-73) convened. Democratic President Carlotta A. Sanchez then named his replacement: Chief Justice Tyrone H. Williams, 53, of the Ohio Supreme Court. Williams was confirmed by the Senate on March 3, by a vote of 96-14, and assumed office on March 18, 2071, becoming the first African-American Chief Justice in American history. He served as Chief Justice for nearly twenty-five years, until his death on January 29, 2096. Williams's Court oversaw numerous important cases relating to genetics, space exploration claims, and technological laws, among other matters, during his tenure. Upon his death, Republican President Nicholas W. Cuomo named Chief Judge Jackson H. Spielvogel of the Federal Appellate District of the 10th Circuit as the next Chief Justice. Spielvogel was confirmed by a vote of 87-23, and assumed office on March 18, 2096. He held the position until his death in June 2107.

List of Chief Justices of the United States:

16. 1986-2005: William H. Rehnquist (1924-2005, appointed by Republican President Ronald Reagan)

17. 2005-2040: John G. Roberts, Jr. (1955-2043, appointed by Republican President George W. Bush)

18. 2040-2055: Stephanie Rowe (1978-2058, appointed by Republican President Brian Sandoval)

19. 2055-2066: Philip A. Wagner, Sr. (1982-2066, appointed by Republican President Madelaine McAuliffe)

20. 2066-2071: Joaquin S. Martinez (2004-2071, appointed by Democratic President W.J. Rutherford)

21. 2071-2096: Tyrone H. Williams, Jr. (2018-2096, appointed by Democratic President Carlotta A. Sanchez)

22. 2096-2107: Jackson H. Spielvogel (2030-2107, appointed by Republican President Nicholas W. Cuomo)

Justices of the Supreme CourtEdit

The ideological balance of the Supreme Court did change during the course of the twenty-first century. During the first third of the century, the Court's ideological balance could be described as "moderate-conservative". The Justices of the Supreme Court, besides Chief Justice Rehnquist, were at the beginning of the century, in order of seniority: John Paul Stevens (liberal), Sandra Day O'Connor (moderate), Antonin Scalia (conservative), Anthony Kennedy (moderate), David Souter (liberal), Clarence Thomas (conservative), Ruth Bader Ginsberg (liberal), and Stephen Breyer (liberal). Chief Justice Rehnquist (conservative), was the most senior member, not just by precedence, but by length of service: he had been appointed by President Richard M. Nixon in 1972, as an Associate Justice, replacing the late Hugo Black. Stevens was the most senior Associate Justice, appointed by President Gerald Ford in 1975. Yet this century was also marked by many changes in composition. Rehnquist died in 2005, replaced by Roberts (as described above). O'Connor retired in 2006, and was replaced by Samuel Alito. She died in 2019. In 2009, Justice Souter retired, replaced by Sonia Sotomayor (Barack Obama's first appointment); he died in 2027. The following year, Justice Stevens retired, as the second-longest serving Associate Justice in the Court's history; he was replaced by Elena Kagan, and died in 2021, aged 101. During Donald Trump's two terms (2017-2025), he appointed three justices, setting the Court on a definite conservative trend for more then a quarter of a century. Trump appointed to the Court Neil Gorusch (2017), filling the seat of Antonin Scalia, who died in February 2016; Diane Sykes (2020), replacing Ruth Bader Ginsberg, who died in December 2019; and Allison Eid (2023), replacing Anthony Kennedy, who retired in November 2022 (he died in 2029). Marco Rubio continued the trend during his one term in office; he appointed Steven Colloton (2026), replacing Justice Clarence Thomas, who retired in March of that year (he died in 2034), and Raymond Kethledge (2027), replacing Stephen Breyer, who died in November 2026. By 2028, therefore, the Court had a 7-2 conservative majority.

Cory Booker (2029-2037), replaced three justices, though not enough to sway the Court's ideological balance. He appointed Elizabeth Lee, the first Asian-American Justice (2030), replacing Justice Sonia Sotomayor, who died in September 2029; Joseph P. Levison (2032), replacing Justice Elena Kagan, who retired in July of that year (and died in 2044); and Charlotte A. Lewis (2033), the first African-American female Justice, replacing Samuel Alito, who died in January 2033. The Court, however, retained a 6-3 conservative majority, and the Booker Administration would be dealt some legal defeats (i.e. environmental and trade regulation, religious freedom, transgender rights) from 2034 to 2036. President Brian Sandoval appointed two Justices, Nikki Parson (2038), replacing Sykes, who retired that year (she died in 2041), and Robert M. Gonzalez (2040), replacing Justice Eid, who retired in November 2039 (she died in 2056). Moreover, he appointed Rowe as Chief Justice, replacing Roberts (mentioned above). The Court remained with a conservative majority, at least at the end of Sandoval's term. But it was under Joseph P. Kennedy III that its balance finally shifted. Kennedy appointed four justices: Jeffrey N. Parker (2041), who replaced Colloton (who died on March 7, 2041); Scott M. Basch (2043), who replaced Kethledge (who retired in April of that year due to health problems, and died in 2046); Mary T. Pierce (2045), who replaced Levison (who died suddenly in September 2044); and Jon S. Rodriguez (2048), who replaced Parson, forced to resign due to an ethics scandal (she died in 2055, aged 72). Thus, by 2049, the Court had a 6-3 liberal majority, with Chief Justice Rowe, Justice Gonzalez, and Justice Gorusch in the minority. Thus, nearly halfway through the century, the ideological balance had finally shifted.

Gorsuch died in September 2053, aged 86, after thirty-five years on the Court. President Madelaine McAuliffe appointed Tiffani Sardana, the first Indian-American Justice, as his replacement. In 2055, she replaced Rowe with Wagner, Sr., and in 2058, made one more appointment, replacing Justice Gonzalez with Justin A. Matthis, Chief Justice of the Utah Supreme Court. Yet it was her successor, President W.J. Rutherford, who had the greatest number of appointments of any President since FDR; he made seven Associate Justice appointments during his two terms (2061-2069), besides elevating a Chief Justice. These were: Portia A. Thompson (2061), replacing Justice Lewis, who died in December 2060 after nearly thirty years on the Court; Courtney S. Martinez (2062), replacing Justice Parker, who retired that year, and died in 2073; Jarai N. Henson (2064), replacing Justice Basch, who died in March of that year; Cynthia K. Gonsalves (2065), replacing Justice Sardana, who resigned from the Court in November 2064; Paul T. Mankowtiz (2066), replacing Justice Pierce, who died in January 2066; Charlie N. Thomas (2066), replacing Justice Lee, who died in March 2066 after 36 years on the Court; and Kristen N. Hightower (2068), the first Native American Justice, replacing Justice Matthis, who retired due to health concerns in September 2067. Rutherford also became the first Democratic President since Truman to elevate a Chief Justice, replacing Wagner (who died in office), with Joaquin S. Martinez.

Rutherford's elevations turned the Supreme Court into a solidly liberal body (9-0); of the Justices serving in 2069 (in order of seniority: Chief Justice Martinez, Rodriguez, Thompson, Martinez, Henson, Gonsalves, Mankowtiz, Thomas, Hightower), only Associate Justice Rodriguez was not a Rutherford appointee. The Supreme Court remained generally liberal-moderate for the next quarter of a century. Rutherford's successor, Democratic President Carlotta A. Sanchez, replaced Martinez, upon his death in January 2071, with Tyrone H. Williams, Jr. as Chief Justice. Besides this, she made no other appointments. Her successor, Republican President Tommy Franks, did not have any appointments during his short tenure in office. After his impeachment in May 2075, President Jessica Crittenden, during her less than two years in office, made a single appointment: Annabelle Wilson (2076), replacing Justice Rodriguez, who died in March 2076. This shifted the Court to a 8-1 liberal majority. Democratic President Christopher A. Liu, upon assuming office in 2077, became tasked with two appointments: Parker Anderson (2077), replacing Justice Thompson, who retired due to health concerns in April of that year (and died in January 2080), and Evelyn Merkley (2079), replacing Justice Henson, who retired in November 2078 (dying in 2087). The Presidency of Republican Robert M. Kraft (2081-89), saw conservatives narrow the liberal majority (to 5-4). Kraft made three appointments: Carlos Z. Santana (2082), replacing Justice Martinez, who died in August 2081; Anna Kwai (2083), replacing Justice Mankowtiz, who retired due to health concerns in January 2083 (and died in May 2084); and La'delle Biggins, Jr. (2087), replacing Justice Thomas, who retired in September 2086 (dying in 2089).

President Joseph Kaczyniski was able to slightly expand the liberal majority again (to 6-3) through two appointments: Marcia Gomez (2090), replacing Justice Gonsalves, who retired in October 2089 (dying in 2098) and Luke Zellverg (2092), replacing Kwai, who had become implicated in the Silver Dome scandal and was forced to resign, pending impeachment charges in the U.S. House. Kwai would eventually be tried and found guilty for corruption, embezzlement, and blackmailing in 2096, dying at the Supermax in Colorado in 2104. But in the last decade of the century, under Republican Presidents Leslie A. Stewart and Nicholas W. Cuomo, the Court's ideological balance shifted in a conservative direction once more. Stewart made a single appointment: Nicole Mascrenas (2093), replacing Justice Hightower, who died in September 2092. Mascrenas was the first biracial Supreme Court Justice (of Hispanic and Native American descent). Cuomo made two appointments: Jayden-Smith Loyall (2095), replacing Justice Anderson, who retired in January 2095, and Baxter Lawrence (2096), replacing Justice Merkley, who died in December 2095. Cuomo also replaced Williams (who died the month after Merkley) with Jackson H. Spielvogel as Chief Justice. Thus, at the end of the century, the Court had a 7-2 conservative majority. The Justices were, in order of seniority; Chief Justice Spielvogel (conservative), Justice Wilson (conservative), Justice Santana (conservative), Justice Biggins (moderate), Justice Gomez (liberal), Justice Zellverg (liberal), Justice Mascrenas (moderate), Justice Loyall (conservative), and Justice Lawrence (conservative).

Elections of the CenturyEdit

The 21st century passed through four different phrases, in regards to the competitiveness of elections. During the first (2000-2028), elections were marked by the division between "blue" states, "red" states, and "swing" states. Swing states were pivotal to the outcome of the election, and relatively few states changed partisan allegiance from election to election, as compared to much of the twentieth century. The elections of 2000, 2004, 2016, 2024, and 2028 were all very close; those of 2008 and 2020 were substantial victories for one party or the other, and that of 2012 was a modest victory (for Barack Obama and the Democrats). Republicans were the more geographically widespread of the two parties, and won the majority of the nation's counties in each of these elections. At the close of the first quarter of the century, Republicans held the advantage in most of the nation's rural counties and exurbs, predominantly white, working, or middle class ones; Democrats dominated the wealthier suburbs, coastal regions, metropolitan areas, and rural counties with a high Hispanic or African-American population. The election of 2028 saw the beginnings of a shift; as Democrats had been working to restore themselves on the state and local level following the decimations of 2010, 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020, so they now worked to do so on a national level. In 2032, Cory Booker was able to win back many of the nation's rural and outer suburban counties, and became the first candidate since George H.W. Bush to win with more then 400 electoral votes. The second phase (2032-2056), saw Republicans still winning the majority of counties in most elections (2040 and 2044 being the exceptions), but Democrats fully restored themselves to parity with their rivals. This period saw a mix of close (i.e., 2036, 2048, 2056) and landslide (i.e. 2040, 2044, 2052) elections.

The third phase (2060-2084), saw both parties obtain stellar electoral success. It was under W.J. Rutherford that the Democrats saw their greatest electoral success since FDR; Rutherford won the majority of counties in both 2060 and 2064, and both of these victories were landslide elections. For the remainder of the century, whoever won the election would always carry a majority of the nation's counties. The election of 2064 was the greatest victory for either party in the 21st century, the first time since 1984 that a candidate won more then 500 electoral votes, the first time since 1972 that a candidate broke 60% in the popular vote, and the first time ever that the Democrats won a near-unanimous landslide (sweeping all but 1 state, and the only time in the century that either party accomplished this feat). In 2068, Carlotta A. Sanchez won comfortably (1988 levels) to succeed Rutherford; in 2072, she went down to a landslide defeat before Tommy Franks. Then in 2076, following Frank's impeachment, his Vice-President Jessica Crittenden was routed by Christopher A. Liu. In 2080, Liu himself went down in a humiliating defeat before Robert M. Kraft; four years later, Kraft won reelection in a landslide, in the second-largest victory of the century. But this ended the third phase. The fourth and final phase (2084-2100), saw the modest victory of Joseph Kaczyniski (2088), his contentious loss to Leslie A. Stewart (2092), and the close election of Robert H. Chancellor (2096). The century, however, closed out with Chancellor's landslide in 2100.

Election Year Maps Below (depicts states won, electoral votes are assumed to change throughout the century):

  1. 2004-http://electoralmap.net/PastElections/past_elections.php?year=2004 (Bush vs. Kerry)
  2. 2008-http://electoralmap.net/PastElections/past_elections.php?year=2008 (Obama vs. McCain)
  3. 2012-http://electoralmap.net/PastElections/past_elections.php?year=2012 (Obama vs. Romney)
  4. 2016-http://electoralmap.net/2016/results.php (Trump vs. H. Clinton)
  5. 2020-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qorwqnownnxnqwnxn (Trump vs. Brown)
  6. 2024-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qo0wqnrxnn0wrwn0q (Rubio vs. Cuomo)
  7. 2028-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qx00qnrxnr0xrzq0q (Booker vs. Rubio)
  8. 2032-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qx00qn00rr0xrzz0n (Booker vs. Cruz)
  9. 2036-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qooxqxx0qnownznzq (Sandoval vs. Gabbard)
  10. 2040-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qx00qo0xrrxxrzz0q (Kennedy vs. Sandoval)
  11. 2044-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=z000rx0xrq0xrzz0q (Kennedy vs. Romney)
  12. 2048-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qox0nnowoq0orwn0n (Boyle vs. Montgomery)
  13. 2052-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qxwwqwoxnqqnnznnq (McAuliffe vs. Hansen)
  14. 2056-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qx0wqwrxrqrnqzn0q (McAuliffe vs. C. Clinton)
  15. 2060-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=q000qx00qr0xrzz0q (Rutherford vs. Hughes)
  16. 2064-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=00000000r00000000 (Rutherford vs. Leach)
  17. 2068-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=q000zxo0rqr0rz000 (Sanchez vs. Cartwright)
  18. 2072-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qowwnnownqnnnwnqq (Franks vs. Sanchez)
  19. 2076-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=0xx0zzo00zr0z0rrr (Liu vs. Crittenden)
  20. 2080-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qnwwnnownnonnwnnn (Kraft vs. Liu)
  21. 2084-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qnwwnnnwnnnnnwnnn (Kraft vs. Stansfield)
  22. 2088-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=0zz0zqow0z0rqzqwn (Kaczyniski vs. Harris)
  23. 2092-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=0zzwznow0z0qqznwn (Stewart vs. Kaczyniski)
  24. 2096-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=qx0wqnrwrr0rnwqwn (Chancellor vs. Williams)
  25. 2100-http://ElectoralMap.net/2016/myPrediction.php?d=zx0000r0000000r00 (Chancellor vs. Jones)

Counties Won by Election:

  1. 2016-Donald Trump: 2,600 counties (83.17%), Hillary Clinton: 526 counties (16.82%)
  2. 2020-Donald Trump: 2,715 counties (86.85%), Sherrod Brown: 411 counties (13.14%) Most counties won by any candidate in the century, worst Democratic county-level performance
  3. 2024-Marco Rubio: 2,540 counties (81.25%), Andrew Cuomo: 586 counties (18.74%)
  4. 2028-Cory Booker: 1,102 counties (35.26%), Marco Rubio: 2,024 counties (64.74%) First Democrat to win more then 1,000 counties in century
  5. 2032-Cory Booker: 1,372 counties (43.89%), Ted Cruz: 1,754 counties (56.11%)
  6. 2036-Brian Sandoval: 2,446 counties (76.00%), Tulsi Gabbard: 772 counties (23.99%)
  7. 2040-Joseph P. Kennedy III: 1,636 counties (50.83%), Brian Sandoval: 1,543 counties (47.92%) First Democrat in century to win majority of counties
  8. 2044-Joseph P. Kennedy III: 1,798 counties (55.85%), Tagg Romney: 1,377 counties (42.77%)
  9. 2048-Brandon Boyle: 1,277 counties (39.66%), Charles Montgomery: 1,993 counties (61.90%)
  10. 2052-Madelaine McAuliffe: 2,643 counties (82.12%), Mark Henson: 576 counties (17.88%)
  11. 2056-Madelaine McAuliffe: 1,919 counties (59.61%), Charlotte Clinton: 1,300 counties (40.39%)
  12. 2060-W.J. Rutherford: 2,024 counties (62.89%), Kathleen Hughes: 1,225 counties (38.06%) Second Democrat in century to win majority of counties
  13. 2064-W.J. Rutherford: 2,648 counties (81.75%), T.P. Leach: 591 counties (18.25%) The century's greatest landslide; worst Republican performance
  14. 2068-Carlotta A. Sanchez: 2,153 counties (66.01%), Angela Cartwright: 1,109 counties (34.00%)
  15. 2072-Tommy Franks: 2,389 counties (73.25%), Carlotta A. Sanchez: 873 counties (26.75%)
  16. 2076-Christopher A. Liu: 2,261 counties (69.31%), Jessica Crittenden: 1,001 counties (30.69%)
  17. 2080-Robert M. Kraft: 2,422 counties (74.25%), Christopher A. Liu: 840 counties (25.75%)
  18. 2084-Robert M. Kraft: 2,645 counties (81.09%), Katherine J. Stansfield: 617 counties (18.91%) Second-greatest landslide of the century
  19. 2088-Joseph Kaczyniski: 1,679 counties (51.48%), Derek Harris: 1,583 counties (48.52%)
  20. 2092-Leslie A. Stewart: 1,631 counties (50.01%), Joseph Kaczyniski: 1,630 counties (49.99%) Closest county-level vote of the century
  21. 2096-Robert H. Chancellor: 1,726 counties (52.90%), Ashanti Williams: 1,536 counties (47.10%)
  22. 2100-Robert H. Chancellor: 2,498 counties (76.59%), Kristin Jones: 764 counties (23.41%)

Over the course of the twenty-first century, the number of counties and county-equivalents in the United States increased, due to the assimilation of particular administrative divisions and the admission of new states (Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam and Wake Island, Northern Mariana Islands, and Samoa). The number of counties rose from 3,141 in 2001 to 3,219 in 2035, 3,239 in 2063, and 3,262 in 2070. This included 78 new counties of Puerto Rico; 20 counties of the Virgin Islands; 15 counties of the Mariana Islands; 5 counties of Guam & Wake Island; and 3 counties of Samoa. Thus, majorities in each election are construed as majorities of the counties existing in the United States at the time of that particular election. Moreover, demographic and economic changes during the course of the century altered the dynamics of the county-level vote, leading the two parties to rough parity by the middle of the century, in terms of votes derived, and the weight of the votes in question. This explains the varying results of the latter half of the century.

Deans of the HouseEdit

The following lists all Deans of the U.S. House of Representatives during the 21st century. The Dean is the most senior member of the House. He or she has no official responsibilities, except for the duty of administering the oath to the Speaker at the beginning of each new Congress. The Dean enjoys higher ceremonial precedence then all other members of the House, and is always given chairmanship (or ranking membership if the Dean is of the minority party) of a standing committee. The list indicates the years they were dean, the state they represented, and the years (in italics) that they served in the House. The twenty-first century saw a acceleration in turnover among Deans, and a reduction in the average length of service. Lee M. Zeldin is the last Dean on this list to have served fifty or more years. By the end of the century, the Dean, Herald, had been in the House only since 2073; the second-most senior member was Dee Reynolds of Maryland, who entered the chamber in 2079.

  1. 1995-2015: John Dingell (D-Michigan) 1955-2015
  2. 2015-2019: John Conyers (D-Michigan) 1965-2019
  3. 2019-2022: Don Young (R-Alaska) 1973-2022
  4. 2022-2029: James Sensenbrenner (R-Wisconsin) 1979-2029
  5. 2029-2033: Christopher Smith (R-New Jersey) 1981-2033
  6. 2033-2034: Fred Upton (R-Michigan) 1987-2034
  7. 2034-2035: Ed Royce (R-California) 1993-2035
  8. 2035-2039: Ron Kind (D-Wisconsin) 1997-2039
  9. 2039-2045: Sam Graves (R-Missouri) 2001-2045
  10. 2045-2049: Mario Díaz-Balart (R-Florida) 2001-2049
  11. 2049: Brian Higgins (D-New York) 2005-2049 (first Dean elected in the 21st century)
  12. 2049-2053: André Carson (D-Indiana) 2008-2053
  13. 2053-2056: Ben R. Luján (D-New Mexico) 2009-2056
  14. 2056-2062: Adam Kinzinger (R-Illinois) 2011-2062
  15. 2062-2065: Lee M. Zeldin (R-New Jersey) 2015-2065 (last Dean to have served during the Obama Administration)
  16. 2065-2068: George R. Cremlin (R-Kansas) 2023-2068
  17. 2068-2071: Christy A. Pearson (R-New Hampshire) 2027-2071
  18. 2071-2075: William J. Dixon, Jr. (D-Washington D.C.) Speaker of the House 2063-75, 2033-2075
  19. 2075-2076: Mark Chuo (D-California) 2037-2076
  20. 2076-2079: Philip D. Passer, Jr. (D-Montana) 2041-2079
  21. 2079-2087: Richard C. Vixon (D-Virginia) 2043-2087
  22. 2087-2091: Stacia A. Rutherfield (D-Hawaii) 2049-2091
  23. 2091-2095: Liam Holmes (R-Idaho) 2053-2095
  24. 2095-2096: Sarah De Valla (D-Vermont) 2059-2096
  25. 2096-2099: W.A. Handler (R-Nebraska) 2065-2099
  26. 2099-2108: Todd Herald (R-Colorado) 2073-2108

Deans of the SenateEdit

The following lists the Deans of the United States Senate during the course of the twenty-first century. As with the House of Representatives, seniority in the Senate gradually declined as the century progressed. By the end of the century, the most senior Senator, Peter Chao of California, had been in office only since 2073 (the same year as Representative Herald of Colorado).

  1. 1989-2003: J. Strom Thurmond (R-South Carolina) 1956-2003
  2. 2003-2010: Robert C. Byrd (D-West Virginia) 1959-2010
  3. 2010-2012: Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) 1963-2012
  4. 2012-2024: Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont) 1975-2024
  5. 2024-2029: Patty Murray (D-Washington) 1993-2029
  6. 2029-2030: Mike Enzi (R-Wyoming) 1997-2030
  7. 2030-2031: Debbie Stabenow (D-Michigan) 2001-2031
  8. 2031-2037: Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska) 2002-2037
  9. 2037-2041: Jon Tester (D-Montana) 2007-2041
  10. 2041-2045: Jeff Merkley (D-Oregon) 2009-2045
  11. 2045-2047: Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) 2012-2047
  12. 2047-2049: Tom Cotton (R-Arkansas) 2015-2049
  13. 2049-2052: Ben Sasse (R-Nebraska) 2015-2052
  14. 2052-2053: Rob Woodall (R-Georgia) 2023-2053
  15. 2053-2055: Ron DeSantis (R-Florida) 2027-2055
  16. 2055-2062: Michelle Liu (D-Oregon) 2029-2062
  17. 2062-2063: Matthew X. Paris (R-Maine) 2031-2063
  18. 2063-2065: Jerome H. Cartwright (R-Indiana) 2035-2065
  19. 2065-2066: Tiffany Holmes (D-Colorado) 2037-2066
  20. 2066-2071: Devin A. Newsom (D-Nevada) 2038-2071
  21. 2071-2073: Jose N. Rodriguez (R-New Mexico) 2041-2073
  22. 2073-2076: Tashai A. Coates (D-Illinois) 2047-2076
  23. 2076-2077: Harold Seems, Jr. (R-Oklahoma) 2051-2077
  24. 2077-2079: Thomas P. Simpson (R-Arkansas) 2053-2079
  25. 2079-2087: Carmina Mendel (D-Arizona) 2059-2087
  26. 2087-2089: Simone T. Biles (R-Utah) 2061-2089
  27. 2089-2095: Jerri A. Jones (D-Oklahoma) 2065-2095
  28. 2095-2099: Maximilian van Ostren (R-Kansas) 2066-2099
  29. 2099-2104: Peter Chao (D-California) 2073-2104

States AdmittedEdit

The twenty-first century saw a string of long-awaited, and long-deserved, state admissions into the Union. The most notable of these was Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico had come into American possession in 1899, as a result of the Spanish-American War. That same conflict had also seen the United States acquire Guam and Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1946) the Philippines. In 1917, Puerto Ricans had been made citizens of the United States, and in 1952, they were granted the status of a self-governing commonwealth. However, they were still denied representation in the federal government, and they were not allowed to participate in presidential elections. By the late twentieth century, questions had arisen over whether Puerto Rico should be given its independence, should remain a self-governing commonwealth, or should become a U.S. state. Numerous referendums revealed that Puerto Ricans preferred statehood; but Congress, and successive administrations, did not take any effective action. Republicans, in particular, feared that the admission of Puerto Rico would dilute their own electoral prospects. But by 2033, statehood for Puerto Rico was demanded by the people living there; popular sentiment in the United States was in favor of it. In November 2034, Congress finally passed, and President Booker signed, the bill admitting Puerto Rico into the Union, as the 51st state. Afterwards, movements emerged in American Samoa, in the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and on Guam, as each of those possessions, and their inhabitants, demanded that similar moves be taken to secure and extend their status. As the century progressed, economic conditions in all of these territories, and particularly in Samoa, improved greatly, thanks to greater trade ties, modernization efforts directed at the infrastructure, healthcare, and education systems, and a reduction in levels of poverty (policies especially favored under the Kennedy, Boyle, and McAuliffe Administrations). It was under President Rutherford that these possessions would finally be admitted into the Union also.

The dates of admission were as follows:

  1. Puerto Rico (51st state, January 3, 2035)
  2. American Virgin Islands (52nd state, October 2, 2063)
  3. Guam and Wake Island (53rd state, February 15, 2065)
  4. Northern Mariana Islands (54th state, January 25, 2066)
  5. Samoa (55th state, November 9, 2066)

Puerto Rico gained six electors in the Electoral College; the Virgin Islands, four; while Guam, Mariana, and Samoa each received three. The number of electoral votes rose from 538 at the beginning of the century to 557 by 2070. All of the newly-admitted states did indeed, prove to be Democratic states, but in landslide elections (i.e. 2072, 2080, 2084), they would carry for the Republican Party.

Constitutional AmendmentsEdit

During the first quarter of the twenty-first century, no constitutional amendments were implemented. There were, however, several proposals during that time period; amendments to ban flag burning, to impose a balanced budget, to impose term limits, to revise congressional jurisdiction, to eliminate the Electoral College, to provide a more comprehensive guarantee of civil rights, etc. However, these measures failed to pass Congress. Beginning with the 28th Amendment (2032), however, and continuing to the end of the century, there followed numerous constitutional amendments. They are listed and described as here:

1. 28th Amendment (2032)-This amendment, originally proposed by Representative Don Edwards of California in 1978, had fallen short of the numbers required for ratification in August 1985. In the early 2010s, D.C. Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton was one of the most vocal advocates for the District to be given full congressional representation. Yet Republicans, aware of D.C.'s solidly Democratic bent, were reluctant to give it representation, and the matter languished for decades. But by the early 2030s, the Democratic Party had rallied around the idea of full congressional representation for the nation's capital; it was considered an injustice that the capital's residents did not have full representation in Congress. Edwards's amendment was revived, passed by both chambers of Congress (by then back under Democratic control) in April 2031, and finally ratified by the necessary 38 states on June 4, 2032, fifty-four years after it was first proposed. Consequently, the District of Columbia gained the right to ratify constitutional amendments in the future, and it obtained full representation in Congress. The District got two Senators, the same as every State, and one Representative (similar to Wyoming, Montana, the Dakotas, etc.) In November 2032, W.J. Dixon, Jr., Alderman for D.C.'s 3rd Ward, was elected as its first full voting Representative. Three decades later, he would become the first African-American Speaker of the House.

2. 29th Amendment (2045)-This amendment was proposed by Representative Tim De Lucas of New York in 2042, in response to the eco-terrorism movement of the 2020s and the fight over the constitutionality of the USA Patriot Act. It was passed by both Chambers of Congress on September 27, 2043, and was ratified by the necessary 39 states (+ D.C.) on September 2, 2045. This amendment expanded the definition of the Treason Clause in Article III of the Constitution. It made it treason to assassinate the President of the United States, the Vice-President, the members of the U.S. Cabinet, the Speaker of the House, the President pro tempore, and the justices of the Supreme Court. Moreover, it clarified federal procedures relating to hearings of individuals tried with treason or other such crimes, forbade any citizen or non-citizen from being held without habeas corpus, and made it clear that any conspiracy to overthrow the government in times of conflict or, by specific actions, to incite and commit violence against government officials, members of the military, and federal law enforcement in exercise of their constitutional duties, would constitute treason.

3. 30th Amendment (2049)-This was the Congressional Apportionment Amendment, originally proposed by James Madison in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, and which had lain in limbo for nearly two and a half centuries. This amendment was reintroduced (with revisions) by Representative Scott A. Morrison of Wyoming in July 2047, passed by both Houses of Congress in November 2048, and ratified by the states on April 18, 2049. It introduced a uniform formula for the apportionment of representatives among the states, mandating that such an apportionment be conducted by a bipartisan commission, appointed by the members of both Houses, and that the commission work in conjunction with the state governments in determining district boundaries, population distribution, etc. The amendment was passed as part of an effort to reduce gerrymandering, and to provide a further foundation to the Supreme Court's ruling in Ohio vs. FEC (2044), which had mandated equitable districts for each state, regardless of partisan or other concerns.

4. 31st Amendment (2055)-This amendment, proposed by Senator Jerome H. Cartwright of Indiana in March 2053, was passed by both Houses of Congress in September of that year, and ratified by the states on July 19, 2055. It implemented a mandatory voting system in the United States, requiring for all eligible citizens over the age of eighteen to register to vote, and to participate regularly in both presidential and congressional elections. Congress was given the discretion to provide for the penalties of non-voting. Moreover, the Amendment mandated that all election days were to be construed as federal holidays, and it allocated funds to the states to improve voter registration and requirements procedures. This amendment resulted in higher levels of voter turnout throughout the country for the remainder of the century.

5. 32nd Amendment (2063)-This amendment was originally proposed by Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah in July 2003, but had languished in the halls of Congress, without any action, for nearly sixty years. It was reintroduced by Senator T.J. Jakes of Delaware in November 2061, and received strong support from Speaker Matthews, Majority Leader Sen. Katherine Smith of Rhode Island, and President Rutherford himself. The amendment was passed by both houses of Congress in January 2062. It was ratified by the states on November 2, 2063. This amendment repealed the natural born citizen clause, allowing for naturalized citizens of the United States to be elected President. By 2063, this was a noncontroversial move, and enjoyed wide support among segments of the American population. It would benefit Christopher Liu, who in 2076 would be elected the first naturalized President of the United States.

6. 33rd Amendment (2065)-This amendment, proposed by Representative Lavelle Campbell Jr. of Colorado in December 2062, was passed by both Houses of Congress in September 2063, and ratified by the states on March 18, 2065. This amendment provided procedures for the emergency election of members of Congress, if a major "terrorist, or other calamity, afflicted the legislature of the United States", and led to widespread casualties among its members. It revised Article One of the Constitution, allowing for each state governor to appoint immediate replacements for both Senate and House seats, and provided that special elections to fill all such vacant seats were to now be held at the same time as the next general election. The amendment also implemented revisions to the presidential line of succession, extending it downwards to the assistant secretaries of each department; the Senate Majority and Minority Leaders; and the whips belonging to the caucuses of both parties in the House of Representatives, and in the Senate.

7. 34th Amendment (2083)-This amendment, originally proposed by Senators Mark Begich and Bernie Sanders in 2011, was reintroduced by Senator Jamie N. Nesselrode of New Hampshire in October 2076. After two years of debate and of some revision, the Amendment eventually passed both Houses of Congress in November 2078. It was not until June 8, 2083, however, before the necessary number of states ratified it, enabling it to take effect. The Amendment reaffirmed Congress's authority to regulate corporate donations and spending in political campaigns; clarified that the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights applied to individuals, and to individuals organized as members or employees of a corporation or organization, not to the actual corporations themselves; and guaranteed the rights of individual citizens to donate or advocate for campaigns, as long as they adhered to the guidelines imposed by Congress.

8. 35th Amendment (2086)-The Balanced Budget Amendment. Versions of this amendment had been proposed numerous times since the late twentieth century. During this century, in the early 2020s and again during W.J. Rutherford's second term, the federal government had actually managed to obtain a balanced budget. But following the collapse of the bullish market in 2070, public debt had skyrocketed, and the financial situation in the government again worsened. Robert M. Kraft's first term saw a restoration of economic equilibrium; one of his main promises, as for Ronald Reagan a century earlier, was to get a Balanced Budget Amendment through Congress. On April 2, 2082, his ally, Senator Tim Louis of South Carolina, introduced this version; it was passed by both Houses on April 29, 2083. It was not until November 6, 2086, at the time of the midterms, that the Amendment was finally passed. This amendment forbade the federal government from spending more then its income; restored to the President the ability (possessed briefly in 1996-98), to exercise a line-item veto on taxation and spending bills; and required for all surplus expenditures to be accounted for. The amendment allowed for its provisions to be temporarily superseded by vote of Congress, if the situation required it. This would be done in 2087-2088, 2090, and in 2093.

9. 36th Amendment (2087)-Proposed by Representative Donald Farbus of Kentucky in May 2084, and passed by both Houses of Congress in January 2085, the 35th Amendment was ratified on September 13, 2087. This amendment revised the jurisdictional boundaries of the U.S. Supreme Court, and of other federal courts. It gave the Supreme Court the power to determine questions related to the common law of the individual states, if such questions necessitated the Court's intervention. Specifically, the Amendment allowed the Court to provide a uniform common law interpretation for all cases of dispute brought before it. It preserved the sovereign immunity of the states, and codified, in constitutional form, the Court's ability to conduct judicial review. Injunctions were laid against the Court issuing any opinions which defined new precedent, unless if such precedent could be demonstrated to derive from earlier decisions or from law.

10. 37th Amendment (2089)-Proposed by Representative Savannah V. Guthrie of Idaho in June 2087, and passed by both Houses of Congress in January 2088, the Amendment was ratified on July 26, 2089. This amendment revised and clarified the extent of the President's appointment powers. All judicial, cabinet, diplomatic, and chief military nominations remained within the purview of the Senate, as before. The President was now required to notify the Senate whenever he dismissed or terminated any of the officials under his watch; moreover, the President was not permitted to terminate officials when Congress was not in session. Recess appointments were further clarified; the President could only make them if it were "absolutely necessary" for that position to be filled, and only if the Senate had given him an official notice of its adjournment. The Amendment preserved the President's full right to appoint and dismiss members of his personal staff, but he was also required to issue a notification of any "significant" changes among his staff composition. Finally, the President was forbidden to use executive privilege as a reason to withhold the correspondence, documents, or reports of his Cabinet members from Congress or the Supreme Court. This amendment was passed in response to the Equatorial-Canada Affair and the Silver Dome corruption scandal, both of which plagued the administration of President Kraft during his second term.

11. 38th Amendment (2091)-Proposed by Senator Benjamin P. Hardin of West Virginia in April 2089, and passed by both Houses of Congress in January 2090, the Amendment was ratified on February 11, 2091. This amendment allowed for Congress to impose duties on exports deriving from the states, and to impose preferential regulations for specific types of products, particularly those destined for American installations in space. It also gave Congress the authority to impose direct taxation on commercial and movable property, while preserving the immunity of individual citizens from such measures. This amendment helped to extend the financial authority of the federal government, and to bring it in line with the demands of modern times.

12. 39th Amendment (2096)-Proposed by Representative Parker H. Hard of Mississippi in January 2093, and passed by both Houses of Congress in May 2095, the Amendment was ratified on July 14, 2096. This amendment clarified the provisions of an earlier one, the Second Amendment, source for so much controversy throughout the century. It underlined the rights of all lawful citizens, in accordance with the federal laws and the state laws applicable, to own, possess, and use lawful firearms. Moreover, the Amendment provided that citizens could not be deprived of this right without due process of law, and prohibited the federal government from creating lists or registries of citizens, unless if those citizens were specifically deprived of their right, and were deemed a threat to public safety. The Amendment also forbade local and federal jurisdictions from limiting the kinds of firearms citizens could obtain, bar military-class or other such types of firearms.

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